Monday, January 23, 2023

What’s The Treatment For Bladder Cancer

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Are There Any Supplements That Can Help

Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Risk Factors and Prevention

Depending on your health, your doctor may recommend certain supplements. If youre feeling fatigued, they may check levels of iron and vitamin B12 in your blood. Fatigue can be caused by your cancer or treatment.

Fatigue may be worse if iron or B12 levels are low in your blood. Supplements can help to boost your iron and B12 levels.

If you have an infection and need antibiotics, taking probiotics afterwards may help. Your body is home to trillions of bacteria, many of which live in the digestive system. Antibiotics are important medications because they destroy harmful bacteria. Unfortunately, they also destroy some good bacteria, which can result in digestive trouble.

Probiotics can increase good bacteria in your digestive system. This may help reduce bloating, gas, and diarrhea. There is also limited evidence that probiotics could play a role in reducing bladder cancer recurrence.

Talk to your healthcare team if you have questions about whether any supplements could help you. Certain types of probiotic strains may not be safe for some people with bladder cancer, so its important to speak with your doctor before using probiotics.

Cancer treatments may reduce other nutrients in the body, including vitamin D and folate. Talk to your healthcare provider if you have questions about nutrient depletions caused by cancer treatments.

So What Is The Most Common Treatment For Bladder Cancer

Surgery is the most common treatment for bladder cancer. In fact, most people with the cancer need to undergo some form of surgery. And it is only because surgery may not remove all the tumor cells that the other treatmentschemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, targeted therapymay be necessary along with or instead of surgery.

For early stage bladder cancer, the most common surgical procedure is transurethral resection of bladder tumor , also called transurethral resection . During the procedure, the surgeon inserts a cystoscope through the urethra into your bladder and then uses a tool with a tiny wire loop, a laser, or high-energy electricity to remove the tumor.

If the bladder cancer is detected late, your surgeon may opt for cystectomya type of surgery that involves the removal of part of the bladder or the whole bladder . Partial cystectomy is the ideal option for cancer that is still small and has spread only slightly to the muscle layer of the bladder.

But for cancer that is large or has spread deeper into the bladder muscle or to more than one part of the bladder, radical cystectomy is the go-to option. It is the removal of the whole bladder together with nearby tissues, organs and lymph nodes. In men, this may include the removal of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and part of the urethra. And in women, it can mean the removal of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and part of the vagina.

Radiotherapy With A Radiosensitiser

Radiotherapy is given by a machine that beams the radiation at the bladder . Sessions are usually given on a daily basis for 5 days a week over the course of 4 to 7 weeks. Each session lasts for about 10 to 15 minutes.

A medicine called a radiosensitiser should also be given alongside radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. This medicine affects the cells of a tumour, to enhance the effect of radiotherapy. It has a much smaller effect on normal tissue.

As well as destroying cancerous cells, radiotherapy can also damage healthy cells, which means it can cause a number of side effects. These include:

  • diarrhoea
  • tightening of the vagina , which can make having sex painful
  • erectile dysfunction
  • tiredness
  • difficulty passing urine

Most of these side effects should pass a few weeks after your treatment finishes, although there’s a small chance they’ll be permanent.

Having radiotherapy directed at your pelvis usually means you’ll be infertile .

After having radiotherapy for bladder cancer, you should be offered follow-up appointments every 3 months for the first 2 years, then every 6 months for the next 2 years, and every year after that. At these appointments, your bladder will be checked using a cystoscopy.

You may also be offered CT scans of your chest, abdomen and pelvis after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. A CT scan of your urinary tract may be offered every year for 5 years.

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Cellular Classification Of Bladder Cancer

More than 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas derived from the uroepithelium. About 2% to 7% are squamous cell carcinomas, and 2% are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas may be of urachal origin or nonurachal origin the latter type is generally thought to arise from metaplasia of chronically irritated transitional epithelium. Small cell carcinomas also may develop in the bladder. Sarcomas of the bladder are very rare.

Pathologic grade of transitional cell carcinomas, which is based on cellular atypia, nuclear abnormalities, and the number of mitotic figures, is of great prognostic importance.

