Thursday, June 20, 2024

Bladder And Prostate Cancer At The Same Time

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Tests Used To Check The Prostate

Fixing Urinary Leakage After Prostate Cancer Surgery | Ask A Prostate Expert, Mark Scholz, MD

This first step lets your doctor hear and understand the “story” of your prostate concerns. You’ll be asked whether you have symptoms, how long you’ve had them, and how much they affect your lifestyle. Your personal medical history also includes any risk factors, pain, fever, or trouble passing urine. You may be asked to give a urine sample for testing.

What Is Prostate Cancer

Cancer can start any place in the body. Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland. It starts when cells in the prostate grow out of control.

Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells in the prostate can sometimes travel to the bones or other organs and grow there. When cancer cells do this, its called metastasis. To doctors, the cancer cells in the new place look just like the ones from the prostate.

Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when prostate cancer spreads to the bones , its still called prostate cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless it starts from cells in the bone.

Ask your doctor to use this picture to show you where your cancer is.

The prostate

The prostate is a gland found only in men, so only men can get prostate cancer.

The prostate is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum . The tube that carries pee goes through the prostate. The prostate makes some of the fluid that helps keep the sperm alive and healthy.

There are a few types of prostate cancer. Some are very rare. Most prostate cancers are a type called adenocarcinoma. This cancer starts from gland cells. Your doctor can tell you more about the type you have.

Penile Implant Surgical Considerations

The RALP presents a unique clinical situation for your surgeon who will insert your 3-piece penile implant. Your surgeon must consider the following when he inserts the penile implant:

First, the RALP procedure can cause damage and scarring to the corpora cavernosa of the penis. The corpora cavernosa are two cylinders that run the full length of the penis and they are responsible for the erection.

The penile implant procedure involves dilation of the corpora cavernosa prior to placement of the implant. Because the corpora are often scarred after the RALP, your surgeon has to take extra care not to perforate the corpora during the dilation step. Perforation of the corpora can lead to damage of the urethra and incorrect positioning of the implant device.

Second, the RALP procedure may cause scarring in the space surrounding the urinary bladder. Many implant surgeons place the implant reservoir in this space. Scarring of this space can make reservoir placement more difficult and more dangerous. Scarring of this space surrounding the bladder increases the risk of bladder injury, vascular injury, and bowel injury during reservoir placement.

Therefore, in patients who have undergone the RALP, it is better to place the reservoir in an alternate location in the abdominal wall beneath the rectus muscle. Placing the reservoir in this alternate location completely eliminates the risks associated with placing the reservoir near the urinary bladder.

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Bladder Incontinence In Women

Bladder incontinence is more common in women than in men. Other than the possible causes listed above, some things that may increase risk of bladder incontinence in women are:

  • Changes to urinary or vaginal tissue from hormone therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy
  • Hormonal changes from menopause
  • Pelvic prolapse – the bladder, uterus, and or rectum may slip backward or downward into the vaginal canal because of weak pelvic wall muscles
  • Pregnancy
  • Hysterectomy

Incontinence Caused By Cancer

Common Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

Oftentimes, male urinary incontinence can be either a short-term or long-term side effect of the treatment of cancer. Its important for males to recognize that a diagnosis of prostate cancer or bladder cancer can mean that urinary incontinence may interrupt their lives for a certain amount of time. However, knowing as much as you can about your condition and the type of incontinence you may have will help you and your doctor find the best way to manage it.

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Patients Can Enter Clinical Trials Before During Or After Starting Their Cancer Treatment

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about clinical trials supported by NCI can be found on NCIs clinical trials search webpage. Clinical trials supported by other organizations can be found on the website.

After Urethral Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Urethra Or To Other Parts Of The Body

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the urethra or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.

The following procedures may be used in the staging process:

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How Does The Robot

Sexual dysfunction following the RALP tends to be severe and difficult to treat. The RALP procedure can cause sexual dysfunction for the following several reasons:

  • The RALP can damage the cavernosal nerves that are vital to the erection.
  • The RALP can damage the blood supply to the penis.
  • The RALP can cause scarring of the corpora cavernosa. The corpora are two long cylinders that run the length of the penis and they play a critical role in the erection.
  • Scarring of the corpora cavernosa can also reduce the length of the penis
  • The RALP completely removes the prostate. This results in a dry ejaculate no fluid comes out during orgasm.
  • The RALP can produce urinary incontinence. Leakage of urine can decrease libido and interfere with overall sexual function.
  • The RALP procedure can produce climacteric the passage of urine during orgasm.

