The Following Stages Are Used For Bladder Cancer:
In stage 0, abnormalcells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a and 0is, depending on the type of the tumor:
- Stage 0a is also called noninvasive papillary carcinoma, which may look like long, thin growths growing from the lining of the bladder.
- Stage 0is is also called carcinoma in situ, which is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB.
- In stage IIIA:
- cancer has spread from the bladder to the layer of fat surrounding the bladder and may have spread to the reproductive organs and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or
- cancer has spread from the bladder to one lymph node in the pelvis that is not near the common iliac arteries .
- cancer has spread from the bladder to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis or
- cancer has spread to lymph nodes that are above the common iliac arteries .
Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone
If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.
Side effects of bone medicines
A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.
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What Are The Treatments For Prostate Cancer
If you need treatment, your doctor will decide the type. Decisions about how to treat this cancer are complex, and you may want a second opinion before making a treatment decision. Treatment may include watchful waiting, a single therapy, or some combination of radiation, surgery, hormone therapy, and less commonly chemotherapy. The choice depends on many things. Prostate cancer that hasnât spread usually can be cured with surgery or radiation.
Since prostate cancer can grow slowly and may not be fatal in many men, some patients — after discussing the options with their doctors — opt for “watchful waiting.” This means not treating it. Instead, the doctor regularly checks the prostate cancer for signs that it is becoming more aggressive. Watchful waiting is typically recommended for men who are older or have other life-threatening conditions. In these cases, a less aggressive cancer may be growing so slowly that it’s not likely to be fatal.
Laparoscopic robotic prostatectomy is a surgery using a laparoscope aided by robotic arms. This operation is now the most popular form of radical prostatectomy in the United States.
After surgery, most men have temporary incontinence, but they usually regain complete urinary control over time. If it is severe or lasts a long time, incontinence can be managed with special disposable underwear, exercises, condom catheters, biofeedback, penile clamps, implants around the urethra, or a urethral sling.
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General Prostate Cancer Survival Rate
According to the American Cancer Society:
- The relative 5-year survival rate is nearly 100%
- The relative 10-year survival rate is 98%
- The 15-year relative survival rate is 91%
Note: Relative survival rate means the percentage of patients who live amount of years after their initial diagnosis.
Keep in mind, however, that because the compiled list figures are of cancers diagnosed up to 15 years ago, you may have an even greater chance of survival than these indicate due to advances in prostate cancer treatment technology
How Alcohol Impacts A Healthy Bladder
Alcohol is a powerful diuretic , meaning even just one drink can increase your urine production5and make you need to use the toilet more. It can also cause dehydration and more concentrated urine, which, in turn, causes irritation and inflammation in the lining of the bladder. 6 This causes discomfort both when you urinate and at rest.
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What Is The Prostate
Many men are not even aware of their prostate until later in their life. It is a gland that is sometimes referred to a the sex organ you didnât know you had. Its role is to help nourish sperm and aid fertility.
In a grown man, a normal, healthy prostate is about the size and shape of a walnut. It is found below your bladder and above the base of your penis, between your pubic bone and your rectum . It surrounds the urethra, which is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder through your penis.
What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk
Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.
Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.
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Effective Energetic Treatment For Enlarged Prostate
Enlarged prostate, also called benign prostatic hyperplasia , is a common condition as men get older. By age 60, about 30% of men show moderate to severe symptoms of BPH by age 80, it is 50%. An enlarged prostate gland can cause uncomfortable urinary symptoms, such as a weak urine stream, urine stream that starts and stops, frequently getting up at night to urinate, and inability to void the bladder.
There are many different treatment options for BPH, ranging from behavior medications to surgery. A minimally invasive option is bipolar enucleation of the prostate, or BipoLEP. If you are considering treatment, hereâs what you need to know.
The prostate is a small organ that sits at the bottom of the bladder. The urethra, the tube the drains the bladder, runs through the middle of the prostate.
Early in a mans life, the prostate is roughly the size of a walnut or a small tangerine. Often around 50, the prostate increases in size. For some men, this change closes off the urethra and makes it more difficult for the bladder to empty.
The prostate has two parts. The adenoma is the inner part that surrounds urethra. It is the part of the prostate that grows as men get older. The capsule is the outer part of the prostate and does not change in size over the course of life. A good analogy is to think of an orange. The orange peel represents the capsule, and the fruit represents the adenoma.
Removal of prostate tissue
Treating Stage Iii Bladder Cancer
These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs and/or lymph nodes . They have not spread to distant parts of the body.
Transurethral resection is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is then the standard treatment.Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers.
Chemotherapy before surgery can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier. Chemo can also kill any cancer cells that could already have spread to other areas of the body and help people live longer. It can be especially useful for T4 tumors, which have spread outside the bladder. When chemo is given first, surgery to remove the bladder is delayed. The delay is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the cancer, but it can be harmful if it continues to grow during chemo. Sometimes the chemo shrinks the tumor enough that intravesical therapy or chemo with radiation is possible instead of surgery.
Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far its not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasnt given before surgery.
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Is A Cystoscopy Painful
You may feel discomfort when the cystoscope goes into the urethra and bladder. YouÃ¢ll probably feel a strong need to pee when your bladder gets full. You may feel a slight pinch if the doctor takes a biopsy.
After the procedure, your urethra may be sore and it might burn when you pee for a day or two.
Bladder Cancer Risk Higher With Radiation Therapy For Prostate Cancer
External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with a greater risk of a bladder cancer compared with radical prostatectomy , according to a new study.
