Who Is At Risk
The exact cause of bowel cancer is unknown. However, certain factors increase your risk so if you fall into any of these categories, see your doctor for advice about bowel cancer screening.
|Bowel cancer commonly affects people over the age of 50.
|Although 75% of people who develop bowel cancer have no family history, you are at increased risk of developing bowel cancer if any family members have a history of bowel cancer at a young age, especially close relatives such as parents, siblings or children.
|Some genetic conditions increase your chance of developing bowel cancer such as:- familial adenomatous polyposis and- hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer
|Cancer of the colon, rectum, endometrium, ovary, or breast
|People who have, or have had, these conditions are at greater risk of developing bowel cancer.
Other disorders related to bowel cancer include ulcerative colitis, crohn’s disease and polyps.
Potential Long Noncoding Rna Biomarkers In Cancer And Other Diseases
lncRNAs play important regulatory roles in transcription, translation, chromatin modification, and cellular organization. Misregulation of lncRNAs is found associated with various human diseases. Though lncRNAs are only recently discovered, at least 321 experimentally verified lncRNAs associated with 221 various types of diseases, which are most related to cancer . The lncRNAs represent another group of potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Prostate cancer antigen 3 is a well-studied lncRNA and the most specific to prostate cancer as it is not expressed in other normal human tissues. PROGENSA PCA3 test is the first urine-based molecular diagnostic test approved by the Food and Drug Administration . The sensitivity and specificity of urine PCA3 expression for PCa diagnosis reach 62 and 75%, respectively, supporting PCA3 as a reasonable marker for prostate cancer diagnosis .
HOX transcript antisense RNA is another well-studied lncRNA. In cervical cancers, high serum levels of HOTAIR were significantly correlated with tumor recurrence and shorter overall survival .
Dong et al. found that the combination of CUDR, LSINCT-5, and PTENP1 provided the best diagnostic value in GC with an AUC of 0.92, a sensitivity of 74.1%, and a specificity of 100%. They were also sufficiently sensitive and specific for early GC detection and distinguishing benign peptic ulcers from GC .
For reference, more potential lncRNA biomarkers are listed in Table 18.3.
Symptoms Of Bowel Cancer
If caught early, bowel cancer is a very treatable and curable cancer. More than nine out of 10 people diagnosed with Stage 1 will survive five years or more after diagnosis. If you have any of the below symptoms, it is important to visit your GP to rule out cancer. The symptoms below can be attributed to a wide number of other less serious conditions and it not always indicative of cancer, however it is still vital to seek help from your GP.
Database And Study Population
We identified patients diagnosed with histologically confirmed RC as their initial primary cancer from nine registries of the SEER program between January 1973 and December 2015. The RC and rectosigmoid cancer were included according to The 3rd Edition of International Classification of Diseases for Oncology . Localized and regional stage as defined by SEER was chosen for analysis. Exclusion criteria included patients where RC was not their first primary cancer, age younger than 20 years, survival less than 1 year after RC diagnosis, no rectal cancer surgery, distant metastases, and missing data on radiation, surgery, age, tumor stage, race and follow-up information. This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.
How Bladder Cancer Spreads
Bladder cancer usually begins in the cells of the bladder lining. In some cases, it may spread into surrounding bladder muscle. If the cancer penetrates this muscle, it can spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymphatic system.
If bladder cancer spreads to other parts of the body, such as other organs, it’s known as metastatic bladder cancer.
Page last reviewed: 01 July 2021 Next review due: 01 July 2024
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Treatment Interventions And Outcomes
RC patients were classified into two groups according to initial treatment modality. The RT group was composed of RC patients who received surgery and adjuvant external-beam RT, and the no RT group was composed of patients who received surgery alone. To avoid bias caused by different modalities of RT, patients who received brachytherapy or combination RT were excluded from our analysis.
The primary outcome of the present study was to investigate the risk of development of a SBC more than one year after treatment of RC. The SEER program avoids the inclusion of recurrent disease of RC according to the ICD-O-3 guidelines. The follow-up for SBC started at 1 year after the initial treatment of RC and ended at the date of all-cause death, diagnosis of SBC, or reaching 30 years follow-up, whichever occurred first.
