Monday, January 23, 2023

Bladder Cancer Metastasis To Lung Prognosis

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Side Effects Of Treatment For Bladder Cancer

Metastatic Bladder Cancer: Progression After Maintenance

All cancer treatments can have side effects. Your treatment team will discuss these with you before you start treatment. Talk to your doctor or nurse about any side effects you are experiencing. Some side effects can be upsetting and difficult, but there is help if you need it. Call Cancer Council or email to speak with a caring cancer nurse for support.

Where Can I Find Support

It can be very difficult to deal with a diagnosis of advanced prostate cancer. Its natural to wonder if youre doing all you can to fight the cancer and how to handle guilt, intimacy with a partner, and concerns about masculinity. And finding and paying for the best care can, of course, be a challenge.

But emotional and practical support can help you move forward. An important thing to remember is that youre not alone. There are many kinds of help available, and the right cancer resources can make a world of difference.

Ask your doctor for resources you can contact, including social workers and support systems in your community. The Patient Navigator Program of the ACS can be reached at 1-800-227-2345 youll be connected to a patient navigator at a cancer treatment center who can help you with practical and emotional issues.

The Prostate Cancer Foundation has links to in-person and online support groups around the country, and the ACS lists nationwide support programs as well. The PCF also offers resources ranging from help with housing during cancer treatment to finding ways you can look good and feel better while living with cancer.

Major Study Stops Bladder Cancer From Metastasizing To Lungs

Date:
University of Colorado Denver
Summary:
A new study shows that the protein versican aids bladder cancer metastasis to the lungs and that high levels of versican are associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer. The study also shows that versican signaling is reduced by adding RhoDGI2 or by blocking CCL2, leading to decreased bladder cancer metastasis to the lungs.

The diagnosis of localized bladder cancer carries an 80 percent five-year survival rate, but once the cancer spreads, the survival rate at even three years is only 20 percent. A major study recently published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation not only shows how bladder cancer metastasizes to the lungs but pinpoints a method for stopping this spread.

Specifically, the study shows that versican, a protein involved in cancer cell migration, is a driver of lung metastasis and that high levels of versican are associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer patients. The study is the first to show how that when a cancer cell makes the protein RhoGDI2, it reduces the cell’s production of versican, thus blocking the ability of the cancer cell to grow in the lungs.

When the first cancer cells to attach to, say, the lung, they have a tough time — they become distressed. Cancer cells express this distress in the form of versican. And the more versican they express, the more help they get, which arrives in the form of macrophages, a part of the body’s immune response that eat pathogens and other debris.

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The Role Of Surgery On The Primary Tumor Site In Bladder Cancer With Distant Metastasis: Significance Of Histology Type And Metastatic Pattern

Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Correspondence

Department of Urology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Correspondence

Department of Radiation Oncology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China

Correspondence

Department of Urology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

Correspondence

Funding information

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

What Is A 5

Recurrent Bladder Cancer with Bone Involvement and Lung Metastases ...

A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of bladder cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

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Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival

It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.

Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.

Questions For Your Team

Asking questions will help you understand more about your bladder cancer, the treatment and how you can improve your prognosis. We have pulled together the most important common questions that you might want to ask, and we also cover what the answers might be. We always suggest taking someone with you for these appointments to help remember everything that you are told.

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How Is Metastatic Bladder Cancer Treated

The way that metastatic bladder cancer is treated depends primarily on where the cancer has spread and the type of cells that make up the primary tumor. Its important to remember that when bladder cancer spreads, the secondary tumors are still considered to be bladder cancer not lung cancer, liver cancer or any other type of malignancy. Potential treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and clinical trials.

At Moffitt Cancer Center, weve treated many patients with metastatic bladder cancer, creating tailored treatment plans for every single one. To help ease the burdens of treatment, we also offer comprehensive supportive care services for patients and their caregivers.

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Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer

Understanding Bladder Cancer | The Basics of Metastatic Bladder Cancer

There are some things that can make you more likely to develop bladder cancer. These are called risk factors and they include:

  • smoking chemicals in cigarettes can cause bladder cancer, so if you smoke, your risk is up to three times that of a non-smoker
  • age most people with bladder cancer are over 60 years of age
  • family history a first degree relative with bladder cancer increases risk up to nearly 2 times higher than the general population
  • chemicals being in contact with certain chemicals for a long period of time, like aromatic amines, benzene products and aniline dyes, which have been linked to bladder cancer
  • frequent infections of the bladder over a long period of time
  • some types of radiation therapy around the pelvis, and the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide.

