Does Cranberry Juice Prevent A Urinary Tract Infection
Many people say that cranberry juice can help treat, or even prevent, a UTI. Researchers are currently looking into the topic, but havent found a definitive answer yet. Healthcare providers recommend drinking lots of fluids if you have, or have a history of getting, a UTI. Adding a glass of unsweetened cranberry juice to your diet isnt a proven way to prevent a UTI, but it typically wont hurt you either.
How Do Health Care Professionals Diagnose A Bladder Infection
Health care professionals use your medical history, a physical exam, and tests to diagnose a bladder infection.
A health care professional will ask if you have a history of health conditions that make you more likely to develop any type of UTI. During a physical exam, the health care professional will ask you about your symptoms.
What Uti Test Should Pregnant Women Have
Pregnant women are especially susceptible to urinary tract infections, thanks in part to pregnancy hormones, so its recommended that all get screened for UTIs between 12 and 16 weeks of pregnancy or at ones initial prenatal appointment. For this population, a urine culture is considered the most reliable test, especially for asymptomatic bacteriuria , which is a UTI without symptoms. However, since theres a high rate of false positives for pregnant women, a positive result often leads to a second test a week later in order to avoid unnecessary treatment.
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Bacteria Yeast And Parasites
In healthy people, the urinary tract is sterile and, if the urine sample is collected as a clean-catch sample, there will be no microbes seen in the urine sediment under the microscope. Special care must be taken during specimen collection, particularly in women, to prevent bacteria that normally live on the skin or in vaginal secretions from contaminating the urine sample.
If microbes are seen, they are usually reported as few,moderate, or many present per high power field .
A Pharmacist Can Help With Utis
You can ask a pharmacist about treatments for a UTI. A pharmacist can:
- offer advice on things that can help you get better
- suggest the best painkiller to take
- tell you if you need to see a GP about your symptoms
Some pharmacies offer a UTI management service and can prescribe antibiotics if they’re needed.
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How To Read A Urine Dipstick
Your doctor or nurse may read your dipstick result for you. However, sometimes you may be asked to monitor your own urine at home.
Some urine dipsticks test for just one or two of the abnormalities below. Others test for many of these substances.
To read your dipstick, you should:
- Take a urine sample as above.
- Dip one of the sticks into the sample, making sure all the test zones on the stick are submerged.
- Remove the stick, tap to remove excess urine and hold it horizontally so urine doesn’t drip.
- Check on the label of the dipstick bottle how long you need to wait .
- After the relevant time, hold the dipstick up against the colour chart on the dipstick bottle.
- Each test will be colour-coded and there will be several different shades of that colour. A darker shade indicates that there is more of the relevant substance – blood, glucose etc – in your urine.
- Record the result next to the matching colour on the label – this may be given in the form of ‘+’ signs or numbers.
What Is The Most Reliable Way To Diagnose Chronic Uti
Relying on inaccurate tests sees many thousands of UTI sufferers misdiagnosed or even dismissed as problem patients.
Unhelpfully guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence the body that produces treatment guidelines for England and Wales insist that a positive dipstick and MSU are needed to diagnose a urinary tract infection in patients who have not got better after initial antibiotics.
The most useful thing that doctors can do is to listen to their patients and ask them detailed questions about their symptoms and how they started.
New research suggests that microscopy analysing fresh urine under a microscope using a haemocytometer combined with listening to a patients story is the best way to diagnose UTI.
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Specimen Collection Transportation And Processing
Specimen collection. Suprapubic aspiration is the best method to avoid contamination of specimens with bacteria in the distal urethra. This collection method is used infrequently because it is not indicated clinically , it is invasive and uncomfortable, and it requires too much time and too many resources to be practical. Collection of urine by use of a single catheter is the next-best technique for obtaining urine specimens with minimal contamination, but, again, it is not indicated clinically for most patients because it is too labor intensive and costly for routine use and it is invasive. It has added disadvantages, because the process of inserting a catheter through the urethra can introduce bacteria into the bladder , and rare complications have been reported.
As discussed below, correct processing and handling of urine specimens, as well as correct interpretation of test results, is dependent on the method used to collect the specimen. It is, therefore, of obvious importance for clinicians to specify the method of collection on the test requisition slip. Other information that should be included on the test requisition slip includes the date and time of specimen collection, patient demographic information, and any clinically relevant information .