The secondary outcome was to evaluate the 10-year overall survival and 10-year cancer specific survival of SBC. The definition of OS was the time from SBC diagnosis to the date of all-cause death, and the definition of CSS was the time from SBC diagnosis to the date of SBC-cause death. The survival analysis was performed by using case-control design, in which each SBC patient who received RT was compared with each SBC patient who did not received RT or with five patients diagnosed with only primary BC . The definition of OPBC was the patient diagnosed with only BC, without any other malignancies diagnosed during their lifetime.
Adding Avelumab After Chemotherapy Helps People With Advanced Bladder Cancer Live Longer
A randomized phase III clinical trial, called JAVELIN Bladder 100, showed that adding maintenance therapy with avelumab to supportive care after chemotherapy helped people with advanced urothelial carcinoma live 7 months longer than those who received standard supportive care alone. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer.
About 47% of patients who received avelumab experienced serious side effects, compared with about 25% in the group who received supportive care alone. The most common side effects were urinary tract infection, anemia, blood in the urine, fatigue, and back pain.
What does this mean? This study shows that maintenance therapy with the immunotherapy avelumab in addition to supportive care can help people with advanced bladder cancer live longer, although there is a greater risk of serious side effects.
The maintenance setting is an attractive time for using a checkpoint inhibitor. Patients have gone through chemotherapy and the disease is under control. But instead of waiting for disease to progress after chemotherapywhich it will quickly do in patients with advanced urothelial canceradding avelumab significantly improves survival.
lead study author Thomas Powles, MDBarts Cancer CentreLondon, United Kingdom
The abstract number for this study is LBA1. View this study abstract and the on the ASCO website.
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Risks For Bladder Cancer
Certain behaviours, substances or conditions can affect your risk, orchance, of developing cancer. Some things increase your risk and some thingsdecrease it. Most cancers are the result of many risks. But sometimes cancer develops in peoplewho don’t have any risks.
Smoking tobacco is the main risk for bladder cancer.
The risk of developing bladder cancer increases with age. Itusually occurs in people older than 65 years of age. Bladder cancer is mostcommon in Caucasians, and men develop this disease more often than women.
The following can increase or decrease your risk for bladdercancer. There are things you can do to lower your risk and help protect yourselffrom developing cancer.
How Is Cancer Treated
The treatment for cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease . Doctors may also consider the patients age and general health. Often, the goal of treatment is to cure the cancer. In other cases, the goal is to control the disease or to reduce symptoms for as long as possible. The treatment plan for a person may change over time.12
Most treatment plans include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Other plans involve biological therapy .12
Some cancers respond best to a single type of treatment. Other cancers may respond best to a combination of treatments.12
For patients who get very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, also known as a bone marrow transplant, may be recommended by their doctor. This is because high-dose therapies destroy both cancer cells and normal blood cells. A stem cell transplant can help the body to make healthy blood cells to replace the ones lost due to the cancer treatment. Its a complicated procedure with many side effects and risks.12
Quitting smoking improves the outlook for people with cancer. People who continue to smoke after diagnosis raise their risk for future cancers and death. They are more likely to die from cancer than nonsmokers and are more likely to develop a second tobacco-related cancer.5
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What Are The Stages Of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .
The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.
Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:
- In Stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
- In Stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
- In Stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.
A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is known as TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:
- Invasive bladder tumors can range from T2 all the way to T4 .
- Lymph node involvement ranges from N0 to N3 .
- M0 means that there is no metastasis outside of the pelvis. M1 means that it has metastasized outside of the pelvis.
Can I Lower My Risk Of Getting A Second Cancer
There are steps you can take to lower your risk and stay as healthy as possible. One of the most important you can do is quit using any form of tobacco and stay away from tobacco smoke. Smoking increases the risk of a lot of the second cancers seen after bladder cancer, as well as many other cancers.
To help maintain good health, bladder cancer survivors should also:
- Get to and stay at a healthy weight.
- Keep physically active and limit the time you spend sitting or lying down.
- Follow a healthy eating pattern that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and limits or avoids red and processed meats, sugary drinks, and highly processed foods.
- It’s best not to drink alcohol. If you do drink, have no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 per day for men.
These steps may also help lower the risk of other health problems.
