Monday, May 27, 2024

Prostate And Bladder Cancer Together

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Soreness In The Groin

Genetics and Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer and Bladder Cancer

When prostate cancer spreads, its common for cancer cells to go to your lymph nodes and then move to more areas of your body. The lymph nodes are a network of glands that help your body filter fluids and fight infections.

There are several lymph nodes in your groin. These are the ones closest to your prostate, so its common for the cancer to spread to them first. Cancer cells prevent your lymph nodes from draining fluid and working properly. When this happens, your lymph nodes swell. As a result, you might experience pain or soreness in the area.

Will Treatment Cause Erectile Dysfunction

When youre sexually excited, nerves cause tissues in your penis to relax, allowing blood to flow into the organ. The nerves that control erection are very delicate. Surgery or radiation for prostate cancer may damage them enough to cause ED. When you have ED, you cant get or keep an erection.

Radical prostatectomy is a surgery to remove the prostate gland. When your surgeon removes the gland, they may damage the nerves and blood vessels that run along it. If theyre damaged enough, you wont be able to get an erection following the procedure.

Today, doctors can do nerve-sparing surgery, which helps prevent permanent ED. Your surgeon can still touch those nerves and blood vessels, causing ED as a temporary side effect. Many men have trouble getting an erection for a few weeks, months, or even years after their procedure.

Radiation therapy also damages blood vessels and the nerves that control erection. Up to half of men who have radiation for prostate cancer experience ED afterward. In some men, this symptom will improve with time. Sometimes radiation side effects dont appear until a few months after the treatment. If ED starts late, it may not be as likely to go away.

A few treatments can help with ED until youre able to have erections on your own again.

Additional treatments include the following:

Genitourinary Cancer Care In The Western Suburbs

When youre facing prostate, kidney or bladder cancer, you and your family can take comfort in knowing that a specialized care team is close to home. The genitourinary cancer team at Northwestern Medicine Cancer Center Warrenville and the Northwestern Medicine Cancer Center Delnor provides access to leading-edge cancer treatments coupled with compassionate care. Your cancer treatment team may include:

  • Medical oncologist
  • Geneticist
  • Rehabilitation therapist

Your doctor and other care providers collaborate weekly in multidisciplinary cancer conferences that are specific to genitourinary cancer, bringing together expertise from a variety of disciplines to develop the best treatment plans for you.

We offer a comprehensive minimally invasive surgical program, including robotics-assisted surgery, available to qualified prostate cancer patients. Northwestern Medicine is the only health system in Illinois to offer the precision of proton therapy for prostate cancer at the Northwestern Medicine Proton Center* in Warrenville.

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High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

This is a fairly new treatment that uses high frequency ultrasound energy to heat and destroy cancer cells. This treatment involves a probe inserted into the rectum and close to the prostate, a direct ultrasound beam is then emitted up this probe and into the cancer. HIFU is currently being offered as a clinical trial to those with recurrent prostate cancer or for those where radiotherapy hasnt worked. Your hospital will be able to tell you if they offer this treatment.

Occupational Exposure To Chemicals

Future trends in Bladder Cancer treatment

Occupational exposure is the second most important risk factor for BC.Work-related cases accounted for 2025% of all BC cases in several series and it islikely to occur in occupations in which dyes, rubbers, textiles, paints, leathers, andchemicals are used . The risk of BC due to occupational exposureto carcinogenic aromatic amines is significantly greater after ten years or more ofexposure the mean latency period usually exceeds 30 years . Population-based studies established the occupationalattribution for BC in men to be 7.1%, while no such attribution was discernible for women.

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Permission To Use This Summary

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to write a sentence such as NCIs PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: .

The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:

PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Bladder Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .

Images in this summary are used with permission of the author, artist, and/or publisher for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 3,000 scientific images.

Imaging Oflymph Nodes In Mibc

Assessment of LN metastases based solely on size is limited by theinability of both CT and MRI to identify metastases in normal-sized or minimally-enlargednodes. The sensitivity for detection of LN metastases is low . Specificity isalso low because nodal enlargement may be due to benign disease. Overall, CT and MRI showsimilar results in the detection of LN metastases in a variety of primary pelvic tumours . Pelvic nodes > 8 mm and abdominal nodes > 10 mmin maximum short-axis diameter, detected by CT or MRI, should be regarded as pathologicallyenlarged .

Positron emission tomography combined with CT isincreasingly being used in clinical practice and its exact role continues to be evaluated.

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Find The Best Treatment For An Enlarged Prostate You Have Options

There are various treatment options available, depending on the severity of symptoms. The options range from medication to shrink the prostate, to removal of prostate tissue in surgery.

At any stage, or as a long-time solution, your doctor might recommend symptom relief with the use of a catheter. This is a good option as it empties the bladder completely every time. Resulting in that you wont have to go to the toilet in the middle of the night or have to worry about embarrassing leaks.

There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

Bladder and Prostate Cancer: Facts That Can Save A Life

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

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Treatment Of Recurrent Bladder Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of recurrentbladder cancer depends on previous treatmentand where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer mayinclude the following:

Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

How Do You Detect Kidney Cancer

Diagnosis begins with detailed family history and a complete physical examination. Part of the exam has us press on your abdomen to feel for any unusual solid masses. Urine is tested for blood and the presence of cancer cells. An X-ray of the kidney is taken, as well as ultrasound, CT scans, and an MRI. The point of these imaging tests is to determine the nature of the abnormality of the kidney and to see the extent of cancer. Chest X-rays and bone scans may be ordered to check for distant cancer sites.

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Summary Ofevidence And Guidelines For Metastatic Disease

Summary of evidence

In a first-line setting, performance status andthe presence or absence of visceral metastases are independent prognosticfactors for survival.

