Monday, January 30, 2023

Bladder Cancer New Treatment Options

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Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of Cancer

New treatments for bladder cancer patients

Cancer and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the cancer.

Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after an advanced cancer diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the cancer often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.

Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Learn more about the importance of tracking side effects in another part of this guide. Learn more about palliative care in a separate section of this website.

Treatment Of Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body may include the following:

Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver, may include the following:

  • External radiation therapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • Urinary diversion or cystectomy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • A clinical trial of new anticancer drugs.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer

Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.

This early stage of bladder cancer is most often treated with transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical therapy within 24 hours.

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New Bladder Cancer Treatments Approved By Fda

We have some exciting news to announce! Thanks to the participation of Saint Johns Cancer Institute and our proactive approach to offering new treatments through novel clinical trials, TWO new bladder cancer drugs have been approved by the FDA. We are very proud to be part of this wonderful advancement.

Certain Factors Affect Prognosis And Treatment Options

EAU 2020: Different Bladder Cancer Genotypes: New Treatment Options ...

The prognosis depends on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer . Bladder cancer in the early stages can often be cured.
  • The type of bladder cancer cells and how they look under a microscope.
  • Whether there is carcinoma in situ in other parts of the bladder.
  • The patients age and general health.

If the cancer is superficial, prognosis also depends on the following:

  • How many tumors there are.
  • The size of the tumors.
  • Whether the tumor has recurred after treatment.

Treatment options depend on the stage of bladder cancer.

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Combination Of Radiation Therapy With Immunotherapy

Radiation therapy has evolved over the past several decades as a powerful way to treat cancer . However, it has some limitations as it alone cannot generate a systemic effect. Integration of RT with the immunotherapies has been a subject of intense research recently. The rationale behind the combination was initially derived from abscopal effect observations. It is a phenomenon whereby radiation at one site leads to the regression of metastatic cancer at a distant site that has not been exposed to any radiation . Advances in immunology have progressed our understanding of the phenomena, and while the mechanism is still not entirely elaborated, the explanation for combining immunotherapy and radiation to increase the frequency of the abscopal effect is irradiation activated cytotoxic T cells to target tumor-associated antigens within human bodies, thereby overcoming the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, radiotherapy might increase the response rate of combination by stimulating the accumulation and activation of CD8 + T cells to create a more permissive tumor microenvironment.

Figure 1 The combined use of CTLA-4 and PD-1 inhibitors promotes anti-cancer immune cells to enter the surrounding of the tumor tissue and activates immune response. The treatment of PARP inhibitors leads to PD-L1 upregulation in tumor cells. Combining PARP inhibitors with immunosuppressants blocks tumor immune escape .

About The Clinical Trials

A Study of Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Compared to Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Plus MEDI4736 Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer Which Has Spread to the Lymph Nodes is now open at the UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center. Read more about this clinical trial .

A Study of Enfortumab Vedotin Alone or With Other Therapies for Treatment of Urothelial Cancer is now open at the UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center. Read more about this clinical trial .

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Treatment Of Recurrent Bladder Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of recurrentbladder cancer depends on previous treatmentand where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer mayinclude the following:

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

Combination Of Ido1 With Immunotherapy

LATEST TREATMENT OPTIONS in Superficial Bladder Cancer – Dr. Girish Nelivigi | Doctors’ Circle

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 enzyme is involved in the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan and plays an important role in immune evasion and tumor growth through production of kynurenine. The IDO1 enzyme is activated in many human cancers including NMIBC . Recent data indicate that IDO1 gene expression characterizes a poorly differentiated, more aggressive NMIBC, with IDO1 gene expression in tumor tissues directly correlating with tumor size =0.24, p=0.04) and stage . Moreover, there was a trend toward longer OS in patients with tumors that did not express IDO1. IDO inhibitors such as BMS-986205, epacadostat, indoximod, navoximod, and HTl-1090 are in various stages of clinical development in several cancers. There is evidence supporting an interrelationship between the PD-1/PD-L1 and IDO1 axes, with IDO functional activity linked with increased PD-L1 positive cytotoxic T-cells and increased CTLA4 expression by regulatory T cells . Therefore, it has been proposed that parallel inhibition of these pathways may lead to a more effective activation of T cell mediated antitumor immune response.

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Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence

A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.

A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place , nearby , or in another place .

If a recurrence happens, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about it. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options.

People with recurrent cancer sometimes experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with your health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.

Transurethral Resection Of The Bladder Cancer Tumor

This is when the tumor is removed from the urinary tract through the urethra using an electrical force. Transurethral resection is an endoscopic or scope procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body.

Drug therapy after TUR is commonly prescribed for patients with large, multiple or high-grade tumors.

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New Drug Cuts The Risk Of Death In Bladder Cancer By 30% Compared With Chemotherapy Study Suggests

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A new type of drug that targets chemotherapy directly to cancer cells reduces the risk of death from the most common type of bladder cancer by 30%, a phase III trial in the New England Journal of Medicine has suggested.

Researchers at Queen Mary University of London and Barts Health NHS Trust set out to investigate the efficacy of an antibody-drug conjugate, enfortumab vedotin, in 608 adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer, who had previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor.

Globally, urothelial cancer accounts for around 549,000 new cases of bladder cancer and 200,000 deaths each year, and is generally treated with chemotherapy.

Unlike conventional chemotherapy treatments, which can damage healthy cells, antibody-drug conjugates are targeted medicines that deliver chemotherapy agents directly to the cancer cells.

