Chronic Bladder Irritation And Infections
Urinary infections, kidney and bladder stones, bladder catheters left in place a long time, and other causes of chronic bladder irritation have been linked to bladder cancer . But its not clear if they actually cause bladder cancer.
Schistosomiasis , an infection with a parasitic worm that can get into the bladder, is also a risk factor for bladder cancer. In countries where this parasite is common , squamous cell cancers of the bladder are much more common. This is an extremely rare cause of bladder cancer in the United States.
Stages Of Tcc In Dogs
When a dog is diagnosed with TCC, the vet performs tests to determine the stage, which can be from 0 to 4.
Stages 0 and 1 indicate that the cancer is still in its early stage, and the dog is usually not showing too many symptoms. As you can imagine, most dogs with TCC in stages 0 and 1 wont be diagnosed at all as dog owners probably dont even know the dog has cancer!
Dogs with Stage 2 or Stage 3 TCC will show symptoms such as difficulty peeing, blood in urine, etc. It also means that the cancer has spread to most parts of the bladder.
Stage 4 TCC indicates that the cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body.
Link Between Diabetes Drug Increased Risk Of Bladder Cancer Confirmed
- The diabetes drug pioglitazone is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, finds a study. The findings suggest that the risk increases with increasing duration of use and dose.
The diabetes drug pioglitazone is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, finds a study published by The BMJ. The findings suggest that the risk increases with increasing duration of use and dose.
No increased risk was seen for a similar drug .
Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone belong to a class of drugs called thiazolidinediones that help to control blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, in 2005, a trial unexpectedly showed an imbalance in the number of bladder cancer cases with pioglitazone compared with placebo.
Since then, the association between the use of pioglitazone and bladder cancer has been controversial, with studies reporting contradictory findings.
So a team of Canadian-based researchers set out to determine whether the use of pioglitazone, when compared with other anti-diabetic drugs, was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes.
They analysed data for 145,806 patients from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database , who were newly treated with diabetes drugs between 2000 and 2013. Potential influential factors such as age, sex, duration of diabetes, smoking status and alcohol-related disorders, were taken into account.
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Pharmacologic Agents That Cause Urinary Incontinence
A variety of drugs have been implicated in urinary incontinence, and attempts have been made to determine the mechanism responsible based upon current understanding of the processes involved in continence and the transmitters that play a role. Each of the processes described previously can be manipulated by pharmacologic agents to cause one or more types of incontinence.
The drugs commonly pinpointed in urinary incontinence include anticholinergics, alpha-adrenergic agonists, alpha-antagonists, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, sedative-hypnotics, ACE inhibitors, and antiparkinsonian medications. Depending upon the mode of action, the effect may be direct or indirect and can lead to any of the types of incontinence. Taking these factors into account, it is important to consider a patients drug therapy as a cause of incontinence, particularly in new-onset incontinence patients and in elderly patients, in whom polypharmacy is common.11,12
On the other hand, a pharmacologic agent or any other factor that results in chronic urinary retention can lead to a rise in intravesical pressure and a resultant trickling loss of urine. In this way, drugs that cause urinary retention can indirectly lead to overflow incontinence.2
It is useful to note that many antidepressants and antipsychotics exhibit considerable alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist activity.1
Certain Medicines Or Herbal Supplements
According to the US Food and Drug Administration , use of the diabetes medicine pioglitazone is linked with an increased risk of bladder cancer. The risk seems to get higher when higher doses are used.
Dietary supplements containing aristolochic acid have been linked with an increased risk of urothelial cancers, including bladder cancer.
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What Is Bladder Cancer
This type of cancer occurs in the bladder the organ that stores urine. The bladder has an inner lining surrounded by a layer of muscle. Bladder cancer begins in the inner lining of the bladder. It is usually discovered before it has spread past this lining.
Risk factors for bladder cancer include:
- Cancer-causing substances such as tobacco smoke and chemicals in the environment
- Exposure to certain industrial chemicals
- Long-standing bladder stones
Bladder cancer tends to return in people who have had the disease.