Why Do Prostate Cancer Treatments Cause Urinary Incontinence

Which is Better – Surgery vs. Radiation for Prostate Cancer?

It helps to know a bit about how the bladder holds urine. When urine is emptied into the bladder from the kidneys, it is stored inside the bladder until you have the urge to urinate. The bladder is a hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ. Urine flows out of the bladder, and leaves the body through a tube called the urethra. Urination happens when the muscles in the wall of the bladder contract, forcing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, muscles that surround the urethra relax and allow the flow of urine. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra. Because an enlarged prostate gland can obstruct the urethra, it can cause urination retention or other problems with urination.

Removing the prostate through surgery or destroying it through radiation can disrupt the way the bladder holds urine and can result in urine leakage. Radiation can decrease the capacity of the bladder and cause spasms that force urine out. Surgery can, at times, damage the nerves that help control bladder function.

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Benefits And Harms Of Screening

The benefit of screening is that the disease is often curable with early detection . Common treatments like surgery or radiation aim to remove or kill all cancerous cells in the prostate. If the cancer spreads beyond the prostate before it is treated, it is often fatal. However, the cancer usually grows so slowly that it is often equally safe to wait until there are symptoms before attempting to diagnose prostate cancer. Symptoms of prostate cancer might include urinary problems, difficulty having an erection, or blood in the urine or semen.

The harms of screening include 1) inaccurate results leading to unnecessary biopsies and complications, and 2) complications from unnecessary treatment. Even if a man has prostate cancer, if he does not have symptoms he may not need to be treated. Experts estimate that between 18% and 85% of prostate cancers detected by these screening tests would never become advanced enough to harm the patient. This wide range of uncertainty, however just adds to the confusion.

Unnecessary treatment costs a lot of money, but the main concern is the complications, which include serious and long-lasting problems, such as urinary incontinence and impotence.15

What Symptoms Do I Need To Watch Out For

MSCC can cause any of the following symptoms.

  • Pain or soreness in your lower, middle or upper back or neck. The pain might be severe or get worse over time. It might get worse when you cough, sneeze, lift or strain, go to the toilet, or lie down. It may wake you at night or stop you from sleeping.
  • A narrow band of pain around your chest or abdomen that can move towards your back, buttocks or legs.
  • Pain that moves down your arms or legs.
  • Weakness or loss of control of your arms or legs, or difficulty standing or walking. You might feel unsteady on your feet or feel as if your legs are giving way. Some people say they feel clumsy.
  • Numbness or tingling in your legs, arms, fingers, toes, buttocks, stomach area or chest that doesnt go away.
  • Problems controlling your bladder or bowel. You might not be able to empty your bladder or bowel, or you might have no control over emptying them.

These symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, but its still important to get medical advice straight away in case you do have MSCC.

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Testing For Prostate Cancer Metastasis

After your biopsy, additional tests or imaging may be performed to check for cancer spread, though these are not required in all men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer.

You may need additional tests if you have:

  • High PSA levels
  • Extensive prostate involvement on biopsy
  • High Gleason scores
  • Computed tomography scans of your abdomen and pelvis
  • Bone scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of your pelvis

Many centers, including SCCA, are testing other means of finding cancer spread using new types of positron emission tomography scans. Sometimes lymph nodes around the prostate may be checked for metastasis in order to design treatment appropriately.

At SCCA and University of Washington Medical Center, a long-term effort has identified cells in the bone marrow that originated from prostate cancer, even in the absence of other evidence of spread. With these and other studies being offered to men with advanced prostate cancer, we hope to find ways to identify men at the highest risk of relapse so this knowledge can inform our treatment recommendations.

What Should I Know Or Tell My Doctor Before A Colonoscopy

Ask a Doc: Prostate Cancer Screening

Be sure to tell your doctor exactly what medicines you take on a daily basis. This includes prescription and over-the-counter products like supplements. Your doctor can tell you which medications to avoid and what changes might be necessary. It is possible that you might have to reschedule your medications if you have diabetes or need blood thinners.

You will need a driver. Most facilities will not let you check in or perform the exam at all if you do not bring a responsible driver with you.

To have a successful colonoscopy, you will have to do your part. This means following all the instructions about what to eat and drink in the days before the procedure. It also means making sure that your colon is empty so your doctor can see clearly when the scope is inside the colon. This involves what is known as bowel preparation.

