Monday, January 23, 2023

How Do You Know If Bladder Cancer Has Spread

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Early Signs Of Bladder Cancer In Women

Bladder Cancer: What to Know If Youve Just Been Diagnosed

Knowing the signs and symptoms can help you get diagnosed sooner, which may improve your prognosis. Here are five warning signs to watch for:

  • Blood in the urine . This is the most common early symptom of bladder cancer and typically the first sign of bladder cancer that is seen. Its easy for women to overlook because its typically painless and can go weeks or even months between occurrences. Many women ignore this symptom because they attribute it to menstruation or menopause. If you are unsure if there is an issue, your best bet is to consult a urologist
  • UTI-like symptoms. Bladder cancer can be mistaken for a Urinary Tract Infection because many of the symptoms overlap. Patients may experience increased frequency and urgency of urination, pain with urination, or urinary incontinence. If youve noticed any urinary problemsyou have to go all the time, or you feel like you have to go but cant, or you have a hard time emptying your bladderor if antibiotics dont seem to be helping your UTI symptoms, talk to your doctor.
  • Unexplained pain. More advanced bladder cancers are often associated with pain. Pain can occur in the flank area, abdomen, or pelvis. Patients can also develop pain in their bones if the cancer has spread to their bones. If youre having aches and pains in those areas, tell your doctorespecially if youve also noticed spotting or UTI symptoms.
  • What Are The Signs That Prostate Cancer Has Spread

    Approximately one in nine men will get prostate cancer in their lifetime. This is why screening is so important, especially if youre over the age of 50.

    Unfortunately, many times symptoms of prostate cancer dont appear during the early stages. Some men dont notice the warning signs until its metastasized. Late detection is one of the reasons why only a very few men consider getting treatment, and survive prostate cancer.

    If youre asking yourself, What are the signs that prostate cancer has spread, keep reading. Aside from using reputable websites such as drcatalona.com, this article will provide information over some late-stage symptoms.

    Dad Is Dyingaggressive Bladder Cancer Which Has Spread

    My dad is dying. The cancer has spread and got a hold of him. Every time I think it cant get any worse for him, it seems to find a way to make life a little bit more **** for him.Its the hardest thing to watch.

    How do you lift someones spirit when, life is a daily struggle and things never get better only ever worse?

    i assumed that dying wouldnt hurt as the pain would be controlled with drugs, but the pained expression in my dads eyes is unbearable at times and pain is not the only effect cancer has on a body.

    I desperatly want him to be ok, but he isnt going to be, I wish he could pass peacefully rather than this intolerable waiting and watching him suffer indignity after indignity while this thing gets worse.

    How long will he have to carry on like this … no one has any answers…. everyones different they say…. with each new issue though…strange lumps, unexpected bleeding,…. do you call a doctor, contact the hospice…. or ignore it as hes not going to get better…..theres no clear instructions….

    Feeling helpless…. on how to help and ensure what time is left is not horrific for my dad……

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    How Is Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma Of Skin Treated

    The treatment measures for Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Skin may include:

    • A combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and invasive procedures may be used to treat the tumor
    • Targeted therapy medications are generally used for locally infiltrated or metastatic SCCs. This therapy destroys the tumor cells by acting against the proteins that are responsible for tumor growth
    • Radiotherapy can be used as primary therapy in situations where the tumor cannot be removed completely, or when the tumor reappears after surgery
    • Radiotherapy can also be used as additional therapy after surgery, if there is a possibility of tumor recurrence after surgery, or if there are inadequate margins following surgery. In some cases due to location of tumor, a complete surgical removal of the tumor is difficult
    • Chemotherapy can be used for treating metastatic cases in the following conditions:
    • When the tumors cannot be removed completely
    • Tumors that recur after surgery
  • Large tumors after complete skin excision may need skin grafting
  • Post-operative care is important: One must maintain minimum activity levels, until the surgical wound heals
  • Follow-up care with regular screening and check-ups are important and encouraged
  • Advanced Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer

    Bladder Cancer  Signs, Symptoms And Causes

    Bladder cancer is considered advanced when the tumor has grown and penetrated the bladder lining and surrounding layers of tissue and muscle. At this stage, the cancer may have spread to other parts of the body . Symptoms of advanced bladder cancer include the following:

    • Urination problems: Inability to urinate
    • Pain in the lower back: Another indication the tumor has spread is pain, particularly in the area above your pubic bone or the flank area. Pain in your perineum might also occur if your bladder cancer has reached tissues nearby. Pain may only be on one side.
    • Weight loss or loss of appetite: You lose weight without trying, or you’ve lost your appetite and aren’t as hungry as usual.
    • Feeling weak or fatigued: You may feel lethargic and extremely tired a lot of the time.
    • Bone pain: If your cancer has spread to the bone, it can cause bone pain or a bone fracture.
    • Swollen feet: Bladder cancer that has spread to your lymph nodes, for instance, could cause your feet to swell.