In a study of 84,397 men older than 65 years with localized prostate cancer treated either with EBRT or RP from 1988 to 2009, investigators examined the risk of a second primary pelvic cancer . The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidence rates of a primary bladder cancer were 1.26% and 2.34%, respectively, for EBRT recipients compared with 0.75% and 1.63%, respectively, for RP patients.
In multivariable competing-risk analyses, EBRT was associated with a significant 35% increased risk of bladder cancer compared with RP, a team led by Marco Moschini, MD, PhD, of Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland, reported in European Urology.
This information should be discussed during the counseling of clinically localized PCa patients during the decision making regarding RP versus EBRT, Dr Moschini and his colleagues concluded.
The study found no significant difference in the risk of rectal cancer between the treatment modalities.
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High Intensity Focused Ultrasound
This is a fairly new treatment that uses high frequency ultrasound energy to heat and destroy cancer cells. This treatment involves a probe inserted into the rectum and close to the prostate, a direct ultrasound beam is then emitted up this probe and into the cancer. HIFU is currently being offered as a clinical trial to those with recurrent prostate cancer or for those where radiotherapy hasnt worked. Your hospital will be able to tell you if they offer this treatment.
What Is Bph And How Does It Affect Me
The prostate gland surrounds the urethra and assists in reproduction. As a man ages, the prostate gets larger and begins to put pressure on the bladder and urethra, causing uncomfortable symptoms. It may be responsible for blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder, and can cause issues in the bladder, urinary tract, or kidneys.
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Can Acupuncture Help Treat Cancer
Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese technique used to treat a variety of medical conditions. I do not believe that Acupuncture can cure cancer, though I believe it might help manage some treatment related side effects like fatigue, discomfort and mental well being. Cancer cells are derived from our normal cells but grow in an uncontrolled way. Acupuncture cannot kill these cells nor does any data suggest it can.
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Prostatitis Vs Prostate Cancer Symptoms And Signs
- Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland the four types are acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.
- Prostate cancer develops when abnormal prostate gland cells multiply without control and may metastasize to other organs.
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a noncancerous condition where normal prostate gland cells keep multiplying, thereby increasing the size of the prostate.
- Prostatitis usually does not lead to death, but prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, even though it is a slow-moving disease.
- Most men with early prostate cancer have no symptoms or signs symptoms and signs appear when the cancer becomes large enough to cause urinary blockage. Prostatitis, in contrast, usually appears with symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency and/or pain with urination and possibly, some type of sexual dysfunction.
- Prostate cancer, when it produces signs and symptoms, may produce one or more of the following symptoms or signs that may also be seen in patients with prostatitis or BPH:
- Painful ejaculation
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What Are Next Steps
Bone metastasis have a profound effect on the long-term outlook for prostate cancer. But its important to remember that the numbers are only statistics.
The good news is that life expectancy for advanced prostate cancer continues to increase. New treatments and therapies offer both longer life and better quality of life. Speak to your doctor about your treatment options and long-term outlook.
Everyones cancer experience is different. You may find support through sharing your treatment plan with friends and family. Or you can turn to local community groups or online forums like Male Care for advice and reassurance.
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Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
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Treatment For Bladder Cancer In Raleigh And Wake Forest
If you or someone you love has bladder cancer, know that a full recovery is possible. Modern medicine and new treatments have made surviving bladder cancer the new norm. Make sure to research these treatments and think about which one is right for you. Then, talk to your doctor about your plan to beat this cancer and discuss your options. Taking care of your body is essential, so make sure to take the time you need to heal.
If you or someone you love has bladder cancer, contact us today. Our highly experienced oncology team can help you understand your treatment options.
What About Other Treatments That I Hear About
When you have cancer you might hear about other ways to treat cancer or treat your symptoms. These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments can be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may be curious about these treatments.
Some of these are known to help, but many have not been tested. Some have been shown not to be helpful. A few have even been found to be harmful. Talk to your doctor about anything youâre thinking about using, whether its a vitamin, a diet, or anything else.
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Incontinence Caused By Cancer
Oftentimes, male urinary incontinence can be either a short-term or long-term side effect of the treatment of cancer. Its important for males to recognize that a diagnosis of prostate cancer or bladder cancer can mean that urinary incontinence may interrupt their lives for a certain amount of time. However, knowing as much as you can about your condition and the type of incontinence you may have will help you and your doctor find the best way to manage it.
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Patients Can Enter Clinical Trials Before During Or After Starting Their Cancer Treatment
Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.
Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found on NCIs clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.
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What Are The Treatments For This Type Of Tumor
The treatments for prostatic carcinoma are aimed at reducing the tumors size and the tendency for metastasis. Surgery may be considered as a palliative measure, though removal of the entire prostate or tumor is not typically successful without damage to the urethra. In pets with significant obstruction of the urethra, a surgical stent may be placed to allow for urination.
Treatments less invasive than surgery, such as radiation therapy, may be pursued. Targeted radiation therapy to the region of the prostate and affected lymph nodes or bone may be possible. Palliative radiation therapy may provide short-term relief for urinary obstruction.
The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories such as piroxicam or carprofen, however, have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer.
The role of chemotherapy is not well understood. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories , such as piroxicam or carprofen, have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates may also be helpful. These drugs are typically recommended with metastasis to the pelvic bone or lumbar vertebrae. They may reduce the active breakdown of the bone and reduce pain.