What Is The Difference Between Non
All bladder cancer can be described into two categories such as:
- Non-invasive These cancer cells lies are found in the inner layer cells. However, this type of cancer never affects the deeper layers of your body.
- Invasive These types grow into the innermost parts of the bladder. These cancer cells become tougher during treatment and spread fast to your entire body.
Immunophenotyping: Importance In Diagnosis And Utility Of Novel Markers
Histomorphologically, bladder SmCC resembles its counterparts elsewhere in the body . Unlike SmCC of most other organs, however, the sensitivity of conventional neuroendocrine markers, such as, synaptophysin, CGA, neuron-specific enolase , CD56, and the like, has been relatively low in bladder SmCC cases. Therefore, the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria allow for the diagnosis of bladder SmCC to be made on morphologic grounds alone. The quest for sensitive and specific immunohistochemical markers for bladder SmCC remains of interest. The following subsections present detailed discussions on each of these markers of relevance.
Clinical Characteristics Treatment Strategy And Outcomes Of Primary Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Of The Bladder: A Case Report And Systematic Review Of The Literature
- 1Department of Urology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
- 2Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
Purpose: The aim of this study was to review the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder .
Patients and Methods: We report one patient diagnosed with primary pure LCNEC of the bladder in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review, in April 2020, on case report and case series of LCNEC of the bladder. The clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments and outcomes of this rare disease were analyzed.
Results: A total of 39 patients were included in our analysis . Most patients were male. The average age at the surgery for the patients is 61.5 years . The most common symptom was hematuria . Almost all patients underwent surgery, with 26 receiving multimodality therapy. Out of 24 patients with available data, regional or distant recurrences developed in 14 patients . The median overall survival of the patients was 11.5 months, with 1- and 3-year survival rates of 54.0 and 21.4%, respectively. In the survival analysis, theT12 tumors , no distant metastases at diagnosis , and multimodality therapy were associated with better overall survival .
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Tests That Examine The Bladder Are Used To Diagnose Bladder Cancer
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patients health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
- CT scan : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the pelvis, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs, such as the pelvis, and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
- Cystoscopy: A procedure to look inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormal areas. A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A cystoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. If a cystoscopy is not done at diagnosis, tissue samples are removed and checked for cancer during surgery to remove all or part of the bladder.
Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer
When people in the UK talkabout bladder cancer they areusually referring to transitional cell bladder cancer . This type of bladder cancer develops from thecells of the bladder lining – these are called transitionalcells. This is by far the most common formof bladder cancer in the UK accounting for more than 90% of all new bladder cancers diagnosed.
The information on treatment options and prognosisof bladder cancer elsewhere on this website, and indeed in most books or othersources, refers to treatment and prognosis of transitional cell cancer of thebladder. There is information about someof the rarer types of bladder cancer further down this page.
Transitional cell bladder cancers are not all the same.
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Treatment Of Recurrent Childhood Bladder Cancer
For more information about the treatment listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Treatment of recurrentbladder cancer in children may include the following:
- A clinical trial that checks a sample of the patient’s tumor for certain gene changes. The type of targeted therapy that will be given to the patient depends on the type of gene change.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
Immunostaining Immunoblotting And Antibodies
Immunostaining and immunoblotting were performed following methods that were previously described in detail . Antibodies targeting c-Myc , p-AKT , BCL2 , P53 , RB , Ki67 , cleaved caspase 3 , GAPDH , SYP , NCAM1/CD56 , and CHGA , KIAA1324 , SEZ6 , CHRNA3 and CACNA1A were used for immunostaining and immunoblotting.
For IHC, anti-mouse/rabbit biotinylated secondary antibodies were used to detect primary antibodies. ImmPACT DAB was used to visualize the staining.
For IF, Alexa 488 conjugated goat anti-mouse secondary antibody or Alexa 594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody were used to detect primary antibodies and to visualize the staining. A fluorescent microscope was used to capture the image and pseudo color were assigned using ImageJ. Brightness and contrast were adjusted using ImageJ to increase staining signal and reduce background. All pictures with the same staining were adjusted using the same parameters.
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There Are Two Main Types Of Small Cell Lung Cancer
These two types include many different types ofcells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. The types of small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look when viewed under a microscope:
- Small cell carcinoma .
- Combined small cell carcinoma.
Tissue Processing And Histology
Tumor tissues were prefixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for overnight at 4 Â°C, then moved into 70% ethanol for no less than 30 min. Tissues were then processed at the Translational Pathology Core Laboratory , a College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified research facility in the UCLA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and a UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Shared Facility. Paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned into 4-Âµm sections and H& E staining was performed for every 5 sections. The histology was evaluated by experienced pathologists at UCLA.
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Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer
Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.
This early stage of bladder cancer is most often treated with transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical therapy within 24 hours.
Bladder Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Bladder
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.
The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell cancer. Squamous cell and other more aggressive types of bladder cancer are less common.
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Other Differential Diagnostic Markers
Uroplakin is a group of transmembrane proteins that are widely regarded as urothelium-specific markers of terminal urothelial cytodifferentiation. Urothelia at different anatomic sites differ in their embryonic origin and cellular differentiation, as reflected in their different uroplakin content. Subsequent to malignant transformation, the tight differentiation-restricted expression of uroplakin in normal urothelium may be lost. Therefore, this marker exhibits variable positivity in bladder UC cases. Given its high specificity to urothelia, not surprisingly, uroplakin was found to be negative in all 44 bladder SmCC cases examined in a case series.