    If the bladder cancer has spread to another part of your body, you could develop symptoms specific to that particular area. For example:

    Once again, these symptoms could be due to something other than bladder cancer, so be sure to have your doctor check them out.

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    Bladder Cancer Symptoms: Blood In Urine

    One sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, also known as hematuria. Blood in the urine does not always mean bladder cancer. Hematuria is most often caused by other conditions like trauma, infection, blood disorders, kidney problems, exercise, or certain medications. Blood in the urine may be seen by the naked eye or only detected on urine testing . The urine may be discolored and appear brownish or darker than usual or, rarely, bright red in color.

    What Are The Stages Of Bladder Cancer

    Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .

    The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.

    Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:

    • In Stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
    • In Stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
    • In Stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.

    A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is known as TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:

    • Invasive bladder tumors can range from T2 all the way to T4 .
    • Lymph node involvement ranges from N0 to N3 .
    • M0 means that there is no metastasis outside of the pelvis. M1 means that it has metastasized outside of the pelvis.

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    Bladder Cancer Diagnosis: Testing

    There is no single lab test that can specifically screen for and diagnose bladder cancer, even though urine tests may suggest that cancer is present. If a cancer is present, several tests may be abnormal, including urine cytology and tests for tumor marker proteins.

    Cystoscopy

    A type of endoscopy, cystoscopy, is a procedure that allows visualization of the inside of the bladder through a thin, lighted tube that contains a camera. The instrument can also take small samples if abnormal areas are seen. A tissue biopsy is the most reliable way to diagnose bladder cancer.

    Urinalysis and Urine Cytology

    An analysis of the urine is a very useful test in the diagnosis of and screening for many diseases and conditions. The urinalysis will detect any abnormalities in the urine such as blood, protein, and sugar . A urine cytology is the examination of urine under a microscope while looking for abnormal cells that might indicate bladder cancer.

    How Doctors Find Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Recognizing the Warning Signs of Bladder Cancer

    When you are diagnosed with prostate cancer, your doctor will order tests such as:

    • X-rays
    • MRI scans
    • PET scans

    These tests may focus on your skeleton and in your belly and pelvic areas. That way doctors can check for signs that the cancer has spread.

    If you have symptoms such as bone pain and broken bones for no reason, your doctor may order a bone scan. It can show if you have signs of cancer spread in your bones.

    Your doctor will also ask for blood tests, including a check of PSA levels, to look for other signs that the cancer is spreading.

    PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland. A rise in PSA is one of the first signs your cancer may be growing. But PSA levels can also be high without there being cancer, such as if you have an enlarged prostate a prostate infection, trauma to the perineum, or sexual activity can also cause PSA level to be high.

    If youve been treated, especially if a surgeon removed your prostate, your PSA levels should start to go down. Doctors usually wait seve,ral weeks after surgery before checking PSA levels. A rise in PSA after treatment may suggest the possibility cancer is back or spreading. In that case, your doctor may order the same tests used to diagnose the original cancer, including a CT scan, MRI, or bone scan. The radiotracer Axumin could be used along with a PET scan to help detect and localize any recurrent cancer.

    Though very rare, its possible to have metastatic prostate cancer without a higher-than-normal PSA level.

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    Sexuality And Bladder Cancer

    Having bladder cancer and treatment can change the way you feel about yourself, other people, relationships and sex. These changes can be very upsetting and hard to talk about. Doctors and nurses are very understanding and can give you support. You can ask for a referral to a counsellor or therapist who specialises in body image, sex and relationships.

    Bladder Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy is given in some cases before surgery to shrink bladder cancer tumors. It can also be used after surgery to destroy any remaining tumor cells. Chemotherapy may be given intravenously or administered directly into the bladder . Intravesical chemotherapy is effective in decreasing the recurrence rate of superficial bladder cancers on a short-term basis, but not effective against bladder cancer that has already invaded the muscular walls. Systemic or intravenous chemotherapy is required when the cancer has deeply penetrated the bladder, lymph nodes, or other organs.

    Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Side effects vary from patient to patient. Common side effects of systemic chemotherapy include the following:

    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Sores on the inside of the mouth or in the digestive tract
    • Feeling tired or lacking energy
    • Increased susceptibility to infection

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    What Causes Bladder Cancer

    Researchers do not know what exactly causes bladder cancer. Changes in the DNA inside normal healthy bladder cells can cause them to grow and form cancers. DNA is the chemical compound that makes up our genes. The genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are known as oncogenes. The genes that help control cell division, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are known as tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in these genes can potentially lead to cancer.