Smoking Is A Killer Literally
If you are a cigarette smoker, you are really asking for it. Smoking is considered the number one cause of bladder cancer. Among bladder cancer in men, smoking accounts for half of the cases while among women, one-third of the cases are related to smoking. If you are a moderate to heavy smoker, you have anywhere from two to five-fold risk of bladder cancer, compared to non-smokers. This is especially pertinent when you consider quitting the habit can bring the bladder cancer risk down measurably within two to four years.4
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What Happens When Your Bladder Is Removed Due To Cancer
When the bladder is surgically removed , urine in the body has no place to collect. In some cases, surgeons can construct a neobladder out of small intestine tissue, which will work pretty much the same way as the old bladder but will require contracting the abdominal muscles to urinate. If a neobladder is not possible, the surgeon will create a urinary diversion. Urine will be directed to a pouch or directly through a hole in the abdomen. In both cases, urine will leave the body through a hole in the abdomen into a urostomy bag on the abdomen or leg.
Chronic Bladder Problems And Urinary Tract Infections
Long-term bladder irritation and inflammation, such as that caused by infections and bladder or kidney stones, make it more likely for someone to develop bladder cancer. People with spinal cord injuries are at risk of both chronic infections and kidney stones. A parasitic infection called schistosomiasis increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. This infection is rare in the United States but common in the Middle East.
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How Do Proton Pump Inhibitors Work
The stomach digests food with the aid of gastric acid, a mix of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. This highly corrosive soup is produced when gastric cells in the stomach secrete the hormone gastrin, which signals parietal cells in the stomach to start pumping acid. PPIs shut down the proton pumps in the parietal cells, cutting off the production of acid. If you are blocking acid production by using a proton pump inhibitor, the body says, I dont have enough acid. Make more. So, the way the body reacts is for G-cells to produce more gastrin, Dr. Perre says. Too much gastrin may stimulate the growth of gastrointestinal tumors. Ironically, proton pump inhibitors often are prescribed to treat acid reflux, also called gastroesophageal reflex disease , or H. pylori infections, conditions that may increase the risk of stomach and esophageal cancers. It is a double-edged sword, he says.
How Is Bladder Cancer Linked To Metformin
FDA agency tests revealed that samples of metformin contained NDMA amounts significantly higher than the recommended daily limit. NDMA can be produced both naturally and artificially and was formerly used to make rocket fuel and plastics. It is not currently produced or commercially used in the US, except for in laboratory research. In fact, its main use today is to induce tumor growth in experimental animals, and it has been known as a cancer risk for decades. An article from the 1970s stated that NDMA has caused cancer in nearly every laboratory animal tested so far.
NDMA can be found in pharmaceuticals for a number of reasons. The FDA has found in the past that NDMA formation has occurred due to the manufacturing, packaging, and storage conditions of the drug, as well as the chemical structure of the drug itself. Some research has even found that NDMA can be formed in the human body after ingestion.
People with Type 2 diabetes already have an approximately 40% increased chance of developing bladder cancer, but the NDMA levels in Metformin can further extend that risk. Various studies throughout the world have shown that there is a specific link between nitrosamines like NDMA and bladder cancer.
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If Treatment Does Not Work
Full recovery from bladder cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or metastatic.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, expertise, and knowledge to support patients and their families, and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
Patients who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is a specific type of palliative care designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
Symptoms In Men And Women
Women are more likely to mistake bladder cancer symptoms for urinary tract infections or menstruation.
Rarely, bladder cancer may also be misdiagnosed as interstitial cystitis in women. IC is a painful, inflammatory bladder condition that affects more women than men.
In one study, doctors found bladder cancer in about one percent out of 600 patients referred to them for IC treatment, according to an article in Urology Times.
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Very Common Diabetes Drug Raises Risk Of Bladder Cancer
New research published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute has found that a popular class of diabetes drug increases peoples risk of developing bladder cancer.
According to researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, the drug that accounts for up to 20% of the medication prescribed to diabetics in the U.S., thiazolidinedione , gives patients a 2 to 3 times greater likelihood of developing bladder cancer than those taking a sulfonylurea drug, another common class of medication for diabetics.
