Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer
Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.
After Bladder Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Bladder Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within thebladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
The Beginnings And Progression Of Bladder Cancer
There are several different layers that make up the wall of the bladder. There are several distinct types of cells that make up each layer:
The urothelium, also known as the transitional epithelium, is the layer of the bladder that is considered to be the site of origin for the vast majority of bladder malignancies. When cancer spreads into additional layers of the bladder wall or even through them, it has a higher stage, it is further along in its development, and it may be more difficult to treat.
Over the course of time, cancer may spread from the bladder into surrounding organs and skeletal systems. It is possible for it to spread to lymph nodes in the area, as well as to other parts of the body.
Read Also: Bladder Infection From Hot Tub
When Is Radiation Therapy Used
Radiation therapy can be used:
- As part of the treatment for some early-stage bladder cancers , after surgery that doesnt remove the whole bladder
- As the main treatment for people with earlier-stage cancers who cant have surgery or chemotherapy
- To try to avoid cystectomy
- As part of treatment for advanced bladder cancer
- To help prevent or treat symptoms caused by advanced bladder cancer
Radiation therapy is often given along with chemotherapy to help the radiation work better. This is called chemoradiation.
Coping With Bladder Problems During And After Treatment
During your treatment, you may have symptoms such as:
- passing urine more often
- rushing to the toilet to pass urine
- a burning sensation when you pass urine.
For most people, these symptoms last for a few days after treatment. Your urologist or specialist nurse can talk to you about things you can do to help. They will give you medication if needed.
Some people can have problems controlling their bladder during and for some time after treatment. This is called urinary incontinence. This can be a rare side effect of having lots of cystoscopies.
It is important that you talk to your doctor or nurse if this is a problem for you. They may refer you to a continence adviser or specialist physiotherapist who can give you advice. The Bladder and Bowel Community can also help.
- Visit our bladder cancer forum to talk with people who have been affected by bladder cancer, share your experience, and ask an expert your questions.
Also Check: High Grade Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Treatments After Or Instead Of Surgery
Sometimes, doctors will use a mix of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to avoid surgery to remove the bladder. It can be a good option if youâre not healthy enough for surgery. In this case, you will likely take the chemo drug cisplatin by itself, cisplatin and fluorouracil, or mitomycin with fluorouracil.
You may also get chemotherapy and radiation together after surgery if your cancer has grown into the muscle layer of the bladder but hasnât spread elsewhere.
If your cancer spreads after chemo, you can try other chemotherapy drugs or other types of medicine, like immunotherapy.
Cystoscopy With Cautery Destruction Of The Bladder Tumor
Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder.
Most modern cystoscopes are also equipped with channels that permit small instruments to be passed into the bladder. During a cystoscopy, your doctor may use these instruments to remove tissue, stop bleeding with a special electrical device called an electrocautery or even perform laser treatment. If the bladder cancer tumor is small enough, this cautery may be used to remove the cancer.
You May Like: Natural Ways To Control Overactive Bladder
Treatment Of The Initial Stage
The following are some potential treatments for cancers that have reached stage 0 :
- Resection can be performed transurethrally with fulguration. The next thing that could happen is one of the following:
- Chemotherapy is administered intravenously immediately following the surgical procedure.
- Intravesical chemotherapy is administered immediately following surgical excision, followed by ongoing intravenous BCG or intrathecal chemotherapy treatment at regular intervals.
- A cystectomy is just partial
- A comprehensive cystectomy
- Conduction of a new clinical trial
What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer
No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:
- Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
- Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
- Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
- Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
- Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
- Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.
Recommended Reading: Oxybutynin Dosage For Overactive Bladder
Treatment Of Stages Ii And Iii Bladder Cancer
For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
Sexuality And Bladder Cancer
Having bladder cancer and treatment can change the way you feel about yourself, other people, relationships and sex. These changes can be very upsetting and hard to talk about. Doctors and nurses are very understanding and can give you support. You can ask for a referral to a counsellor or therapist who specialises in body image, sex and relationships.
Don’t Miss: Shortness Of Breath And Loss Of Bladder Control
Have Foods With High Vitamin E To Cure Bladder Cancer
According to MayoClinic.com, high intake of vitamin E via the bladder cancer diet can reduce the further risk. This has been found in some researches although other studies did not conclude the same. The 2004 study revealed that alpha-tocopherol, a form of vitamin E can alleviate bladder cancer. Further, the theoretical belief is that bladder cancer treatment that involves surgery or chemotherapy can take away the nutrients making the patient weak and more susceptible.
Therefore, fruits and vegetables rich in vitamins such as berries, pears, apples, broccoli, cabbage, squash, wheat germ, spinach, kale, walnuts, olive oil, and collard greens are essential. Such items aid in stimulating a patients vitality to fight strongly against the condition. The Cancer Treatment Centers of America suggests taking nutritional supplements that include vitamins and beta carotene daily.
What Affects Survival
Your outlook depends on the stage of the cancer when it is diagnosed. This means whether the cancer is just in the bladder lining or whether it has spread into the muscle wall of the bladder or beyond.
The type of bladder cancer can affect your likely survival. And the grade of the cancer may also be important. Grade means how abnormal the cells look under the microscope.
