Genetic Testing For Prostate Cancer
You may hear a lot about genetics or genomics. Both terms are related to genes and cell DNA, but they are different. These tests are being used to learn more about the DNA of cancer cells, and link DNA mutations with treatments. In the future, genetic testing may be the first step doctors take when diagnosing prostate cancer.
Bladder Cancer: What You Need To Know
Bladder Cancer is most common in men over the age of 60. There are two broad categories of bladder cancer based on what symptoms you may be experiencing, including:
- Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Approximately 70 percent of patients have non-muscle invasive cancer
- Muscle-Invasive And Advanced Bladder Cancer Between 20 percent and 25 percent of bladder cancer cases are muscle-invasive
We know processing this information and planning treatment can be difficult. Our doctors are here to help make you to feel at ease throughout the treatment process. Here are some things you can expect with the different treatment options. If the cancer has spread into the bladder wall or outside the bladder, treatment may include:
- Cystectomy With Urinary Diversion In men, the bladder and prostate are identified, dissected and removed. Surrounding lymph nodes are removed to assess the extent or spread of the cancer.
- Chemotherapy A systemic treatment in which drugs are given throughout the entire body. Its designed to kill cancer cells. Typically, it is administered intravenously .
- Radiation Therapy with Chemotherapy Radiation uses high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. The addition of systemic chemotherapy makes cancer cells more vulnerable to the killing effects of radiation. Radiation therapy is also used to relieve symptoms of advanced bladder.
The Symptom Overlap From An Enlarged Prostate And Prostate Cancer Are Nearly Identical As Far As Urine
Prostate cancer can masquerade as a benign enlarged prostate if the malignancy is still localized rather than spread.
First of all, the majority of patients who are diagnosed with prostate cancer have absolutely no symptoms, says Michael D. Lutz, MD, board certified urologist Partner at Michigan Institute of Urology President, MIU Mens Health Foundation.
The typical prostate cancer is diagnosed by the judicious use of the serum prostatic specific antigen blood test, continues Dr. Lutz.
Based upon this blood test result and a digital rectal examination, additional tests to confirm the diagnosis would be considered.
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Treatment For Bladder Cancer In Stage I
The following are some of the potential treatments for stage I bladder cancer:
- Resection is performed transurethrally with fulguration. The next thing that could happen is one of the following:
- Chemotherapy is administered intravenously immediately following a surgical procedure.
- Intravesical chemotherapy is administered immediately following surgical excision, followed by ongoing intravenous BCG or intrathecal chemotherapy treatment at regular intervals.
- Conduction of a new clinical trial
Diagnosis And Treatment Options
Diagnosing either cancer may involve imaging tests to investigate tissues and tissue biopsies to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, a doctor may perform tests for certain markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen or prostate-specific antigen , to help with the diagnosis.
Some treatment options for both cancers may also be similar, such as using chemotherapy or radiation therapy. In some cases, both cancer types may require surgery to remove sections of the prostate or colon that contain cancer.
While the two cancers do share common elements, there are distinct differences between them, including:
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Urinary Bladder Cancer Is On The Rise
Bladder Cancer is the fourth most common tumour in men, and the sixth most common in women. With around 21,400 new cases in men and 7,300 in women per year, urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Germany and numbers continue to grow. Incorporated in this figure are all neoplasia, including clearly invasive findings as well as in situ carcinomas and unclear changes. A typical symptom of a bladder tumour is painless macrohaematuria, defined as the presence of blood in the urine.
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on how far the cancer has penetrated and the degree of differentiation of the tumour. Treatment usually begins with transurethral resection of the tumour. Starting this treatment early can significantly improve recovery chances. In some cases, this treatment removes the tumour completely. This procedure is also used to determine the degree of malignancy and the depth of invasion.
We then recommend not only the instillation of chemotherapy agents, but also the use of electromotive drug administration , so that drugs such as Mitomycin M can penetrate deep into the tissue where it can take effect.
Initial studies show that results have significantly improved in terms of recurrence rates, for example, and this is encouraging for the further development of this type of treatment.
* Only available in Germany and Switzerland
How Can You Get Tested For Prostate Cancer And Prostatitis
Digital rectal exam . For both conditions, your doctor may perform this exam. Theyâll use a glove and lubricant to insert their finger into your rectum. Your doctor can examine your prostate this way. If they notice any abnormal features in the texture, shape, or size of your prostate, they might suggest more tests.
