I Have Brain Metastases How Do I Take Care Of Myself
Brain metastases can create a new set of medical conditions and issues when youre already dealing with cancer treatment:
- Depending on your brain tumors location, you may be at increased risk for seizures, which may affect your ability to work or drive. Your healthcare provider may prescribe medication to reduce your risk.
- You may need surgery to remove your brain tumor. If so, youll need support while you recover.
- You may need help managing side effects from different or additional cancer treatments. You may want to consider palliative care to help you manage your symptoms and treatment side effects.
- Your brain metastases diagnosis is another step in your cancer journey. Metastatic brain cancer treatment focuses on slowing cancers spread and helping you maintain your quality of life. This may be time for you to talk to your healthcare provider about next steps if your cancer cant be cured.
Treatment Interventions And Outcomes
RC patients were classified into two groups according to initial treatment modality. The RT group was composed of RC patients who received surgery and adjuvant external-beam RT, and the no RT group was composed of patients who received surgery alone. To avoid bias caused by different modalities of RT, patients who received brachytherapy or combination RT were excluded from our analysis.
The primary outcome of the present study was to investigate the risk of development of a SBC more than one year after treatment of RC. The SEER program avoids the inclusion of recurrent disease of RC according to the ICD-O-3 guidelines. The follow-up for SBC started at 1 year after the initial treatment of RC and ended at the date of all-cause death, diagnosis of SBC, or reaching 30 years follow-up, whichever occurred first.
The secondary outcome was to evaluate the 10-year overall survival and 10-year cancer specific survival of SBC. The definition of OS was the time from SBC diagnosis to the date of all-cause death, and the definition of CSS was the time from SBC diagnosis to the date of SBC-cause death. The survival analysis was performed by using case-control design, in which each SBC patient who received RT was compared with each SBC patient who did not received RT or with five patients diagnosed with only primary BC . The definition of OPBC was the patient diagnosed with only BC, without any other malignancies diagnosed during their lifetime.
Factors Influencing Survival Rates
The variability in survival rates highlights one key reality about stage 4 lung cancer: no two people have the same disease. Arguably more than any other stage of the disease, stage 4 lung cancer survival is influenced by multiple factors, some of which are fixed and others of which can be changed .
There are seven factors known to influence survival times in people with stage 4 NSCLC.
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Where Can I Find Support
It can be very difficult to deal with a diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer. Its natural to wonder if youre doing all you can to fight the cancer and how to handle guilt, intimacy with a partner, and concerns about masculinity. And finding and paying for the best care can, of course, be a challenge.
But emotional and practical support can help you move forward. An important thing to remember is that youre not alone. There are many kinds of help available, and the right cancer resources can make a world of difference.
Ask your doctor for resources you can contact, including social workers and support systems in your community. The Patient Navigator Program of the ACS can be reached at 1-800-227-2345 youll be connected to a patient navigator at a cancer treatment center who can help you with practical and emotional issues.
The Prostate Cancer Foundation has links to in-person and online support groups around the country, and the ACS lists nationwide support programs as well. The PCF also offers resources ranging from help with housing during cancer treatment to finding ways you can look good and feel better while living with cancer.
Advanced Prostate Cancer Symptoms
Men with advanced prostate cancer may experience additional symptoms. Thats because the cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.
A wide range of treatment options are available for managing advanced cancer. These treatments kill cancer cells, but they may also help patients manage pain.
Signs of metastatic prostate cancer may include:
- Swelling in legs or pelvic area
- Numbness or pain in the hips, legs or feet
- Bone pain that persists or leads to fractures
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Kidney Disease After Radiation Exposure
Radiation exposure on earth is usually at a very low dose. Diagnostic x-rays are essential for modern medical care and pose little or no radiation risk. High dose radiation is much less common than diagnostic x-ray, but it is also very useful, because it can cure cancer. But those high doses pose a risk of injury to the surrounding normal tissues, with both early and late side effects. Depending on dose and site of irradiation, these normal tissue side effects can include injury to the blood-forming bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, brain, heart, and kidneys. To these is added the delayed risk of radiation-induced cancer, but that is five years or more after exposure.
The typical doses for some common radiation exposures.
The range of doses in question is shown on the adjoining figure. Note that background radiation is more than that of a diagnostic chest x-ray. The added cancer risk becomes significant at single doses of 30 mSv, i.e. ten times those of yearly background exposure. Early gastrointestinal effects such as nausea or vomiting may occur after single exposures of 1000 mSv or more , and hematopoietic marrow suppression will occur after single doses of 3000 mSv or more.
Dr Eric P Cohen
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Where Can Breast Cancer Go
Breast cancer mostly spreads to the bones, lungs, liver, and brain. When it does, you may start to notice symptoms that affect that area of your body.