Diabetes patients are already known to have a slightly greater chance of developing this cancer as compared to the general population, which the authors suggest makes this finding especially important. About 40 out of 100,00 diabetics typically eventually develop cancer of the bladder, versus 30 in 100,000 out of the general population.
Sixty thousand type 2 diabetics from the Health Improvement Network database in the United Kingdom were observed in the study.
The experts analysis showed that 170 patients per 100,000 taking TZDs, for 5 or more years, were expected to develop this disease. For those taking sulfonylurea drugs, about 60 in 100,000 would develop bladder cancer.
Ronac Mamtani, MD, the studys lead author, an instructor in the division of Hematology-Oncology in Penns Abramson Cancer Center, explained:
Comparison With Other Studies
Several observational studies have investigated the association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer.45678910111213141516171819 Overall, these studies have generated conflicting findings, with seven reporting statistically significant increased risks45678910 and nine reporting null associations.111213141516171819 The discrepancy between these studies is likely due to certain methodological shortcomings. Indeed, in three studies,101418 the definition for drug use may have introduced immortal time bias, a bias resulting from the misclassification of unexposed person time as exposed person time, which may have led to a spurious underestimate of the association. In another study,15 time lag bias was introduced by comparing pioglitazone with insulin, the latter being a drug typically used at a more advanced stage of the disease, where the risk of cancer, including bladder cancer, may be higher. Prevalent users of antidiabetic drugs were included in 11 studies,4561011121314181920 which can be problematic in this context given the relatively rapid onset of bladder cancer after starting pioglitazone. Finally, in five studies,810121718 a minimum time between starting pioglitazone and the diagnosis of bladder cancer was not considered in the analyses, an important consideration given the latency of bladder cancer.
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Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. You can change some risk factors, like smoking or weight others, like your age or family history, you cant.
But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you will get the disease. Many people with risk factors never get bladder cancer, while others with this disease may have few or no known risk factors.
Still, its important to know about the risk factors for bladder cancer because there may be things you can do that might lower your risk of getting it. If you’re at higher risk because of certain factors, you might be helped by tests that could find it early, when treatment is most likely to be effective.
Many risk factors make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer.
How Smoking May Increase Your Risk
Chemicals in the smoke get into the bloodstream. They are then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and end up in the urine. When the urine is stored in the bladder, these chemicals are in contact with the bladder lining.
Chemicals called arylamines are known to cause bladder cancer. Arylamines in cigarette smoke may be the cause of the increased risk.
Research shows that having many bladder infections or long lasting infections can increase your risk of developing bladder cancer. It’s not really known how or why this happens.
Some medical conditions that can increase the number and length of infections include:
- bladder stones
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Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place , nearby , or in another place .
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
Blood Pressure Drugs Linked To Cancer
Angiotensin-Receptor Blockers Raise Risk of Developing Cancer, Research Shows
June 14, 2010 — A group of medications commonly used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and kidney damage caused by diabetes have been linked to a small increase in the risk of developing cancer, according to a study.
Angiotensin-receptor blockers work by blocking angiotensin II, a hormone that increases blood pressure.
A study published online in The Lancet Oncology states that although there are no major safety concerns associated with ARBs, a previous trial had reported a significantly increased risk of fatal cancers in patients receiving the ARB candesartan compared with a placebo.
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As A Common External Factor That Can Lead To The Development Of Cancer Patients Must Always Be On Guard For Drugs That May Contain Carcinogens
Cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the body start replicating at a rate beyond the bodys control. The medical complication can occur in any part of the body where cell division takes place. After some time, the problem spreads to other areas. Some people are more prone to cancer than others. Some of the risk factors include genetics and external environmental factors.
The consequences of dangerous drug injuries can be devastating. One of the common external factors that may lead to cancer is prescription drugs. Scientists are still researching to establish how drugs cause cancer. Drugs that cause cancer are divided into three major categories:
- Immunosuppressive therapy
- Diabetes medications