Blood tests. They also may do blood tests for either prostate cancer or prostatitis. These measure prostate specific antigen , a natural substance that your prostate makes. High levels might mean that you have prostatitis, prostate cancer, or benign prostatic hyperplasia .
If you are at risk for cancer, your health care provider may order a blood test to check your PSA level. But if you have a prostate infection, your PSA can be falsely raised. Because of this, doctors are careful about how they read your PSA test results
For prostatitis, your doctor will ask about your symptoms and do a physical exam on you to check for prostatitis. They may also do a few different tests. These might include:
Urinalysis. This test checks your pee for bacteria and UTIs.
Cystoscopy. A cystoscopy looks for other urinary tract issues. It canât diagnose prostatitis, but it can help find what other things may cause your symptoms. Your doctor will use a cystoscope to look inside your urethra and bladder.
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Presence Of Urine In The Blood
This is the most common early symptom of bladder cancer and is typically the first sign that a person notices that they may have bladder cancer. It is typically painless, and there may be several weeks or even months that pass between episodes, so it is easy for women to ignore it when it occurs. The fact that many women attribute this symptom to menstruation or menopause leads many of them to ignore it.
What Is Prostate Cancer
This diagram shows the location of the prostate, in front of the rectum and just below the bladder.
This diagram shows the location of the prostate, in front of the rectum and just below the bladder.
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Not including skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men.
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What Can You Do To Prevent Prostate Cancer
The high lifetime risks of prostate cancer development, the morbidities associated with treatment of established prostate cancer, and the inability to eradicate life-threatening metastatic prostate cancer offer compelling reasons for prostate cancer prevention.
However, because the cause of prostate cancer is uncertain, preventing prostate cancer may not be possible. Certain risk factors, such as age, race, sex, and family history, cannot be changed. Nevertheless, because diet and other lifestyle factors have been implicated as a potential cause, living a healthy lifestyle may afford some protection.
- Proper nutrition, such as limiting intake of foods high in animal fats and increasing the amount of fruits, vegetables, and grains, may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
- The following supplements should NOT be used to prevent prostate cancer:
- Vitamin E
5-alpha reductase Inhibitors :
Prostate Cancer Risk Groups
In addition to stage, doctors may use other prognostic factors to help plan the best treatment and predict how successful treatment will be. Examples of these include the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group categories and the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment risk score from University of California, San Francisco.
Information about the cancers stage and other prognostic factors will help the doctor recommend a specific treatment plan. The next section in this guide is Types of Treatment. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
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What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer
No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:
- Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
- Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
- Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
- Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
- Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
- Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.
Tests To Diagnose Prostate Cancer
These tests can confirm a prostate cancer diagnosis:
- Ultrasounduses sound waves to make pictures of your prostate gland.
- A biopsyremoves a sample of prostate tissue and checks it under a microscope for cancer.
Which treatments you get for BPH depend on the size of your prostate and how severe your symptoms are.
For mild to moderate symptoms, your doctor might prescribe one of these medicines:
- Alpha-blockers relax muscles in your bladder and prostate to help you urinate more easily. They include alfuzosin , doxazosin , and tamsulosin .
- 5-alpha reductase inhibitors shrink your prostate. They include dutasteride and finasteride .
Doctors use surgery to treat severe BPH symptoms:
Treatments for prostate cancer include:
- Active surveillance or watchful waiting: You dont get treated right away. Instead, your doctor watches your symptoms or does regular DRE and PSA tests to check for cancer growth.
- Surgery: A procedure called a radical prostatectomy removes the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation uses high-energy X-rays to destroy prostate cancer. Youre exposed to radiation from a machine outside your body. Or you can get it through small radioactive pellets or seeds placed inside your prostate.
- Cryotherapy: This treatment uses intense cold to destroy prostate tissue.
- Hormone therapy: You take medicine to block the male hormones that fuel the growth of prostate cancer.
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What Are The Treatment Options For Bladder Cancer
There are four types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. These include:
Sometimes, combinations of these treatments will be used.
Surgery is a common treatment option for bladder cancer. The type of surgery chosen will depend on the stage of the cancer.
- Transurethral resection of the bladder is used most often for early stage disease . It is done under general or spinal anesthesia. In this procedure, a special telescope called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The tumor is then trimmed away with the resectoscope, using a wire loop, and the raw surface of the bladder is then fulgurated .