Bones: swelling, intense pain, bones that break easily, and pain in your bones, back, neck, or joints
Lungs: long-lasting cough, trouble breathing, chest pain
Liver: Jaundice, or skin with a yellow tint, rashes and itchy skin, not feeling hungry, stomach pain
Brain: headaches that wonât go away, problems with your vision, seizures, vomiting and nausea, memory troubles, feeling dizzy
Other, less common, places where breast cancer spreads include:
- Adrenal glands
Let your doctor know as soon as you can if you have any of these symptoms. They donât always mean your cancer has moved to another organ, but your doctor might want you to take some tests to make sure.
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Review: Brain Metastases In Bladder Cancer
Article type: Review Article
Authors: Brenneman, Randall J.a | Gay, Hiram A.a | Christodouleas, John P.b | Sargos, Paulc | Arora, Vivekd | Fischer-Valuck, Benjamine | Huang, Jiayia | Knoche, Ericd | Pachynski, Russelld | Picus, Joeld | Reimers, Melissad | Roth, Bruced | Michalski, Jeff M.a | Baumann, Brian C.ab*
Affiliations: Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada | Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA | Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Correspondence: Correspondence to: Dr. Brian Baumann, Assistant Professor, Chief of Genitourinary Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Tel.: +1 314 747 7236 Fax: +1 314 362 7769 E-mail: .
Keywords: Urothelial carcinoma, urinary bladder neoplasms, radiotherapy, neoplasm metastasis, immune checkpoint blockade
Journal: Bladder Cancer, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 237-248, 2020
Liver And Gallbladder Cancer
Malignancies confined to the liver are one of the most common forms of cancer. There are two basic types of the disease:primary liver cancer originates in the tissues of the liver itself, while metastatic liver cancer occurs when cancer cells spread from other parts of the body, most commonly from the stomach, pancreas, breast or lung. Ultimately, about a thirdof all cancers will spread to the liver.
Surgery usually provides the best chance for a cure, and our surgicalspecialists are among the best in the country. In some cases, however, tumorsdevelop internally within the liver and complete surgical removal is not possible.
The University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center offers a comprehensive Liver-Directed Therapies Program, providingthe most advanced treatments available from complete or partial surgicalremoval to systemic, combination therapies to regional, targeted treatment options to provide the very best outcomes possible for patients with all forms ofliver cancer.
Our multidisciplinary Liver-Directed Therapies Program team consists of expertsin medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology,interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, gastroenterology, hepatology andpathology. These specialists meet and consult weekly to develop the bestplan of treatment for each individual patient.
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Understanding The Spread: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma, also called kidney cancer, occurs when cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. Tubules are tiny tubes in your kidney that help filter waste products from your blood in order to make urine.
Smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hepatitis C all increase the risk of renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma becomes metastatic renal cell carcinoma when it spreads beyond your kidney to your lymph system, bones, or other organs.
Renal cell carcinoma can spread from a mass of cancer cells or tumor to other parts of your body. This process is called metastasis. It occurs in one of three ways:
- Cancer cells spread into the tissue around the tumor in your kidney.
- The cancer moves from your kidney into your lymph system, which has vessels throughout the body.
- Kidney cancer cells enter the bloodstream and are carried and deposited to another organ or location in your body.
When renal cell carcinoma is in its early stages, its unlikely that youll experience obvious symptoms. Noticeable symptoms are often a sign that the disease has metastasized.
Symptoms typically include:
A physical exam and a review of your medical history may prompt further testing to determine the health of your kidneys.
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Risk Factors For Kidney Cancer
There are some things that can make you more likely to develop kidney cancer. These are called risk factors and they include:
- smoking chemicals in cigarettes can cause kidney cancer. Around one in three cases of kidney cancer may be due to smoking
- obesity excess body fat may cause changes in certain hormones that can lead to kidney cancer
- high blood pressure
- kidney failure people with end-stage kidney disease
- family history people who have family members with kidney cancer, especially a sister or brother
- exposure to toxic substances at work the risk may be higher after regular exposure to some chemicals, such as some metal degreasers, arsenic or cadmium.
Having these risk factors doesnt mean you will develop kidney cancer. Often there is no clear reason for getting kidney cancer. If you are worried about your risk factors, ask your doctor for advice.
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What Are The 5
In 2020, approximately 17,980 deaths in the United States are predicted to be attributed to bladder cancer1. This represents the eighth most common cause of cancer deaths in men.
The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%, while the 10-year survival rate is 70% and the 15-year survival rate is 65%1. Notably, as each patient and cancer are different, it is not possible to definitely know the disease course for an individual patient.
