Are There Screening Tests To Detect Bladder Cancer
Screening tests look for cancer before an individual has symptoms and therefore may help identify cancer at an early stage, which can improve the chances of successful treatment. As things stand, there is no standard or routine screening test for bladder cancer, so its important to recognise and act on the early signs and symptoms.
Other Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors
Having bladder diverticula may increase an individuals chance of developing SCC. Rarely, bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment for CIS has been reported to lead to development of SCC. Development of bladder cancer at a younger age has been associated with bladder exstrophy. SCC has also been described in urachal remnants.
Coffee consumption does not increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. Early studies of rodents and a minority of human studies suggested a weak connection between artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer however, most recent studies show no significant correlation.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
Blood in the urine, which is referred to as hematuria, is the most common early symptom of bladder cancer. Other early symptoms can include a change in urination habits and/or symptoms of urinary irritation .
While these early symptoms are most likely attributed to less serious causes , it is important to visit your doctor to obtain relief from uncomfortable symptoms and to exclude causes such as bladder cancer.
Signs and symptoms of more advanced bladder cancer include pain on one side of the lower back, bone pain, loss of appetite, and weight loss.
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Prognosis And Survival For Bladder Cancer
If you have bladder cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors best estimate of how cancer will affect someone and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type and stage and other features of the cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.
A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. A predictive factor influences how a cancer will respond to a certain treatment. Prognostic and predictive factors are often discussed together. They both play a part in deciding on a treatment plan and a prognosis.
The following are prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer.
What To Expect After A Cystoscopy
Patients usually leave the hospital on the same day of a cystoscopy. Depending on the type of anesthesia used, it may be necessary to arrange a ride home with a friend or family member.
For 1 or 2 days after a cystoscopy, patients may notice blood in the urine and/or a burning sensation when passing urine. Drinking plenty of fluids usually helps to minimize these symptoms. Returning to work, physical, and sexual activities is usually quick, for example later the same day after a flexible cystoscopy and 1 to 2 days after a rigid cystoscopy. If discomfort is severe or symptoms do not improve as expected, it is important to promptly seek medical help.
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What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer
No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:
- Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
- Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
- Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
- Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
- Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
- Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.
Whos At Risk For Bladder Cancer
The most common risk factor is smoking, which accounts for at least half of all new cases. Other risk factors include:
- abuse of phenacetin, an analgesic
- long-term use of cyclophosphamide , a chemotherapy drug and immune suppressant
- chronic irritation due to a parasitic disease called schistosomiasis
- chronic irritation from long-term catheterization
- exposure to certain industrial chemicals used in the dye, rubber, electric, cable, paint, and textile industries
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What Is The Best Test To Diagnose Bladder Cancer
No single test is best able to diagnose bladder cancer. Rather, a combination of tests and procedures are used as part of a specialist assessment, informed by clinical guidelines. A number of factors influence which specific tests and examinations are selected including their availability, patient characteristics, and whether the patient has a history or risk of bladder cancer. In general, the choice of detection method and their use in combination is based on a patients risk profile.
Breaking Down The Science
To assess the tests ability to detect the mutations in urine samples before any clinical symptoms of bladder cancer occur, IARC researchers collaborated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and the United States National Cancer Institute to design a unique pilot study within the Golestan Cohort Study.
Their evaluation of the performance of TERT promoter mutations as early detection biomarkers for bladder cancer in urine samples revealed detection in 46.7 per cent of the asymptomatic individuals who later developed bladder cancer. And this was up to 10 years before being clinically diagnosed.
Our results provide the first evidence from a prospective population-based cohort study of the potential of urinary TERT promoter mutations as promising non-invasive biomarkers for the early detection of bladder cancer, the studys co-first author Ismail Hosen said.
IARC scientists are now collaborating with other large prospective cohort studies to confirm these findings.
If the findings are validated, large trials conducted in individuals at high risk of developing bladder cancer should be designed to address the health and cost benefits of screening for TERT promoter mutations for the global bladder cancer burden, says Mahdi Sheikh, a postdoctoral scientist at IARC and the co-first author of the study.