In a second-line setting, negative prognostic factorsare: liver metastasis, PS 1 and low haemoglobin .

Cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy canachieve median survival of up to 14 months, with long-term disease-free survival reported in ~15% of patients with nodal disease and good PS.

GC = gemcitabine plus cisplatin FGFR =fibroblast growth factor receptor HD-MVAC = high-dose intensity

methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin plus cisplatin.

Figure 7.2: Flow chart for the management of metastatic urothelialcancer*

*Treatment within clinical trials is highly encouraged.

BSC = best supportive care CR = complete response DD-MVAC = dose dense methotrexate vinblastine doxorubicin cisplatin EV = enfortumabvedotin FDA = US Food and Drug Administration FGFR = pan-fibroblast growth factorreceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor GFR = glomerular filtration rate IO =immunotherapy PR = partial response PS = performance status SD = stable disease.

What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk

Dr. Vishal Vig :: Uro

Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.

Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.

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Bladder And Urinary Troubles

A prostate tumor that has grown significantly in size may start to press on your bladder and urethra. The urethra is the passage the carries urine from your bladder out of your body. If the tumor is pressing on your urethra, you might have trouble passing urine.

One of the common areas for prostate cancer to spread to is the bladder, because the two organs are close. This can cause additional problems with urination and bladder function.

Some symptoms your bladder and urethra are being affected by cancer include:

  • urinating more frequently
  • getting up in the middle of the night to pee
  • having blood in your urine or semen
  • feeling like you have to urinate often and not actually passing anything

Its not as common, but prostate cancer can also spread to your bowel. The cancer first spreads to the rectum, which is the part of your bowel closest to the prostate gland.

Symptoms of cancer thats spread to the bowels include:

  • stomach pain

What Screening Tests Are Used For Bladder Cancer

It is not standard to screen for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer screening may be used in people who are considered high risk. If you have a history of bladder cancer, a history of a birth defect of the bladder, or have been exposed to certain chemicals at work, you may be considered high-risk. You should ask your provider if screening tests are right for you.

Testing the urine for blood, abnormal cells, and tumor markers can help find some bladder cancers early but the results vary. Not all bladder cancers are found, and some people may have changes in their urine but do not have bladder cancer. These tests can be used in those who already have signs of bladder cancer or if the cancer has returned. However, more research is needed to determine how useful testing the urine is as a screening test.

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Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence

A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.

A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.

If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place , nearby , or in another place .

When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options.

People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with the health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.

The Following Stages Are Used For Bladder Cancer:

THRIVING After Prostate and Bladder Cancer Surgery! [UroPlan]

Stage 0

In stage 0, abnormalcells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a and 0is, depending on the type of the tumor:

  • Stage 0a is also called noninvasive papillary carcinoma, which may look like long, thin growths growing from the lining of the bladder.
  • Stage 0is is also called carcinoma in situ, which is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed and spread to the layer of connective tissue next to the inner lining of the bladder.

Stage II

In stage II, cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue of the bladder.

Stage III

Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB.

  • In stage IIIA:
  • cancer has spread from the bladder to the layer of fat surrounding the bladder and may have spread to the reproductive organs and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or
  • cancer has spread from the bladder to one lymph node in the pelvis that is not near the common iliac arteries .

Stage IV

Stage IV is divided into stages IVA and IVB.

  • In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver.
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    Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials

    What about Clinical Trials?

    You may hear about clinical trials for your bladder cancer. Clinical trials are research studies that test if a new treatment or procedure is safe and effective.

    Through clinical trials, doctors find new ways to improve treatments and the quality of life for people with disease. Trials are available for all stages of cancer. The results of a clinical trial can make a major difference to patients and their families. Please visit our clinical trials research webpage to learn more.

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    Transitional Cell Carcinoma Is The Most Common Form Of Bladder Cancer

    Essentially, there are three types of bladder cancers, transitional cell carcinomas which begin in the layer of cells lining the bladder, squamous cell carcinomas which originate in one type of cell in the bladders lining, and adenocarcinomas that begin in glandular cells. Bladder cancers are further identified according to how theyve spread. If the cancer is only found within in the bladders lining, its characterized as superficial cancer, while carcinomas which have spread to the muscle wall are referred to as invasive. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer of the bladder and accounts for approximately 90% of bladder cancer cases.

    Its worth noting that 70% of transitional cell carcinoma cases are the superficial kind and, therefore, unlikely to metastasize. Unfortunately, the remaining 30% of TCC occurrences fall into the muscle invasive group, having invaded the bladders muscular wall and potentially other nearby organs. Prompt diagnosis is crucial as treatment options are determined by how deeply the carcinoma has invaded the bladder, whether or not its metastasized, and if so, to where.

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    How Does Bladder Cancer Spread

    Bladder cancer usually begins in the cells of the bladder lining. In some cases, it may spread into surrounding bladder muscle. If the cancer penetrates this muscle, it can spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymphatic system.

    If bladder cancer spreads to other parts of the body, such as other organs, it’s known as metastatic bladder cancer.

    How Does Kidney Cancer Appear

    Howâs your walnut, mate? Why men don

    Kidney cancer is the growth of malignant cells in one or both kidneys. The two kidneys, located deep in the body at about the middle of the back, control the fluid balance in the body and filter wastes out of the blood and into the urine. The renal pelvis is the site in the kidney where the urine pools. From there, it moves through a narrow conduit and empties into the bladder. There are three main types of kidney cancer: renal cell carcinoma , transitional cell cancer , and Wilms tumorwhich affects young children. Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 85% of all kidney cancers. Remember, only one kidney is necessary to support life. So if a kidney is cancerous and has to be removed, the other kidney takes over the function of the missing one.

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