Medications That Can Cause Urinary Incontinence
Urinary , or the loss of bladder control, can be caused by various health conditions and physical changes, such as childbirth, changes in diet, infection, prostate issues, menopause, and neurological disorders. But there are also a number of medications can cause urinary incontinence in both men and women in a variety of different ways.
Diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide , furosemide , bumetanide , triamterene with hydrochlorothiazide
Increase urine production by the kidney
Frequent urination, overactive bladder, stress incontinence
Muscle relaxants and sedatives such as diazepam , chlordiazepoxide , lorazepam
Cause sedation or drowsiness relax the urethra
Frequent urination, stress incontinence, lack of concern or desire to use the toilet
Narcotics such as oxycodone , meperidine , morphine
Cause sedation or drowsiness relax the bladder, causing it to retain urine
Lack of concern or desire to use the toilet, difficulty in starting urinary stream, straining to void, voiding with a weak stream, leaking between urinations, frequency incontinence
Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine
Relax the bladder, causing it to retain urine
Alpha-adrenergic antagonists such as terazosin , doxazosin
Relax the muscle at the outlet of the bladder
Leaking when coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising, etc.
From , Harvard Health Publishing
Common Bladder Problems And When To Seek Help
Bladder problems can disrupt day-to-day life. When people have bladder problems, they may avoid social settings and have a harder time getting tasks done at home or at work. Common bladder problems include urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence, and urinary retention.
Some signs of a bladder problem may include:
- Inability to hold urine or leaking urine
- Needing to urinate more frequently or urgently
- Cloudy urine
- Pain or burning before, during, or after urinating
- Trouble starting or having a weak stream while urinating
- Trouble emptying the bladder
If you experience any of these symptoms, talk to your health care provider.
Treatment for bladder problems may include behavioral and lifestyle changes, exercises, medications, surgery, or a combination of these treatments and others. For more information on treatment and management of urinary incontinence, visit Urinary Incontinence in Older Adults.
Use The Right Absorbent Products
Coping with accidents is much easier if you use the right tools for the job.
Choices include panty liners, sanitary pads, absorbent adult briefs, and reusable garments with protective outer layers. Pads and panty liners might help if you have small, occasional leaks — but they may not always be enough.
Because the urine-holding capacity of each product can vary, you may have to try several products and brands before you find the right one for you.
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Male Urinary Incontinence Home Remedies
There are a number of home remedies and lifestyle adaptations that are known to assist with UI, as well as help to prevent it. They can either be tried on their own, such as for mild cases of UI, or combined with other medical treatments. However, a consultation with a urologist is recommended to evaluate each individual case. With expert medical assistance, these home remedies can be adopted in addition to receiving any other necessary treatments.
Medications That May Cause Incontinence
Some medicines can disrupt the normal process of storing and passing urine, or increase the amount of urine you produce. These include:
- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- hormone replacement therapy
Stopping these medications, if advised to do so by a doctor, may help resolve your incontinence.
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Tests Doctors Use To Diagnose Incontinence
Any procedure designed to provide information about a bladder problem can be called a urodynamic test. Most urodynamic testing focuses on the bladders ability to empty steadily and completely. It can also show whether the bladder is having abnormal contractions that cause leakage. The doctor will want to know whether their is difficulty starting a urine stream, how hard of a strain it is to maintain it, whether the stream is interrupted, and whether any urine is left in the bladder when done. The remaining urine is called the postvoid residual. Urodynamic tests can range from simple observation to precise measurement using sophisticated instruments.
Products To Help Manage Incontinence
Many people find the following products useful for dealing with incontinence symptoms:
- Pads and undergarments Absorbent, non-bulky pads and underwear are worn discreetly under clothing and are available in different sizes for both men and women. For those with mild or moderate leakage, panty liners are sometimes all that’s required.
- Patches and plugs Many women are able to manage light leakage from stress incontinence by using products that block the flow of urine, such as a small, disposable adhesive patch that fits over the urethral opening, a tampon-like urethral plug, or a vaginal insert called a pessary.
- Catheters For otherwise unmanageable incontinence, a physician can place a catheter in the urethra to continually drain the bladder. Due to a higher risk of developing infections and kidney stones, catheters are usually a last resort and used only for severely ill patients.