In the study, half of the patients were randomly assigned to receive enfortumab vedotin and half to receive chemotherapy. The primary end point was overall survival and median follow-up was 11.1 months.

The researchers found that overall survival was longer in the enfortumab vedotin group than in the chemotherapy group .

Side effects were found to be manageable and similar to chemotherapy .

It reduced the death rate by 30% and beat chemotherapy in every setting, so this really is a big deal.

Pembrolizumab Immunotherapeutic Bladder Cancer First Line Treatment

Treatment Options for Cancer of the Bladder

On January 8, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration approved Pembrolizumab for the treatment of patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin -unresponsive, high-risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with carcinoma in situ with or without papillary tumors who are ineligible for or have elected not to undergo cystectomy.

Pembrolizumab is a FDA approved drug used to treat bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and melanoma.

According to the FDA, efficacy was investigated in KEYNOTE-057 (NCT, a multicenter, single-arm trial that enrolled 148 patients with high-risk NMIBC, 96 of whom had BCG-unresponsive CIS with or without papillary tumors. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxicity, persistent or recurrent high-risk NMIBC or progressive disease, or up to 24 months of therapy without disease progression.

Patients with bladder cancer now have more treatment options available. Read the full FDA Pembrolizumab approval announcement.

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Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

Locally advanced bladder cancer means your cancer has grown through the muscle layer of your bladder into the fat layer. Or it has spread to nearby lymph nodes. It hasnt spread to other parts of your body.

You usually have a combination of chemotherapy drugs.

You might have surgery or radiotherapy after your chemotherapy if your doctor thinks these treatments are suitable. Your team will talk to you before you start treatment and discuss whether they think this might be a possibility.

There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

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After Bladder Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Bladder Or To Other Parts Of The Body

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within thebladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

Urologic Cancer Care At Columbia

Treatment Options for Advanced and Metastatic Bladder Cancer

The Department of Urology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center was founded in 1917, making it one of the oldest and most accomplished homes of urology in the United States. We exist to provide you with unsurpassed excellence in care.

Our researchers are dedicated pioneers, focused on revolutionizing cancer therapy standardswhile making every effort to ensure that, no matter where you are on your cancer journey, you really can maintain your quality of life.

We’ve got your back. We’re in your corner. We’re your home team. We’re all in.

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Treating Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the pelvic or abdominal wall , may have spread to nearby lymph nodes , and/or have spread to distant parts of the body . Stage IV cancers are very hard to get rid of completely.

Chemotherapy is usually the first treatment if the cancer has not spread to distant parts of the body . The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options. If there are still signs of cancer in the bladder, chemo with or without radiation, changing to another kind of chemo, trying an immunotherapy drug, or cystectomy may be recommended.

Chemo is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body . After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done. If there are still signs of cancer, options might include chemo, radiation, both at the same time, or immunotherapy.

In most cases surgery cant remove all of the cancer, so treatment is usually aimed at slowing the cancers growth and spread to help people live longer and feel better. If surgery is a treatment option, it’s important to understand the goal of the operation whether it’s to try to cure the cancer, to help a person live longer, or to help prevent or relieve symptoms from the cancer.

Because treatment is unlikely to cure these cancers, many experts recommend taking part in a clinical trial.

Targeted Therapy For Bladder Cancer

Targeted therapy is a new type of therapy for patients with advanced cancer whose disease has progressed on chemotherapy and immunotherapy. One class of targeted therapies are antibody-drug conjugates , which can target and kill cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. ADCs are made up of 3 parts:4

  • Antibody, which is a type of protein that recognises and attaches to the antigen present on cancer cells.
  • Anti-cancer drug, which kills cancer cells once they are recognised.
  • Linker, a compound that connects the antibody to the anti-cancer drug

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Localised Invasive Bladder Cancer

Localised invasive bladder cancer means your cancer has grown into, but not through, the muscle layer of your bladder. It hasnt spread to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body.

Your doctor will offer you chemotherapy with a combination of drugs if its suitable for you. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy. You then have either:

  • surgery to remove your bladder
  • radiotherapy combined with drugs that make it work better

You might have chemotherapy after surgery if you didnt have it before and your doctor thinks there is a high risk of your cancer coming back.

Treatment Of Stages Ii And Iii Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer treatment options

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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If The Cancer Comes Back

If your cancer comes back after treatment your doctor calls this a recurrence or relapse. The treatment you have depends on:

  • where the cancer has come back
  • the treatment you had before
  • your general health and level of fitness
  • your wishes

Some common sites it may come back in are the lymph nodes, lungs, liver or bones.

Intravesical Therapy For Bladder Cancer

For people with early stages of bladder cancer, intravesical therapy may be an option. It is ineffective for later stages of bladder cancer because when medications are given directly into the bladder, they do not reach cancers that are embedded deeper into the bladder wall, nor those that have spread to other organs. Intravesical therapy is often utilized after a TURBT.

Intravesical therapy involves placing drugs directly into the bladder via a catheter. Your physician may choose to prescribe immunotherapy or chemotherapy.

The most commonly used immunotherapy drug for intravesical therapy is Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy or BCG therapy. According to the American Cancer Society, The bodys immune system cells are attracted to the bladder and activated by BCG, which in turn affects the bladder cancer cells. Treatment is usually started a few weeks after a TURBT and is given once a week for 6 weeks. Sometimes long-term maintenance BCG therapy is given.

The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for intravesical therapy are mitomycin, valrubicin, docetaxel, thiotepa, and gemcitabine. These medications kill cancer cells that are growing. When chemotherapy is given via intravesical therapy, it has fewer side effects as they are given locally instead of systemically.

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