Most bladder cancers are diagnosed when they are still only in the bladder lining. These are called early bladder cancers. The outlook for early bladder cancers depend on several factors, including:
- exactly how far the cancer cells have gone into the bladder lining
- the number of tumours
- how wide the tumours are
- how abnormal the cancer cells look under the microscope
- whether CIS is present
- whether this a recurrence and how often a tumour has recurred
Your doctor looks at all these factors. They use them to decide whether there is a low, medium or high risk of the cancer coming back or spreading into the muscle of the bladder. Your doctor will be able to tell you about your risk group and how this affects your outcome.
Don’t Miss: Reasons For Bladder Control Loss
What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of bladder cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you.
Bladder cancer is most often treated with:
Sometimes more than one type is used. The treatment plan thats best for you depends on:
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Whether the cancer has spread into the bladder wall
- The chance that a type of treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Other health problems you have
- Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it
Don’t Miss: Bladder And Prostate Cancer At The Same Time
Treatments For Bladder Cancer
If you have bladder cancer, your healthcare team will create a treatment plan just for you. It will be based on your health and specific information about the cancer. When deciding which treatments to offer for bladder cancer, your healthcare team will consider:
- other medical problems you have
- what you prefer or want
Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the bladder.
- Regional: The cancer has spread from the bladder to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
Don’t Miss: Bladder Infection Every Time I Have Intercourse
Other Treatments For Bladder Cancer
For many early-stage bladder cancers, BCG is the best option for treatment. Other treatments for bladder cancer include:
- Surgery to remove the tumor: Early cancers can be removed with TURBT surgery. More advanced cancers may require more extensive surgery, like removal of part or all of the bladder .
- Intravesical chemotherapy: This treats the inside of the bladder with chemotherapy drugs. Chemotherapy drugs commonly used for bladder cancer include Mutamycin , Gemzar , or Valstar .
- Radiation therapy
- Clinical trials
Bladder Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Bladder
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.
- Transitional cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in cells in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. These cells are able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when it is emptied. Most bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells. Transitional cell carcinoma can be low-grade or high-grade:
- Low-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment, but rarely spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder or to other parts of the body.
- High-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment and often spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder, to other parts of the body, and to lymph nodes. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease.
See the following PDQ summaries for more information:
Don’t Miss: How Effective Is Azo Bladder Control
How Is Bladder Cancer Diagnosed
The following tests and methods may be utilized in the diagnostic process for bladder cancer:
- Utilizing a scope to investigate the contents of your bladder from the inside . A cystoscope is a thin, long tube that is inserted into the urethra by your doctor in order to perform a cystoscopy on you. Your doctor will be able to examine your urethra and bladder for any indications of disease thanks to the lens on the cystoscope, which provides a view of the interior of these organs. Cystoscopy is a procedure that can be performed either in a doctors office or in a hospital setting.
- Removing a piece of tissue for the purpose of evaluating it . Your physician may take a cell sample for testing by inserting a specialized tool through the scope of the cystoscope and into your bladder while performing cystoscopy on you. The term Transurethral Resection Of Bladder tumor may also be used to refer to this technique . The treatment of bladder cancer by TURBT is also an option.
- Examining a urine sample . Urine cytology is a process that involves examining a sample of your urine under a microscope to look for any signs of cancer cells.
- Imaging testing: Your doctor will be able to check the anatomy of your urinary system by using imaging tests such as a Computerised Tomography urogram or a retrograde pyelogram.
How Long Will You Live If You Have Bladder Cancer
The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis and other health issues.
Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more. The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate. Factors that may affect survival rate include
Table. Five-year survival rates of different stages of bladder cancer
|Bladder cancer SEER stages||Five-year relative survival rate|
|In situ alone||96|
|All SEER stages combined||77|
The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.
- Localized: There is no indication that cancer has spread outside the bladder.
- Regional: Cancer has invaded the nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or bones.
Thus, bladder cancer, if detected in the early stage is treatable and has higher survival rates. However, if the cancer is detected in the advanced stages, treatment becomes difficult and the survival rate is low.
Read Also: Yoga Exercises For Bladder Control
Prognosis And Survival For Bladder Cancer
If you have bladder cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors best estimate of how cancer will affect someone and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type and stage and other features of the cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.
A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. A predictive factor influences how a cancer will respond to a certain treatment. Prognostic and predictive factors are often discussed together. They both play a part in deciding on a treatment plan and a prognosis.
The following are prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer.
Tests For Bladder Cancer
Your doctor may do some tests to check for bladder cancer:
- internal examination the doctor may check inside your bottom or vagina with their finger, using gloves
- urine tests your urine will be checked for signs of bladder cancer
- blood tests to check your general health
- ultrasound a scan on the outside of your abdomen to check for cancer
- cystoscopy the doctor puts a small camera into your bladder to see inside
- biopsy the doctor takes a small sample of the cells from the bladder to check for signs of cancer.
Your doctor might ask you to have further tests. These can include:
- CT scan and x-rays scans that take pictures of the inside of the body, sometimes also called a CT-IVP or a triple phase abdominal-pelvic CT scan
- MRI scan a scan that uses magnetism and radio waves to take pictures of the inside of the body
- bone scan a scan that uses dye to show changes in your bones
- FDG-PET scan a scan that uses an injection of liquid to show cancer cells.
Don’t Miss: Depend Adult Bladder Control Pads