Who Treats Bladder Cancer

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Based on your treatment options, you might have different types of doctors on your treatment team. These doctors could include:

  • Urologists: surgeons who specialize in treating diseases of the urinary system and male reproductive system
  • Radiation oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with radiation therapy
  • Medical oncologists: doctors who treat cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy

You might have many other specialists on your treatment team as well, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, nutrition specialists, social workers, and other health professionals.

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Changes To This Summary

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Revised to state that of the roughly 81,000 new cases annually, about 62,000 are in men and about 19,000 are in women .

Revised to state that in 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an alert about preliminary data from two ongoing first-line therapy trials comparing pembrolizumab or atezolizumab with cisplatin- or carboplatin-based therapy. The data showed that immunotherapy was associated with shorter survival in patients with low expression of PD-L1.

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which iseditorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review ofthe literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. Moreinformation about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards inmaintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the and PDQ® NCIs Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

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Treatment For Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

Cystectomy Surgery radical and partial

  • Open Radical Cystectomy
  • Robotic Radical Cystectomy, which is the robotic-assisted, minimally invasive removal of the bladder, may be the optimal treatment for bladder cancer for aggressive or recurrent disease. The surgery typically includes removal of the surrounding pelvic lymph nodes. Often, the urinary diversion can also be completed robot-assisted laparoscopically.

Types of Surgical Reconstruction to Replace the Removed Bladder

Radiation Preservation Therapy for Bladder Cancer uses preservation techniques that may require patients to have both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cases are discussed in a multidisciplinary fashion with radiation oncology, medical oncology and urology physicians to provide an integrated and comprehensive treatment plan for our patients.

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Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.

This early stage of bladder cancer is most often treated with transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical therapy within 24 hours.

How Bcg Treatment Is Performed

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BCG treatment is administered in a liquid form using a catheter inserted into the urethra so the BCG enters directly into the bladder.

Once the BCG has reached the bladder, the patient needs to avoid going to the bathroom for at least two hours in order for the BCG to have time to reach the cancer in the bladders lining.

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Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.

Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.

Effects Of Cystectomy On Urination

Bladder surgery can affect how you pass urine. If you have had a partial cystectomy, this might be limited to having to go more often .

If you have a radical cystectomy, you’ll need reconstructive surgery to create a new way for urine to leave your body. Depending on the type of reconstruction, you might need to learn how to empty your urostomy bag or put a catheter into your stoma. Aside from these changes, urinary diversion and urostomy can also lead to:

  • Infections
  • Blockage of urine flow
  • Absorption problems

The physical changes that come from removing the bladder and having a urostomy can affect your quality of life, too. Discuss your feelings and concerns with your health care team.

To learn a lot more about urostomies, see Urostomy Guide.

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Symptoms Of Oral Cancer

Here are some most common symptoms of mouth cancer:

  • Lumps or bumps, rough spots, eroded areas, swellings and thickening on gums, lips, and other parts of the oral cavity.
  • Bleeding from the mouth.
  • Ear pain.
  • Excessive weight loss.
  • Sores on the neck, mouth, or face that do not heal within two weeks and bleed easily.
  • Change in voice, hoarseness, and extremely sore throat.
  • Difficulty in speaking, moving the tongue or jaw, chewing, or swallowing.
  • The occurrence of velvety red, white, or red and white patches inside the mouth.
  • Trouble wearing dentures.
  • If you experience any of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult your dentist or any doctor. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre is one of the best centres that provide effective treatment for mouth cancer.

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    How Bladder Cancer Is Treated

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    Different people with bladder cancer have different needs that have to treated. The treatments that your doctor recommends in the treatment plan are chosen based on the characteristics of your diagnosis and your overall health, as well as other factors.

    Take time to learn about all of your treatment options and be sure to ask questions about things that are unclear. Also, talk about the goals of each treatment with your doctor and what you can expect while receiving the treatment. These types of talks are called shared decision-making. Shared decision-making is when you and your doctors work together to choose treatments that fit the goals of your care. Shared decision-making is particularly important for bladder cancer because there are different treatment options. Learn more about making treatment decisions.

    To read an overview of treatment options based on the extent of the bladder cancer, read the next section in this guide, Treatments by Stage.