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Bladder And Bowel Incontinence

Incontinence is a loss of control of a person’s bowels or bladder which can cause accidental leakage of body fluids and waste. Incontinence can be more than a physical problem. It can disrupt your quality of life if its not managed well.

Fear, anxiety, and anger are common feelings for people dealing with incontinence. You may avoid being intimate or having sex because you are afraid of urine, gas, or stool leakage. Fear of having an accident may keep you from being physically active, enjoying hobbies, or spending extended time outside your home.

Both men and women can have incontinence during and after surgery or some other treatments for cancer. Incontinence can also occur because of other non-cancer medical conditions. Be sure to talk to your health care team if you have difficulty controlling urination or bowels. Talking about incontinence can be embarrassing, but being open and honest with your health care team can help manage it.

Prostatitis Vs Prostate Cancer Symptoms And Signs

  • Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland the four types are acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.
  • Prostate cancer develops when abnormal prostate gland cells multiply without control and may metastasize to other organs.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a noncancerous condition where normal prostate gland cells keep multiplying, thereby increasing the size of the prostate.
  • Prostatitis usually does not lead to death, but prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, even though it is a slow-moving disease.
  • Most men with early prostate cancer have no symptoms or signs symptoms and signs appear when the cancer becomes large enough to cause urinary blockage. Prostatitis, in contrast, usually appears with symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency and/or pain with urination and possibly, some type of sexual dysfunction.
  • Prostate cancer, when it produces signs and symptoms, may produce one or more of the following symptoms or signs that may also be seen in patients with prostatitis or BPH:
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Other prostatic cancer symptoms and signs that may be shared less frequently with prostatitis and/or BPH are the following:
  • Fever
  • Chills
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    What Are The Treatments For This Type Of Tumor

    The treatments for prostatic carcinoma are aimed at reducing the tumors size and the tendency for metastasis. Surgery may be considered as a palliative measure, though removal of the entire prostate or tumor is not typically successful without damage to the urethra. In pets with significant obstruction of the urethra, a surgical stent may be placed to allow for urination.

    Treatments less invasive than surgery, such as radiation therapy, may be pursued. Targeted radiation therapy to the region of the prostate and affected lymph nodes or bone may be possible. Palliative radiation therapy may provide short-term relief for urinary obstruction.

    The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories such as piroxicam or carprofen, however, have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    The role of chemotherapy is not well understood. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories , such as piroxicam or carprofen, have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates may also be helpful. These drugs are typically recommended with metastasis to the pelvic bone or lumbar vertebrae. They may reduce the active breakdown of the bone and reduce pain.

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    Treatment Of Proximal Urethral Cancer

    Can I Get Bladder Cancer After Prostate Cancer?

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Treatment of proximal urethral cancer or urethral cancer that affects the entire urethra is different for men and women.

    For women, treatment may include the following:

    • Radiation therapy followed by surgery .

    For men, treatment may include the following:

    • Radiation therapy or radiation therapy and chemotherapy, followed by surgery .

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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    Treatment Of Metastatic Or Recurrent Urethral Cancer

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Treatment of urethral cancer that has metastasized is usually chemotherapy.

    Treatment of recurrent urethral cancer may include one or more of the following:

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series

    We are proud to announce a new podcast series geared toward helping give support, hope and guidance to prostate cancer caregivers. The goal of this Prostate Cancer Caregiver Podcast Series is to help others connect with a diverse group of people who have felt the impact of prostate cancer in their lives and empower them on their journey.

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    Simultaneous Insertion Of The Penile Implant And The Artificial Urinary Sphincter

    Patients who undergo the RALP procedure may suffer from ED and urinary incontinence. Placement of both the 3 penile implant and the artificial urinary sphincter can be performed at the same time in patients who suffer from ED and urinary incontinence. The success rate of the simultaneous procedure is high. The main disadvantage is that the risk of penile implant infection increases in the presence of the artificial urinary sphincter.

    Overall Effectiveness Of This Test For Finding Parasites

    Prostate Cancer

    To summarize and simplify, here is what this parasite test can find:

    • can sometimes find parasitic worms
    • can rarely find intestinal flukes
    • can not detect microscopic parasites

    So based on the above facts, this is an unreliable parasite test that I would not recommend.

    That being said, often times people get a colonoscopy to diagnose irritable bowel disease, so the discovery of parasites in the colon is incidental.

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