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Living With Bowel Incontinence
You can help manage bowel incontinence by following a bowel care plan and using the toilet before you leave home. You can also make sure you carry your medications, supplies, fecal deodorants, and a change of clothes with you.
Anal discomfort, itching, and irritation can be common. Here are some ways to help manage these symptoms:
- Wash the anal area after a bowel movement or use baby wipes.
- Use a moisture-barrier cream in the anal area.
- Use wick pads or disposable underwear.
- Change soiled underwear frequently to keep the anal area clean and dry.
Why Do I Pass Out When I Poop
But straining lowers the volume of blood returning to the heart, which decreases the amount of blood leaving it. Special pressure receptors in the blood vessels in the neck register the increased pressure from straining and trigger a slowing of the heart rate to decrease in blood pressure, leading people to faint.
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Pelvic Floor Muscle Training
Your pelvic floor muscles are the muscles you use to control the flow of urine as you urinate. They surround the bladder and urethra .
Weak or damaged pelvic floor muscles can cause urinary incontinence, so exercising these muscles is often recommended.
Your GP may refer you to a specialist to start a programme of pelvic floor muscle training.
Your specialist will assess whether you are able to squeeze your pelvic floor muscles and by how much. If you can contract your pelvic floor muscles, you will be given an individual exercise programme based on your assessment.
Your programme should include doing a minimum of eight muscle contractions at least three times a day and doing the recommended exercises for at least three months. If the exercises are helping after this time, you can keep on doing them.
Research suggests that women who complete pelvic floor muscle training experience fewer leaking episodes and report a better quality of life.
In men, some studies have shown that pelvic floor muscle training can reduce urinary incontinence particularly after surgery to remove the prostate gland.
For more information:
- Pelvic, Obstetric and Gynaecology Physiotherapy : The Pelvic Floor Mucles – a Guide for Women
There Are Different Types
If you experience incontinence when you sneeze, cough, or exercise, you may have stress incontinence, which is leakage from added pressure on the abdomen that pushes urine past the urethra.
If you stand up and are unable to hold off on emptying your bladder before you reach the bathroom, you may have urge incontinence, otherwise known as an overactive bladder.
Many women have a combination of stress and urge incontinence called mixed incontinence. And although less likely, some women experience overflow, a rare condition which causes frequent urinary leaks due to a constant full bladder.
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Medication For Stress Incontinence
If stress incontinence does not significantly improve, surgery for urinary incontinence will often be recommended as the next step.
However, if you are unsuitable for surgery or you want to avoid having an operation, you may benefit from a medication called duloxetine. This can help increase the muscle tone of the urethra, which should help keep it closed.
You will need to take duloxetine by mouth twice a day and will be assessed after two to four weeks to see if the medicine is beneficial or if it is causing any side effects.
Possible side effects of duloxetine can include:
Do not suddenly stop taking duloxetine as this can also cause unpleasant effects. Your GP will reduce your dose gradually.
Duloxetine is not suitable for everyone, however, so your GP will discuss any other medical conditions you have to determine if you can take it.
How I Manage Incontinence And Bladder Control
What many refer to sarcastically as adult diapers became, and to this day are, one of my best friends. I wear adult underwear any time I step foot out my front door, and if Im having a bad day in my house too. I dont want any mishap on my furniture, or when my family or friend are visiting. When you have end-stage COPD incontinence becomes a regular occurrence. Whenever I go out I not only wear protective underwear, I also carry an extra pair and some feminine wipes with me. I keep them in a small zippered bag, if I lose control and pee my pants, as soon as I can I go to a restroom, clean up, and Im good to go again. The best part is no one knows what has occurred but me, no embarrassment, no weird looks. I know a lot of people refuse to wear adult underwear, they feel there is a stigma attached. In their minds wearing adult underwear is undignified, unmanly or un-womanly. Dont become one of them, there are all types of products for dealing with incontinence.
Editors Note: We are extremely saddened to say that on March 2, 2018, Mary Ultes passed away. Mary was an engaged advocate for the COPD community who strived to help people live fulfilling lives. She is deeply missed.