    Symptoms Of Recurrent Bladder Cancer

    Treatment of primary urethral cancer

    Although seven of every 10 cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed at an early stage when the cancer is treatable, post-treatment recurrence is a particular risk, and the disease has a recurrence rate of about 70%19. Because of this, individuals who have had bladder cancer will require surveillance for years following treatment.

    Recurrence happens when you have smaller areas of cancer cells that stay in your body undetected. These cells, over time, might increase in number and eventually cause symptoms or show up on test results. Your doctor, who knows your medical history, will discuss your risk of recurrence during follow-up care.

    Symptoms of recurrent bladder cancer often resemble those of early or advanced cancer. Let your doctor know if you develop any new symptoms like frequent urination, blood in your urine, immediate need to urinate or pain while urinating. These symptoms could be signs of bladder cancer recurrence or signs of another health condition.

    Knowing the symptoms and signs of bladder cancer, no matter if it’s early, advanced or recurrent, is important and your first step to diagnosis and treatment.

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    Screening For Prostate Cancer

    There are no tests available with sufficient accuracy to screen populations of men for early signs of prostate cancer. However, early detection and treatment can significantly improve prostate cancer survival.

    The test most commonly used to aid early detection of prostate cancer is the prostate specific antigen blood test. This is not a diagnostic test as it can only indicate changes in the prostate. If you are concerned about prostate cancer you should talk to your doctor and make an informed choice about whether to have one of the tests designed to find early signs of prostate cancer, in view of the potential risks and benefits.

    There are no proven measures to prevent prostate cancer.

    Bladder Cancer Treatment: Urinary Diversion After Surgery

    When the entire bladder is removed the surgeon will create an alternate way for urine to be stored and passed. This procedure is called urinary diversion. Depending on preference, a bag can either be placed inside or outside of the body to collect urine. Non-continent urinary diversion is when a urostomy bag is placed outside the body, worn under the clothes. Continent urinary diversion consists of a pouch, made from intestinal tissue, inside the body to hold urine. In a newly introduced surgical procedure, the insertion of an artificial bladder has also been successful for some patients.

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    Signs Of Bladder Cancer: What Women Should Know

    Bladder cancer may not be on your radar even if youre vigilant about getting routine GYN care. After all, its far more common among men than women, and the majority of cases affect patients over age 65. However, dont let those stats keep you from learning to spot the warning signs.

    While bladder cancer isnt one of the most common cancers in women, about 18,000 women are diagnosed with bladder cancer every year in the United States . The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network reports that women are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer at an advanced stage because they may not be on the lookout for early signs.

    Should I Make Any Lifestyle Changes Including In My Diet Or Physical Activity

    Understanding Bladder Cancer | Question and Answer about Metastatic Bladder Cancer

    Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight by eating a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and staying physically active, can help your overall health. These lifestyle changes can also have a positive effect for men with bone metastases, Tagawa says. Both diet and exercise, he says, are things that are under a mans direct control.

    A healthy lifestyle can help you better manage side effects from treatment as well. Try setting small but realistic goals for yourself when it comes to eating a healthy diet and getting plenty of exercise.

    While no single food is likely to have a benefit for prostate cancer, smart food choices may help you feel better day to day. Start by cutting out foods high in sugar, saturated fat, and added flavorings and preservatives.

    If youre not sure which healthy foods to choose, ask your doctor for a referral to a dietitian. This specialist can help you develop a meal plan that includes foods that offer the best chance of slowing the cancers growth and keeping you as healthy as possible.

    As an oncologist, Tagawa says he concentrates on treating the cancer itself, but hes aware that many of the men he sees with advanced prostate cancer are older and more likely than younger men to have health problems that can benefit from diet and exercise.

    And if youre on hormone therapy, talk to your doctor about investing in some weights or elastic resistance bands to support your bone strength too.

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    Lung Cancer Doubling Time

    Doctors may describe the doubling of a lung tumor in terms of either volume or metabolic doubling time. What they mean is, how long it takes for it to double in size. But there are more limitations, similar to what we have already seen, when estimating doubling time from models. Thats because:

    • The models assume a continuous rate of growth, and this is not the case.
    • Its hard to design studies in humans for ethical reasons. The results from animal or lab studies dont necessarily reflect what happens in people.
    • There are limits to estimating tumor size based on imaging, such as a CT scan.

    Symptoms Of Metastatic Cancer

    Metastatic cancer does not always cause symptoms. When symptoms do occur, what they are like and how often you have them will depend on the size and location of the metastatic tumors. Some common signs of metastatic cancer include:

    • pain and fractures, when cancer has spread to the bone
    • headache, seizures, or dizziness, when cancer has spread to the brain
    • shortness of breath, when cancer has spread to the lung
    • jaundice or swelling in the belly, when cancer has spread to the liver

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