- Partial cystectomy is the removal of a section of the bladder. At times, it is used for a single tumor that invades the bladder wall in only one region of the bladder. This type of surgery retains most of the bladder. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is often used in combination. Only a minority of patients will qualify for this bladder-sparing procedure.
- Radical cystectomy is complete removal of the bladder. It is used for more extensive cancers and those that have spread beyond the bladder .
This surgery is often done using a robot, which removes the bladder and any other surrounding organs. In men, this is the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, the ovaries, uterus and a portion of the vagina may be removed along with the bladder.
How Is Each Condition Diagnosed
Youll see a specialist called a urologist to diagnose BPH or prostate cancer. Doctors use many of the same tests to diagnose both of these conditions.
- Prostate-specific antigen test:This blood test detects PSA, a protein your prostate gland makes. When your prostate grows, it produces more of this protein. A high PSA level can only tell your doctor that your prostate has grown. It cant tell for sure that you have BPH or prostate cancer. Youll need more tests to confirm the diagnosis.
- Digital rectal exam : Your doctor will insert a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum. This test can show if your prostate is enlarged or abnormally shaped. Youll need more tests to find out if you have BPH or prostate cancer.
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Causes Of Bladder Infection
Blader infections, sometimes called cystitis or urinary tract infections , are when a germusually bacteriatakes up residence in the bladder. Bladder infections are the most common type of UTI, but UTIs can develop in any part of the urinary tract.
The infection causes inflammation and disrupts the normal working of the urinary tract. If left untreated, these infections can also spread to the kidneys, which is more dangerous and painful.
Bladder infections are caused by bacteria from other parts of the body entering the urinary tract. In females, this bacteria typically comes from the vagina or the bowel. In males, bladder infections are usually due to issues like enlarged prostate, which restrict normal urine flow.
The Basics Of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer occurs when the cells in the prostate, a male reproductive gland, begin to grow out of control and develop into cancerous cells.
The prostate gland is only found in males and is the gland that creates some of the fluid that is in semen. It is a walnut-sized gland located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The urethra the tube that carries urine and semen to the penis travels through the center of the prostate.
Nearly all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, which grow from the gland cells and grow slowly.
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Having Pain That Cannot Be Explained
Pain is a common symptom of bladder cancers that have advanced to a later stage. Pain might be felt in the flank region, in the abdomen, or in the pelvis. Patients who are suffering from cancer that has spread to their bones may also experience pain in their bones. Tell your doctor if you are experiencing aches and pains in those areas this is especially important if you have also noticed spotting or other symptoms of a UTI.
What Tests Will I Have If My Doctor Suspects Bladder Cancer Or Another Urinary Problem
After it has been established that you suffer from bladder cancer, your physician may advise you to undergo further examinations in order to ascertain whether or not the disease has progressed to your lymph nodes or to other parts of your body. Here are the possible tests that can be asked to be taken by your physician:
- CT scan
- X-ray of the chest
Your cancer will be given a stage based on the information that is gleaned from these procedures by your doctor. Roman numerals ranging from 0 to 4 describe the stages of bladder cancer, which can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. The earliest stages of bladder cancer suggest that the disease has not yet spread to the muscular wall of the bladder and is instead confined to the innermost layers of the bladder. The most advanced stage of cancer, known as stage 4, signifies that the disease has progressed to lymph nodes or organs located in other parts of the body.
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What Is Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
While the majority of bladder cancers arise in the bladder, the urothelial cells that line the bladder are found in other locations in the urinary system. Sometimes these urothelial cancers can occur in the lining of the kidney or in the ureter that connects the kidney to the bladder. This is known as upper tract urothelial cancer correspond to a subset of urothelial cancers that arise in the urothelial cells in the lining of the kidney or the ureter . Learn more about UTUC here.
When Prostate Cancer Symptoms Are Not Related To Voiding
Only when prostate cancer metastasizes to the bones and other organs do secondary and systemic symptoms of bone pain, weight loss and fatigue develop.
It is important to remember that the majority of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die with itnot from it.
Yet early detection and appropriate management will help to achieve the best outcome and quality of life for each individual.
If you are a man of African descent or have a family history of prostate cancer, you should discuss with your physician about the option of screening starting at age 40, explains Dr. Lutz.
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