Surgery For Bladder Cancer
Surgery is done for most bladder cancers. The type you have depends on the stage of the cancer.
Removing the tumor from the inside bladder is the most common surgery for early bladder cancer. This can be done during a cystoscopy. A a cystoscope with a looped wire on the end is used to remove the tumor.
When the cancer is more invasive, the cancer is removed along with part of the bladder or the entire bladder.
If only part of the bladder is removed, you’ll still be able to hold and release urine as normal, though in smaller amounts. If the entire bladder is removed, you’ll need another way to store and pass urine. Your doctor can explain the options for this.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have some risks and side effects. For instance, removing the bladder not only changes how your body passes urine, but it can also cause sexual side effects. If you have these or any other problems, let your doctors know. There are ways to help deal with many side effects.
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How Will I Know If My Breast Cancer Spreads
Your doctor will use specific kinds of tests to find out if your cancer has gone to other places in your body. First, your doctor will want to know how youâre feeling. They will ask you about any symptoms youâre having and your overall health. They might also look at the size of your tumor and check your lymph nodes.
After that, the doctor may give you:
Blood tests. They look for signs of anything abnormal thatâs happening in your body. For example, results from a liver function test can let your doctor know that breast cancer may have gone to your liver. High levels of some substances in your blood hint that the cancer has spread to your bones.
Imaging scans. These tests make detailed pictures of the inside of your body. They help your doctor pinpoint any cancer spread. These tests include:
- PET scan
- Bone scan
Biopsy. Your doctor removes a small amount of tissue from your body and looks at it under a microscope to see if there are any cancer cells in it.
What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you.
Bladder cancer is most often treated with:
Sometimes more than one type is used. The treatment plan thats best for you depends on:
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Whether the cancer has spread into the bladder wall
- The chance that a type of treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Other health problems you have
- Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it
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Resources For More Information
Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network
Offers education and support services, advances research, and raises awareness about bladder cancer. Has an extensive online resource library for bladder cancer patients.
American Bladder Cancer Society
The site is intended to offer help, hope, and support to anyone affected by bladder cancer. Bladder cancer information, resources, and a support forum are offered.
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Potential Long Noncoding Rna Biomarkers In Cancer And Other Diseases
lncRNAs play important regulatory roles in transcription, translation, chromatin modification, and cellular organization. Misregulation of lncRNAs is found associated with various human diseases. Though lncRNAs are only recently discovered, at least 321 experimentally verified lncRNAs associated with 221 various types of diseases, which are most related to cancer . The lncRNAs represent another group of potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Prostate cancer antigen 3 is a well-studied lncRNA and the most specific to prostate cancer as it is not expressed in other normal human tissues. PROGENSA PCA3 test is the first urine-based molecular diagnostic test approved by the Food and Drug Administration . The sensitivity and specificity of urine PCA3 expression for PCa diagnosis reach 62 and 75%, respectively, supporting PCA3 as a reasonable marker for prostate cancer diagnosis .
HOX transcript antisense RNA is another well-studied lncRNA. In cervical cancers, high serum levels of HOTAIR were significantly correlated with tumor recurrence and shorter overall survival .
Dong et al. found that the combination of CUDR, LSINCT-5, and PTENP1 provided the best diagnostic value in GC with an AUC of 0.92, a sensitivity of 74.1%, and a specificity of 100%. They were also sufficiently sensitive and specific for early GC detection and distinguishing benign peptic ulcers from GC .
For reference, more potential lncRNA biomarkers are listed in Table 18.3.
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Metastatic Lung Cancer Started Someplace Else
Primary tumors can spread from almost anywhere in the body to your lungs. But some types of cancer are more likely to grow in your lungs. These include:
- Cancer treatments youâve already had
- How you want to treat your cancer
Cancer that has spread to your lungs is also probably in your bloodstream. It could be in places that donât show up on imaging scans. Thatâs why doctors mostly use chemotherapy to treat metastatic lung cancer. It destroys cancerous cells everywhere in your body.
Surgery Is less common. Doctors use it if the tumors are only in a small part of the lung . It can also help when the primary cancer is colorectal cancer, bone cancer, or soft tissue sarcoma.
Other treatment options include:
- Hormonal therapy. This slows the growth of certain types of cancer cells and eases your symptoms.
- Targeted therapy. It uses medications that attach to proteins on cancer cells to stop or slow their growth.
- Immunotherapy. This uses your bodyâs immune system to destroy cancer cells.
- Ablation therapy. It destroys cancer cells or tumors with lasers or electrical currents.
- Radiation. High energy X-rays are used to destroy tumors.
- Thoracentesis. This uses a needle to remove fluid in the space between your lungs and chest wall.
- Oxygen therapy. It helps you breathe.
- Stents. They open up narrowed airways.