See Second Cancers in Adults for more information about causes of second cancers.
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Symptoms Of Colon Cancer That Has Spread To Specific Areas
- Liver Colon cancer that has spread to the liver can result in fatigue, jaundice, swelling in the extremities, nausea or abdominal bloating.
- Lungs Another common area where metastatic colon cancer may spread is the lungs. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest pain or a persistent cough.
- Brain Colon cancer that has spread to the brain may result in headaches, confusion, memory loss or blurred vision.
- Lymph nodes The lymph nodes in the abdominal area can be affected by colon cancer, resulting in abdominal bloating and swelling as well as a reduced appetite.
- Peritoneum If this tissue is affected by cancer, it can result in abdominal pain, bloating, a constant feeling of fullness, weight gain or loss or nausea.
Where Does Metastatic Colon Cancer Spread To
Metastatic, or stage 4, colon cancer is an advanced malignancy that has spread outside the colon to other areas of the body. While colon cancer can travel throughout the body, there are specific areas where it is more likely to spread. The most common include the liver and lungs, as well as the brain, distant lymph nodes and peritoneum . Colon cancer can produce different symptoms depending on where it spreads, and these symptoms may range from hardly noticeable to very severe.
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Treatment By Cancer Type
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Osimertinib Delays Recurrence For Non
A phase III clinical trial, called ADAURA, showed that using the targeted therapy osimertinib after surgery is effective for the treatment of stage II to IIIA non-small cell lung cancer with an epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. After 2 years of treatment with osimertinib, 90% of the study participants were alive without the cancer coming back, or recurring, compared with 44% of participants who received a placebo, which is an inactive treatment. For patients in the study, taking osimertinib reduced the risk of recurrence or death by 83%.
The main treatment for these stages of NSCLC is surgery to remove the tumor. After surgery, chemotherapy is usually given to reduce the chances that the cancer will come back, called a recurrence. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy. However, even with adjuvant chemotherapy, recurrence rates are high.
EGFR-positive NSCLC has mutations that create an overactive EGFR protein. The overactive EGFR protein then helps the cancer cells grow or spread. Osimertinib is a type of targeted therapy called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the EGFR protein to stop the cancer from growing or spreading. It is currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat later-stage, or metastatic, NSCLC with an EGFR mutation.
What does this mean? Adding osimertinib after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy may be an effective way of delaying recurrence in patients with non-metastatic, EGFR-positive NSCLC.
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Causes Of Bladder And Bowel Problems
Some types of cancer treatment can cause bladder and bowel side effects. These side effects are common after pelvic radiotherapy or treatment for bowel cancer. They may also be caused by the drugs you are taking as part of your treatment for cancer.
- passing urine more often than usual
- passing urine during the night
- a burning feeling when you pass urine
- a feeling that you are not able to wait when you need to pass urine
- blood in your urine
- leaking small amounts of urine .
Contact the hospital straight away if:
- your symptoms get worse
- you have a high temperature
- you feel you cannot pass urine.
Your healthcare team may ask you for a urine sample to check if you have an infection. An infection is a common cause of symptoms and is easy to treat. If the problems do not improve within a few weeks, they may arrange tests. Or they may get more advice for you from a continence specialist.
People often feel embarrassed talking about bladder problems. But if you tell your team, they can help, and it is usually possible to improve it.
- loose stools or diarrhoea
- hard stools or constipation
- needing to empty your bowel urgently
- cramping pains in your tummy or back passage
- passing a lot of wind.
What Causes Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer forms when the DNA in cells in the bladder mutate or change, disabling the functions that control cell growth. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. But some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a tumor in the bladder.
While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.
Known risk factors for bladder cancer include:
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Taking Care Of Yourself
You go through a lot when you have cancer. Rest, exercise, and managing stress can help. It’s also important to eat well during your treatment. It may be harder now for your body to absorb nutrients from food. Work with a dietitian to make sure you get enough calories and nutrition. Ask your doctor for a referral.
Make sure you get the emotional support you need during this time, too. Friends, family members, social workers, and therapists can all be a big help. They may not be sure what to offer, so let them know what would be helpful. Ask them to listen when youâve had a tough day or to do something fun with you when you have the energy for it.