What Happens If You Test Negative For Uti
While urinalysis is useful, it is not always definitive in terms of diagnosis of a UTI. False-negative results can and do occur. False-negative cultures can appear for a variety of reasons, including mishandling of the urine specimen and a too-dilute urine sample. However, many women who experience typical UTI symptoms and receive a negative urine culture actually do have a UTI and should discuss antibiotic treatment with their healthcare provider. 30209-4/fulltext” rel=”nofollow”> 15)
At the same time, women with symptoms of a UTI but whose tests don’t show any infection may have:
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Antibiotics For A Uti
The form of antibiotic used to treat a bacterial UTI usually depends on which part of the tract is involved.
Lower tract UTIs can usually be treated with oral antibiotics. Upper tract UTIs require intravenous antibiotics. These antibiotics are put directly into your veins.
Sometimes, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. To reduce your risk of antibiotic resistance, your doctor will likely put you on the shortest treatment course possible. Treatment typically lasts no more than 1 week.
Results from your urine culture can help your doctor select an antibiotic treatment that will work best against the type of bacteria thats causing your infection.
Treatments other than antibiotics for bacterial UTIs are being examined. At some point, UTI treatment without antibiotics may be an option for bacterial UTIs by using cell chemistry to change the interaction between the body and the bacteria.
There are no home remedies that can cure a UTI, but there are some things that you can do that can help your medication work better.
These home remedies for UTIs, like drinking more water, may help your body clear the infection faster.
Urine That Has A Strong Odor
Urine contains water and a small concentration of waste products. It typically has a subtle odor of its own. While urine odor may vary, it does not have a strong smell.
When there is an infection in the urinary tract, the urine may take on a foul-smelling odor. The main cause of the smell is bacterial overgrowth. Pus and/or blood from the infection may also contribute to the strong smell.
Bacteria can contaminate urine. This will result in a fishy and unpleasant odor. In some women, urine can come with a strong ammonia smell, or foul.
In addition, slightly sweet-smelling urine is often the first indication that UTI may be present.
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Still Unsure Try An At Home Uti Test
At home tests are a great way to detect a UTI before going to see your doctor. Some, like AZO Test Strips®, are the same urinary tract infection tests used in many doctor’s offices. The most reliable, over-the-counter UTI home test available, AZO Test Strips® offer two UTI tests in one – including both Leukocyte and Nitrite tests. These tests performed together are more effective for detecting a UTI than testing for nitrite alone.
If you get a positive result, its time to call your doctor with the results. If your result is negative but you are experiencing symptoms, you should still call your doctor. A small number of people may not have detectable nitrites even though an infection is present.
Appendix 1 Point Of Care Urine Collection Prior To Urine Culture1
Upon rising or at any time, collect urine in the C& S container provided.
Storage and Transport:
The report only includes organisms suspected to be uropathogens . This depends on patient demographics, concentration of the specific organism and the specific laboratory protocol. In urine with multiple organisms, identification may not be performed as it may produce misleading results that are not related to the UTI.
The report only includes antibiotics that can be used for UTI. The specific antibiotics listed depend on the patient demographics, documented antibiotics and allergies, organism identified, colony count of the organism and the specific laboratory protocol.
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Microscopic Exam: What Test Results Can Reveal
Before it is examined under a microscope, technicians spin the urine in a centrifuge in order to concentrate the solid particles and make them easy to examine. Microscopic examination might reveal the following:
- White blood cells may indicate infection or inflammation.
- Red blood cells may indicate kidney disease, a blood disorder, or bladder cancer.
- Bacteria can indicate infection.
- Crystals may be a sign of kidney stones.
- Casts, or tube-shaped proteins, may be a sign of a kidney disorder.
- Parasites can indicate parasitic disease in various parts of the body.
Sometimes a healthcare provider will also order a urine culture to be performed with a urinalysis. A urine culture is used to grow bacteria found in the urine sample in order to diagnose an infection.
It usually takes several hours to get the results of a urinalysis, and one to three days for a urine culture to be complete.
What Does Urinalysis Involve
Urinalysis is done by collecting a urine sample from a patient. The optimal sample tends to be an early morning urine sample because it is frequently the most concentrated urine produced in the day. Typically, no fasting is required before the collection of urine sample and routine medications can be taken before the test, unless otherwise instructed by the ordering physician.
Methods of collection are slightly different for female and male patient.
- For females, the patient is asked to clean the area around the urethra with a special cleansing wipe, by spreading the labia of the external genitals and cleaning from front to back . The cleaning hand is then used to maintain the spread while the cup is held by the other hand to collect the sample.