    The most common types of treatments used for bladder cancer are described below. Your care plan also includes treatment for symptoms and side effects, an important part of cancer care.

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    Should I Be Careful With What I Eat Or Drink With A Urostomy

    No, just drink plenty of fluids, like water. Itâs best to limit caffeine and alcohol, because theyâre less likely to keep you hydrated. Thatâs important to lower your chance of infection.

    Go easy on beverages near bedtime, and attach a larger night drainage bag to hold more urine while you sleep.

    Your pouch is odor-proof, so you wonât smell anything until you empty it. If your pee has a very strong odor, it could be a sign of an infection. But other things can affect the smell, too:

    Everyone will feel different emotions when they are dying. A lot depends on:

    • the type of person they are
    • their age
    • how much support they have
    • their religious and spiritual beliefs
    • the experiences they have had in life

    Someone dying in their 20s is likely to feel very differently from someone who is 80. And someone leaving behind young children will have different worries from someone whose children are grown up and able to take care of themselves.

    As death gets closer they might begin to let go and seem more at peace with things. Others might become very anxious, fearful or angry. Some people could appear to withdraw, even from the people they love and care about. But this doesnt mean that they dont care anymore.

    These events are all very normal and are a natural part of dying.

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    Treatment For Stage 2 And Stage 3

    Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3 bladder cancer may include:

    • removal of part of the bladder in addition to chemotherapy
    • removal of the whole bladder, which is a radical cystectomy, followed by surgery to create a new way for urine to exit the body
    • chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy that can be done to shrink the tumor before surgery, to treat the cancer when surgery isnt an option, to kill remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to prevent the cancer from recurring

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    Stage I Bladder Cancer

    Patients with Stage I bladder cancer have a cancer that invades the subepithelial connective tissue, but does not invade the muscle of the bladder and has not spread to lymph nodes. Stage I disease is classified as a âsuperficialâ bladder cancer.

    Standard initial treatment for all patients with Stage I bladder cancer is also a transurethral resection with electrical or laser thermal destruction of all visualized cancer.

    Rarely, for more extensive or multiple superficial cancers, a segmental cystectomy is necessary. Even more rarely, radical cystectomy is used for extensive multiple superficial cancers. To learn more about TUR, go toSurgery for Bladder Cancer.

    Surgery alone is effective in preventing recurrences in approximately 50% of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Failure of treatment is usually due to the appearance of new superficial cancers, which can be retreated with TUR and cautery or laser therapies. Within 15 or 20 years, more than half of surviving patients will have experienced progressive cancer or, more commonly, will develop new cancers, including cancers of the upper urinary tract . Approximately 20-30% of these cancers will require treatment with a cystectomy.

    Treatment For Advanced Bladder Cancer

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    If bladder cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it is known as advanced or metastatic bladder cancer. You may be offered one or a combination of the following treatments to help control the cancer and ease symptoms:

    • systemic chemotherapy
    • surgery
    • radiation therapy.

    Immunotherapy uses the bodys own immune system to fight cancer. BCG is a type of immunotherapy treatment that has been used for many years to treat non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    A new group of immunotherapy drugs called checkpoint inhibitors work by helping the immune system to recognise and attack the cancer. A checkpoint immunotherapy drug called pembrolizumab is now available in Australia for some people with urothelial cancer that has spread beyond the bladder. The drug is given directly into a vein through a drip, and the treatment may be repeated every 2 to 4 weeks for up to 2 years.

    Other types of checkpoint immunotherapy drugs may become available soon.

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    Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of Cancer

    Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.

    Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel feels during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after an advanced cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, report that they are more satisfied with treatment, and they may live longer.

    Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.

    Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. You should also talk about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options.

    Possible Causes Of Bladder Cancer: Smoking

    Smoking is the greatest known risk factor for bladder cancer smokers are four times more likely to get bladder cancer than nonsmokers. Harmful chemicals from cigarette smoke enter the bloodstream in the lungs and are ultimately filtered by the kidneys into the urine. This leads to a concentration of harmful chemicals inside the bladder. Experts believe that smoking causes about half of all bladder cancers in men and women.

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