Having these risk factors doesnt mean you will develop bladder cancer. Often there is no clear reason for getting bladder cancer. If you are worried about your risk factors, ask your doctor for advice.

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Comparison Of Treatment Effect According To Histology Types And Metastatic Patterns

To investigate if there was an interaction between the two kinds of treatment including surgery and chemotherapy, we further analysed the effects of surgery and chemotherapy in different patient stratifications. For histological stratification, surgery alone can improve the prognosis of patients with TCPC and TCC, while chemotherapy alone can improve the prognosis of patients with TCPC, TCC and adenocarcinoma, and patients with TCC who had chemotherapy alone had a better survival than those with surgery alone . However, only a combination of surgery and chemotherapy could improve patient survival of SCC .

According to stratification by the number of metastatic sites, although both chemotherapy and surgery could improve the prognosis, the effect of chemotherapy was significantly better than surgery in patients with 1â2 sites of distant metastasis . For patients with 3â4 sites of distant metastasis, the effect of a combination of chemotherapy and surgery was significantly better than chemotherapy alone . In the terms of specific sites in patients with one site of distant metastasis, surgery alone and chemotherapy alone improved the prognosis of patients with bone, lung and liver metastasis, but patients with bone and lung metastasis treated by chemotherapy alone had a better prognosis than those with surgery alone . Nevertheless, patients with DL metastasis only benefited from a combination of chemotherapy and surgery .

What Are The Treatment Options For Bladder Cancer

There are four types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. These include:

  • Surgery

Sometimes, combinations of these treatments will be used.

Surgical options

Surgery is a common treatment option for bladder cancer. The type of surgery chosen will depend on the stage of the cancer.

  • Transurethral resection of the bladder is used most often for early stage disease . It is done under general or spinal anesthesia. In this procedure, a special telescope called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The tumor is then trimmed away with the resectoscope, using a wire loop, and the raw surface of the bladder is then fulgurated .
  • Partial cystectomy is the removal of a section of the bladder. At times, it is used for a single tumor that invades the bladder wall in only one region of the bladder. This type of surgery retains most of the bladder. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is often used in combination. Only a minority of patients will qualify for this bladder-sparing procedure.
  • Radical cystectomy is complete removal of the bladder. It is used for more extensive cancers and those that have spread beyond the bladder .

This surgery is often done using a robot, which removes the bladder and any other surrounding organs. In men, this is the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, the ovaries, uterus and a portion of the vagina may be removed along with the bladder.

Chemotherapy

  • Methotrexate

Intravesical therapy

Radiation therapy

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Lymph Node Evaluation On Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI of the of the abdomen and pelvis is an alternative, but less commonly utilized, modality for evaluating lymph nodes in patients with suspected or known bladder cancer . When consideration is made as to whether or not to obtain an MRI, the potential benefits of multiparametric assessment of nodal characteristics, should be weighed against a number of potential contraindications, including the patientâs ability to lie still for a prolonged period of time, claustrophobia, the presence of regional orthopedic hardware, and potential MR incompatibility of any implantable medical devices that the patient may have .

The role of MRI in assessment of nodal involvement is an area of active investigation . Similar to CT, metastatic lymph nodes are conventionally identified when short axis diameter lymph node exceeds 8â10 mm however, assessment of nodal size by MRI suffers from the same limitations as CT, in that normal sized lymph nodes may still harbor metastatic disease .

Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9

Intrahepatic Chemotherapy And Chemoembolisation

Recurrent Bladder Cancer with Bone Involvement and Lung Metastases ...

Intrahepatic chemotherapy and chemoembolisation involve giving chemotherapy directly into the liver. This is done through a thin tube, called a catheter, into the main blood supply to the liver.

Giving chemotherapy directly into the liver means a higher concentration of the drug can be delivered to the area of cancer.

In chemoembolisation, the chemotherapy is delivered along with an oily liquid or foam which blocks the blood supply to the cancer. The cancer is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, and the chemotherapy stays in the area for longer. The liver continues to be supplied with blood in the normal way.