CD44v6 is a splice variant of CD44, a group of transmembrane glycoproteins expressed in a large variety of mammalian cell types, which mediates cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. CD44v6 confers metastatic potential and has been associated with aggressive behavior in certain malignancies. It was positive in 57% of the cases of moderately or poorly differentiated bladder UC. In contrast, weak CD44v6 expression was found in only 6.8% of bladder SmCC cases.
Children And Adolescents With Bladder Cancer Should Have Their Treatment Planned By A Team Of Doctors Who Are Experts In Treating Childhood Cancer
Treatment will be overseen by a pediatric oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating children with cancer. The pediatric oncologist works with other pediatric health professionals who are experts in treating children with cancer and who specialize in certain areas of medicine. This may include the following specialists and others:
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Signs And Symptoms Of Small Cell Lung Cancer Include Coughing And Shortness Of Breath
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by small cell lung cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- Chest discomfort or pain.
- A cough that doesnt go away or gets worse over time.
- Trouble breathing.
- Blood in sputum .
- Weight loss for no known reason.
- Feeling very tired.
- Swelling in the face and/or veins in the neck.
What Is Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells develop, they can form a tumor and, with time, spread to other parts of the body.
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. It has flexible, muscular walls that can stretch to hold urine and squeeze to send it out of the body. The bladder’s main job is to store urine. Urine is liquid waste made by the 2 kidneys and then carried to the bladder through 2 tubes called ureters. When you urinate, the muscles in the bladder contract, and urine is forced out of the bladder through a tube called the urethra.
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How Fast Does Bladder Cancer Grow
The bladder is an important organ in the human body and it lies in the lower pelvis area. The main functionality of the bladder is urine which is a waste produced in both the kidneys. This urine is carried from the bladder to the ureter, and then to the urethra.
The bladder is comprised of flexible, muscular walls and it stretches, squeezes for removing toxins from the body. Bladder cancer occurs when a few cells start developing abnormally and without any control.
During the development process, these cells take the shape of a tumor along spread to other body parts.
Review: Brain Metastases In Bladder Cancer
Article type: Review Article
Authors: Brenneman, Randall J.a | Gay, Hiram A.a | Christodouleas, John P.b | Sargos, Paulc | Arora, Vivekd | Fischer-Valuck, Benjamine | Huang, Jiayia | Knoche, Ericd | Pachynski, Russelld | Picus, Joeld | Reimers, Melissad | Roth, Bruced | Michalski, Jeff M.a | Baumann, Brian C.a b *
Affiliations: Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada | Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Correspondence: Correspondence to: Dr. Brian Baumann, Assistant Professor, Chief of Genitourinary Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Tel.: +1 314 747 7236 Fax: +1 314 362 7769 E-mail: .
Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma, urinary bladder neoplasms, radiotherapy, neoplasm metastasis, immune checkpoint blockade
Journal: Bladder Cancer, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 237-248, 2020
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Transcriptional Profiling Of Urothelial Cancer Samples
RNA was extracted from FFPE human urothelial cancer tissue using the Ambion RecoverAll kit . RNA from cultured cells was extracted using Qiagen miRNeasy kit . Libraries were prepared using the Human FFPE RNA-seq kit according to the manufactureâs protocol. Libraries were pooled and sequenced at 150-bp paired-end using an Illumina HiSeq 3000. Raw RNA-seq files were mapped to the hg38 human genome using the TOIL pipeline , and transcripts were quantified using RNA-seq by expectation-maximization . Differential expression analysis was performed using DESeq2 . Differential gene expression in SCCB and non-SCCB samples was identified by a P value cutoff of P< 0.05.
New Types Of Treatment Are Being Tested In Clinical Trials
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.
Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells. Targeted therapies usually cause less harm to normal cells than chemotherapy and radiation therapy do.
Targeted therapy is being studied for the treatment of childhood bladder cancer that has recurred .
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Epithelial Cell Transformation And Organoid Culturing
The epithelial cell transformation and organoid method have been described in detail previously . EPCAM+/CD49f high and EPCAM+/CD49f low primary urothelial cells, or primary bladder epithelial cells isolated from donors without urinary tract-related disease were infected with lentivirus containing the PARCB factors and then mixed with Matrigel to set up organoid culture. The organoids were cultured with bladder epithelial cell medium for 2 wk. Then, organoids were harvested by digesting with 1 mg/mL Dispase for 2 h. The organoids were washed 3 times with PBS to remove Dispase and resuspended in 30 ÂµL Matrigel. The organoidâMatrigel mixture was implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NSG mice using a 27-gauge syringe. Xenografts were harvested 12 wk after implantation or when they reached 1-cm diameter, whichever came first.
Limited Stage Small Cell Bladder Cancer: Outcomes Of A Contemporary Cohort
Article type: Research Article
Authors: Grigg, Claud M. * | Boselli, Danielle | Livasy, Chad | Symanowski, James | McHaffie, Derek R. | Riggs, Stephen | Clark, Peter E. | Beano, Hamza | Raghavan, Derek | Burgess, Earle F.
Affiliations: Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA
Correspondence: Correspondence to: Claud M. Grigg, MD, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, 1021, Morehead Medical Drive, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA. Tel.: +1 9804429600 Fax: +1 9804429707 E-mail: .
Keywords: Bladder cancer, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, cystectomy, small cell carcinoma
Journal: Bladder Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 83-90, 2020
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