- For men, the tip of the penis may be wiped with a cleansing pad prior to collection.
- The urine is then collected in a clean urine specimen cup while the patient is urinating. It is best to avoid collecting the initial stream of urine. After the initial part of urine is disposed of in the toilet, then the urine is collected in the urine container provided. Once about 30 mL to 60 mL are collected in the container for testing, the remainder of the urine may be voided in the toilet again. This is called the midstream clean catch urine collection.
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What Type Of Doctors Treat Utis
There is not simply one type of UTI doctor. Instead, your family doctor, you gynecologist, a nurse practitioner, a provider at your local walk-in can all treat most urinary tract infections. However, if youve repeatedly experienced UTIs in the past or have a chronic kidney infection, your healthcare provider may refer you to a urologist, a physician who specializes in urinary tract conditions, or a nephrologist, a physician who specializes in kidney disorders.
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How Is The Test Used
The urinalysis is a set of screening tests that can detect some common diseases. It may be used to screen for and/or help diagnose conditions such as a urinary tract infections, kidney disorders, liver problems, diabetes or other metabolic conditions, to name a few.
A urinalysis is comprised of several chemical, microscopic and visual examinations used to detect cells, cell fragments and substances such as crystals or casts in the urine associated with the various conditions listed above. It can detect abnormalities that might require follow-up investigation and additional testing. Often, substances such as protein or glucose will begin to appear in the urine before people are aware that they may have a problem.
In people diagnosed with diseases or conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes, the urinalysis may be used in conjunction with other tests, such as urine albumin, to follow treatment.
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How Common Are Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections are very common, occurring in 1 out of 5 women sometime in their lifetime. Though UTIs are common in women, they can also happen to men, older adults and children. One to 2% of children develop urinary tract infections. Each year, 8 million to 10 million visits to doctors are for urinary tract infections.
Urinary Tract Infection Testing With Your Healthcare Provider
Your healthcare provider will ask about symptoms and past medical history.
The most frequent test performed is a urinalysis. To prevent bacteria on your skin from contaminating your urine sample a clean catch urine sample may be recommended, Youll be sent to a bathroom with sterile wipes and a collection cup for your urine.
To provide a clean urine sample:
- Women: Sit on the toilet, spread the labia, and wipe the labia area and the opening of the urethra with a sterile wipe front to back. Urinate briefly into the toilet with the labia spread. Then, stop the flow of urine, hold the cup in place, and urinate into the sterile cup provided.
- Men: Clean the head of the penis with a sterile wipe and urinate into the toilet briefly. Stop urinating and then urinate into the sterile cup.
This urine sample is then tested for bacteria and white blood cells. A healthy person can have bacteria in their urine, so a diagnosis of a UTI is made based on the results of the urinalysis along with symptoms.
In cases where a UTI keeps coming back, is serious or is complicated, a urine culture may also be done. Although this test is not needed for diagnosis, it can help find the best treatment because it will tell your healthcare provider what type of bacteria are causing the infection. It usually takes about two days to get results of the culture.
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What Do The Results Tell Us
You can determine whether the results are within the normal range by using the package insert or the color chart on the package. The pH value, for example, can be used to find out whether there is an increased risk of developing urinary stones. This is the case if the pH is too acidic . A pH value over 7 may be a sign of a bacterial urinary tract infection. Tests measuring other things can help detect other problems:
- High protein levels may be a sign of nephritis .
- Ketones and sugar in urine are signs of high blood sugar.
- Leukocytes or nitrite may be a sign of a bacterial infection.
If the test results are abnormal, you need to see a doctor. As with all tests, the results of rapid urine tests are not always reliable. For this reason, it might be a good idea to have a more detailed test done in a lab.
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Treated
You will need to treat a urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria and fight an infection. Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Your healthcare provider will pick a drug that best treats the particular bacteria thats causing your infection. Some commonly used antibiotics can include:
- Quinolones .
Its very important that you follow your healthcare providers directions for taking the medicine. Dont stop taking the antibiotic because your symptoms go away and you start feeling better. If the infection is not treated completely with the full course of antibiotics, it can return.
If you have a history of frequent urinary tract infections, you may be given a prescription for antibiotics that you would take at the first onset of symptoms. Other patients may be given antibiotics to take every day, every other day, or after sexual intercourse to prevent the infection. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment option for you if you have a history of frequent UTIs.
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