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What Are The Treatments For Urinary Incontinence
Treatment depends on the type and cause of your UI. You may need a combination of treatments. Your provider may first suggest self-care treatments, including:
- Lifestyle changes to reduce leaks:
- Drinking the right amount of liquid at the right time
- Being physically active
- Staying at a healthy weigh
- Avoiding constipation
- Not smoking
If these treatments do not work, your provider may suggest other options such as:
- Medicines, which can be used to
- Relax the bladder muscles, to help prevent bladder spasms
- Block nerve signals that cause urinary frequency and urgency
- In men, shrink the prostate and improve urine flow
The Signs And Causes Of Fainting
Fainting occurs when ones blood pressure suddenly drops, resulting in a decrease of blood flow to the brain.
A number of things can affect blood pressure, from abrupt changes in posture , dehydration, and certain medications. Feeling faint can include dizziness, lightheadedness, and nausea. Ones field of vision may even black out. This loss of consciousness triggers a loss in muscle control. Thats what causes the person to fall to the ground.
One of the most common types of fainting is caused by a sort of crossed signal between the brain and the vagus nerve, a large nerve that runs from the brain to the stomach. When this nerve is overstimulated, a person may faint. In such cases, you can usually figure out the reason maybe you were standing for a long time, fainted at the sight of blood, or due to some kind of emotional distress, trauma, or pain.
Some people faint because theyve suddenly constricted their carotid artery by turning their head abruptly or wearing a too-tight collar. Straining to make a bowel movement or even urinating can sometimes cause fainting, too.
Fainting can also occur in people who have hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, most common among diabetics because of fluctuating insulin levels. Dehydration can also cause fainting, particularly in the elderly. Certain types of medications, including
diuretics, heart medications, psychiatric drugs, antihistamines, and narcotics, can also trigger a fainting episode, as can alcohol.
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Are There Other Ways To Treat Incontinence
Yes. Medicines or medical devices can treat some types of urinary incontinence. For example, estrogen cream to put in the vagina can be helpful for some women who have mild stress incontinence. Several prescription medicines are available to treat urge incontinence. For men, prescription medicine is available to shrink the prostate and improve flow of urine through the prostate. Talk to your doctor about possible medicine options for your type of incontinence.
In some cases, surgery may be an option. Treatment depends on what type of urinary incontinence you have and what is causing it.
There are two main types of urinary incontinence:
If you have this type, activities that raise the pressure inside your abdomen cause urine to leak through the ring of muscle in your bladder that normally holds it in. Coughing, sneezing, jumping and lifting heavy objects could lead to a leak.
Going through childbirth, smoking or being overweight can raise the risk of stress incontinence for women, Wright says. Stress incontinence in men is rare, and when it arises, its often due to prostate cancer treatment, such as radiation or surgery.
With this type, your brain, spinal cord and bladder dont work together properly to allow you to hold and release urine at the right time. Your bladder may suddenly empty itself without warning. Or you may feel like you need to urinate frequently, a problem called overactive bladder.
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Loss Of Bladder And Bowel Control
Bowel incontinence means you lose control over passing stool, whereas urinary incontinence refers to a condition that involves unwanted passage of urine. When you have bowel or bladder dysfunction, you are likely to experience other problems as well with voluntary urination and bowel movements. Not only can these problems cause pain and discomfort, they can be a source of embarrassment as well. While you may not feel comfortable with the idea of seeking medical help, you should not waste time and talk to your healthcare provider to find a treatment option to deal with loss of bladder or bowel control.
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Causes Of Overflow Incontinence
Overflow incontinence, also called chronic urinary retention, is often caused by a blockage or obstruction to your bladder. Your bladder may fill up as usual, but as it is obstructed you will not be able to empty it completely, even when you try.
At the same time, pressure from the urine that is still in your bladder builds up behind the obstruction, causing frequent leaks.
Your bladder can become obstructed as a result of:
- an enlarged prostate gland
- bladder stones
Overflow incontinence may also be caused by your detrusor muscle not fully contracting, which means that your bladder does not completely empty when you go to the toilet. As a result, the bladder becomes stretched. Your detrusor muscles may not fully contract if:
- there is damage to your nerves, for example as a result of surgery to part of your bowel or a spinal cord injury
- you are taking certain medications
What Can I Do To Prevent Bladder Problems After Birth
There are some simple steps you can take during pregnancy to help prevent incontinence.
- Drink 6 to 8 cups of fluid a day, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Avoid drinks containing sugar or caffeine, as these can irritate the bladder.
- Eat a high fibre diet with 2 pieces of fruit, 5 serves of vegetables and 5 serves of cereals/bread per day.
- Make sure you have a healthy weight.
- Stop smoking.
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