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What Is Bladder Cancer
The bladder, a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen, serves as a reservoir for urine until it is discharged out of the body through the urethra.
There are different types of bladder cancer. The cancer cell type can be transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinomaeach named for the types of cells that line the wall of the bladder where the cancer originates.
- Most bladder cancers start from the transitional cells, which occupy the innermost lining of the bladder wall. The cancers, which originate in these cells lining the bladder can, in some instances, invade into the deeper layers of the bladder , the thick muscle layer of the bladder, or through the bladder wall into the fatty tissues that surround the bladder.
- Squamous cells are thin flat cells that line the urethra and can form in the bladder after long bouts of bladder inflammation or irritation. Squamous cell carcinoma makes up about 5 percent of bladder cancers.
- Adenocarcinoma is a very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in glandular cells in the lining of the bladder. Only 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers are adenocarcinoma.
Understanding Invasiveness And Grade
Two important pieces of information to know about this specific cancer are its invasiveness and grade.
Invasiveness describes how deep the cancer is in the bladder wall, which is crucial to determining treatment. If the cancer is in the inner cell layers, its noninvasive or superficial. If its grown into deeper bladder layers or spread to other organs or lymph nodes, its invasive.
Grade describes how bladder cancer cells look under a microscope. Low-grade cancers, also called well-differentiated cancers, resemble regular bladder cells. High-grade, poorly differentiated or undifferentiated cancers dont look as much like normal bladder cells, and theyre more likely to become invasive or spread to other body parts.
Invasive and high-grade cancers may be harder to treat than noninvasive and low-grade ones. They may also require a different kind of treatment.
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What Is The Bladder
The bladder is an organ found in the lower part of the belly near the pelvic bones. It acts as a holding area for urine. The bladder expands and can hold about half of a liter of urine, but a person usually feels the urge to urinate when the bladder is 25% full. The bladder will contract and become smaller when it is empty. The ureters are two tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. They empty urine from the kidneys into the bladder. The urethra is a tube that connects the bladder to the outside of the body and releases urine.
The bladder wall consists of 4 main layers of tissue.
- The innermost layer is called the urothelium, or transitional epithelium. It is made up of cells called urothelial or transitional cells.
- Beneath the urothelium is a thin layer called the lamina propria, made up of connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves.
- The next layer is called the muscularis propria, made of muscle.
- The last layer is a layer of fatty tissue that separates the bladder from other surrounding organs.
Detecting Bladder Cancer With Ultrasound
An ultrasound uses high frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs. Echoes, which are created as sound waves bounce off organs and tissues, produce computer images that provide information on the structure and movement of organs and the blood flow through vessels. An ultrasound does not use radiation or contrast dyes.
If You’re Concerned About Bladder Cancer Ask Your Doctor About Cxbladder
Cxbladder is a non-invasive genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer. The test combines clinical risk factor markers with genetic information, measuring five biomarker genes to detect the presence or absence of bladder cancer.
When should you consider using Cxbladder?
- When youve seen blood in your urine
- If preliminary tests have detected blood in your urine
- If you have a history of bladder cancer and are being monitored for recurrence
Cxbladder provides reliable results that will help your doctor make informed diagnosis and management decisions with you.
Watching For Possible Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
No screening tests are recommended for people at average risk, but bladder cancer can be found early because it causes blood in the urine or other urinary symptoms. Many of these symptoms often have less serious causes, but its important to have them checked right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed. If the symptoms are from bladder cancer, finding it early offers the best chance for successful treatment.
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Facts About Bladder Cancer In Women
While bladder cancer typically hasnt been associated with women, it is important to understand the unique way that bladder cancer does affect women, and why its critical that bladder cancer isnt overlooked.
- Approximately 50% of cases are diagnosed while the cancer is still in the bladder. However, that percentage is lower in women, because symptoms are often overlooked.
- Women have a 1 in 89 chance of developing bladder cancer in their lifetime . However, bladder cancer in women is on the rise.
- Approximately 90% of bladder cancer cases are in individuals over 55 years old, so it is important to be extra vigilant of early signs of bladder cancer as you age.
- Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate. If you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer, it is important to continue to receive regular exams in order to handle any potential recurrence.