These treatments may not be routinely available on the NHS but may be offered as part of a clinical trial.

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Treating Metastatic Bladder Cancer

Treatment for metastatic bladder cancer is different for each person, depending on your specific situation. Your doctor and care team will discuss different options with you, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each type of treatment option.

The goals of most types of treatment are to slow down how fast the cancer cells are growing and to shrink the tumor as much as possible. Other important goals of treatment are to help people with bladder cancer live as long as possible and to make sure they have the best possible quality of life. Palliative care can also help relieve symptoms and treatment side effects.4

Os Analysis Classified By Specific Organ For Patients With One Site Metastasis After Psm

For patients with bone metastasis only, histology type, surgery, LNs removed and chemotherapy were associated with overall survival in univariate and multivariate Cox analysis . Patients with LNs removed had a better prognosis than those without LNs removed or surgery .

For patients with lung metastasis, univariable and multivariable Cox regression model analyses found that histology type, surgery, LNs removed and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors . Patients with LNs removed had a better prognosis than those without LNs removed or surgery .

For patients with liver metastasis, age, surgery, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. However, LNs removed in surgery was not an independent prognostic factor .

For patients with DL metastasis, neither surgery nor lymph node removal affected their prognosis, but histology types and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors .

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Where Does Prostate Cancer Spread

The most common place for prostate cancer to spread to is the bones. It can also spread to the lymph nodes, liver and lungs and other organs.

A large tumour in the prostate gland can spread into or press on areas around the prostate, such as the back passage or urethra. The urethra is the tube which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

Bladder Cancer Stages And Survival Rates

Case 2: Cisplatin-Ineligible Metastatic Bladder Cancer

Cancer survival rates are also categorized according to the stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed. The stage of cancer generally refers to how far it has progressed, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. For bladder cancer, the 5-year survival rate for people with:2,3

  • Bladder cancer in situ is around 96 percent
  • Localized bladder cancer is around 70 percent
  • Bladder cancer that has spread to the regional lymph nodes is 35 percent
  • Distant or metastasized bladder cancer is 5 percent

If you would like to learn more about bladder cancer statistics, consider speaking with someone on your health care team. They will be able to explain more about how these statistics apply to your cancer. Tell us about your experience in the comments below, or with the community.

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Risk Factors For Developing Bone Metastases

Univariate analysis showed that factors significantly associated with BM occurrence included: older age , race , marital status , insured status , higher primary tumor stage , higher regional lymph node stage , poor tumor differentiated grade , the presence of lung metastases , liver metastases , or brain metastases .

As shown in Table 1, multivariate logistic regression suggested that factors significantly associated with BM at initial diagnosis included: age between 41 to 60 years , black race , unmarried status , higher T stage , higher N stage , poor tumor differentiated grade , and the presence of lung metastases , liver metastases , or brain metastases .

Resources For More Information

Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

Offers education and support services, advances research, and raises awareness about bladder cancer. Has an extensive online resource library for bladder cancer patients.

American Bladder Cancer Society

The site is intended to offer help, hope, and support to anyone affected by bladder cancer. Bladder cancer information, resources, and a support forum are offered.

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What Are The 5

Recurrent Bladder Cancer with Bone Involvement and Lung Metastases ...

In 2020, approximately 17,980 deaths in the United States are predicted to be attributed to bladder cancer1. This represents the eighth most common cause of cancer deaths in men.

The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%, while the 10-year survival rate is 70% and the 15-year survival rate is 65%1. Notably, as each patient and cancer are different, it is not possible to definitely know the disease course for an individual patient.

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Signs And Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer

Sometimes bladder cancer doesnt have many symptoms. Signs or symptoms can include:

  • blood in your urine
  • pain or burning when passing urine
  • not being able to pass urine when you need to.

Not everyone with these symptoms has bladder cancer. If you have any of these symptoms or are worried, always see your doctor.

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The Effect Of Treatment With Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis To Liver

Regardless of age at diagnosis, surgery alone was the optimal treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver, followed by surgery combined with chemotherapy , chemotherapy alone and no treatment . And the median survival time of patients with surgery alone was approximately 3.54 years. .

Kalpan Meier survival curve showing the effect of treatment with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver.

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