Expectancy And Survival Rates
An expectancy rate can be termed as the same as survival rate. However, a survival rate can be given in terms of a certain duration of time, whereas an expectancy rate is mostly in terms of a personâs whole life. Bladder cancer is a disease that affects many people differently. Hence, determining its expectancy rate can be difficult. Nevertheless, looking at the diseaseâs survival rate can give the right answers.
Survival rates are figures that give you how many people have survived with a certain similar disease after diagnosis and for how long. Through this, one can be able to estimate the expectancy rate of a person living with the disease.
In the case of bladder cancer, it happens in stages, which means that every stage has a different effect on the patient.
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Cystoscopy: The Gold Standard
Although radiological tests provide important information about the kidneys and the ureters, cystoscopyis the best method of evaluating the bladder and the urethra and diagnosing and monitoring bladder cancer. The cystoscope, a long thin camera, is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.
Today, using flexible cystoscopes, most of these diagnostic procedures are performed in a urologists clinic with little or no discomfort. During the cystoscopy, the urologist will look through the cystoscope and make a note of anything in the bladder that may be abnormal. If a tumor or other abnormality is identified, the urologist will likely schedule you for a cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder biopsy or transurethral resection of bladder tumor .
Some urologists may have the ability to perform small bladder biopsies in the office. The tissue sample, or biopsy, is then sent to the pathologist for examination . A sample of the urine from the bladder is sent for analysis of the cells to determine if the urine contains any cancer cells. The biopsy specimen and the urine sample will help the urologist make recommendations about your future care.
Click here to read our Get the Facts | Cystoscopy , filled with advice from patients who have experienced it.
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Can Recurrence Of Bladder Cancer Be Monitored
Bladder cancer has a high risk of recurrence so patients who have been treated have unique monitoring needs to protect against the threat of the disease returning.
Besides monitoring for signs and symptoms of bladder cancer, a cystoscopy to examine the inside of the bladder and urethra is recommended every 312 months for several years after completing bladder cancer treatment, depending on the risk of recurrence. For many patients, the frequency of cystoscopy required can be reduced with the use of Cxbladder Monitor, a non-invasive genomic urine test that combines clinical risk factors with gene expression markers to accurately detect or rule out bladder cancer.
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If Youre Concerned About Bladder Cancer Talk To Your Doctor About Cxbladder
Cxbladder is a cutting-edge genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer. The test combines clinical risk factor markers with genetic information, measuring five biomarker genes to detect the presence or absence of bladder cancer in hematuria patients and those being monitored for recurrence.
Cxbladder comes as a suite of tests, each optimised for a different point in the patient journey:
- Cxbladder Triage: Incorporates known bladder cancer risk factors to help quickly rule out the disease.
- Cxbladder Detect: Designed to work alongside other tests to improve overall detection accuracy.
- Cxbladder Monitor: A non-invasive surveillance alternative that can reduce the need for frequent cystoscopies.
Cxbladder gives you peace of mind and will help your physician make informed treatment decisions.
Speak to your doctor or urologist to learn more about Cxbladder and which test might be right for you. You can also contact our Customer Service Team directly.Learn more about Cxbladder Contact us for more information
A Diagnostic For The Early Detection Of Bladder Cancer
|The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government.Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.|
|First Posted : April 26, 2022Last Update Posted : May 2, 2022|
- Study Details
Environmental exposures, specifically tobacco smoke, increases the risk of many cancers, including bladder cancer. To date, there are no diagnostics capable of detecting bladder cancer early, that is prior to clinical presentation. Because of this severe limitation, nearly 30% of patients initially present with stage 2 and higher bladder cancer. Stage 2 bladder cancer has a 5-year survival of 50%, while stage 3/4 have a 5-year survival of < 20%. Ideally, bladder cancer would be preventable. Unfortunate, this has not come to fruition. If these stage 2-4 bladder cancer cases could be detected at Stage 1 , then its possible to see an improvement in bladder cancer survival rates .
in this study, a urine-based diagnostic that possesses the potential to accurately identify patients who harbor bladder cancer prior to clinical manifestation will be tested.
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