Symptoms Of Overactive Bladder And Diagnosis
The most common symptoms of overactive bladder are urinary frequency and the sudden urge to urinate. If a woman is urinating more than eight times a day, this might be a symptom of OAB. Waking up in the middle of the night to urinate often indicates OAB, as well.
A urologist or urogynecologist may perform a number of tests to diagnosis OAB. These may include:
- Physical exam, medical history review and symptom questionnaire.
- Bladder stress test, performed by filling up the bladder and having the patient cough to ascertain how much urine leaks.
- Postvoid residual volume test checks if the bladder is actually fully emptying by inserting a catheter through the urethra and into the bladder after urination. The catheter measures any remaining urine.
- Urodynamic testing is a series of tests typically reserved for unusual cases and primarily measures urine flow to test for obstruction as well as evaluating urge sensation.
- Urinalysis screens for the presence of bacteria and may rule out other similar conditions such as a UTI.
- Cystoscopy examines the inside of the bladder by placing a long thin tube with a magnifying glass up the urethra.
Whats The Main Cause Of Overactive Bladder
When the urinary system is functioning normally, the kidneys create urine which drains into the bladder. As your bladder fills, nerves signal the brain that you need to urinate. Then, muscles in your pelvic floor and the urethra relax and muscles of the bladder contract to squeeze the urine out.
With overactive bladder, contractions of the bladder muscles occur even when theres little urine in the bladder. This causes you to feel the urgent need to urinate. People sometimes refer to this, inaccurately, as having a weak bladder and they wonder what causes a weak bladder. Its more accurate that the bladder isnt functioning properly, so overactive bladder is a better description.
What causes overactive bladder? There are several potential overactive bladder causes.
Overactive Bladder In Children: Causes Diagnosis And Treatment
Overactive bladder , a specific type of urinary incontinence, is a common childhood condition defined by a sudden and uncontrollable urge to urinate. It can lead to accidents during the day. A parent may also ask a child if they need to go to the bathroom. Even though the child says no, theyll have an urgent need to go minutes later. OAB is not the same as bed-wetting, or nocturnal enuresis. Bed-wetting is more common, particularly in young children.
Symptoms of OAB can interfere with a childs day-to-day routines. Its important to react to daytime accidents with patience and understanding. These incidences can often impact a childs social and emotional development. Other physical complications of an OAB in children are:
- difficulty emptying the bladder completely
- an increased risk for kidney damage
- an increased risk for urinary tract infections
Talk to your doctor if you suspect your child has an OAB. In most cases, an OAB goes away with time. If not, there are treatments and at-home measures available to help your child overcome or manage this condition.
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How Is Overactive Bladder Diagnosed
A physician starts by first checking for infection, asking about a person’s urinary habits , and performing a physical exam to look for abnormalities in the abdomen or genitals. After that, a neurological exam can determine if nerve or sensory problems are impacting bladder function.
If results of these exams are inconclusive, additional diagnostics include:
- Measuring post-void residual urine: To determine how much urine remains in the bladder following urination, an ultrasound visualizes the bladder as a catheter is used to remove post-void residual urine. The urine volume is measured significant amounts can cause symptoms of overactive bladder.
- Measuring urine flow rate: This test will require the patient to urinate in an uroflowmeter, which provides a graph of the patient’s urine flow rate.
- Cystometry: Cystometry gauges the pressure inside of the bladder. One catheter fills the bladder with warm water while a pressure sensor is inserted in the vagina or rectum to measure the rigidity of the bladder muscle and assess its ability to hold in and push out fluid.
What Are Some Possible Treatments
What can you do if you experience symptoms of overactive bladder? Contact a doctor to help you evaluate the condition and determine an underlying cause. There are some treatments that are successful in reducing or eliminating the symptoms.
If the underlying cause is a severe urinary tract infection, antibiotics may be helpful. If the underlying cause is an enlarged prostate, tumor, or other major conditions, different treatments may be necessary, including surgery. Some medications are also helpful in reducing symptoms of overactive bladder, but other treatments have also been shown to be effective.
For situations that dont have a specific root cause, these types of treatments have been tried:
It is important to speak with a doctor about your symptoms to determine the underlying cause and explore potential treatments so you dont have to live with a condition that can be difficult to manage on your own. If you think you may be affected by overactive bladder or nocturia contact the doctors at Advanced Urology for a screening and to get help treating symptoms.
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Smoking May Increase The Urge To Urinate
Smoking irritates the lining of the bladder, and also makes you cough, both of which are unhelpful if you have an overactive bladder.
It is a good decision for both general health reasons and overactive bladder reasons to stop smoking. Work with your health care provider to start a formal Quit Smoking program, which may involve smoking cessation medications and group support for the most successful outcome.
Learn more: Our Quit Smoking center also has some helpful advice.
What Are The Symptoms Associated With Overactive Bladder
Symptoms of overactive bladder include:
- A frequent and sudden urge to urinate
- Involuntary loss of urine
- Increased urinary frequency during the daytime
- Increased urinary frequency at night
Although many patients may ignore symptoms associated with overactive bladder because they believe they are a normal part of aging, the condition typically has an underlying medical cause.
Getting Help For Overactive Bladder
The first step in treatment is to ask for help. It may feel funny talking to your doctor about something as private as urinary issues, but rest assured that your doctor is a professional and is here to help. Be prepared before your appointment by keeping a bladder diary for a few days. This will help your doctor see the extent of your problem, and may help him or her to see any triggers that may be causing your urinary urgency issues.
Be prepared to have a thorough discussion with your doctor about your overactive bladder symptoms, as well as any other symptoms you may be experiencing. You should also let you doctor know if you suffer from any other conditions, such as diabetes, and provide a list of medications youre currently taking, which may be contributing to your symptoms.
Making a list of questions beforehand is also a great idea to ensure that you dont forget anything during your appointment. You may want to ask your doctor about different treatment options that he thinks may be a good fit for you, or about any options youve read about that youre interested in trying. Make sure you find out about the potential side effects for any treatment your doctor proposes, as well as what you can expect in terms of a success rate.
Causes Of Stress Incontinence
Stress incontinence is when the pressure inside your bladder as it fills with urine becomes greater than the strength of your urethra to stay closed. Your urethra is the tube that urine passes through to leave the body.
Any sudden extra pressure on your bladder, such as laughing or sneezing, can cause urine to leak out of your urethra if you have stress incontinence.
Your urethra may not be able to stay closed if the muscles in your pelvis are weak or damaged, or if your urethral sphincter the ring of muscle that keeps the urethra closed is damaged.
Problems with these muscles may be caused by:
- damage during childbirth particularly if your baby was born vaginally, rather than by caesarean section
- increased pressure on your tummy for example, because you are pregnant or obese
- damage to the bladder or nearby area during surgery such as the removal of the womb , or removal of the prostate gland
- neurological conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord, such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis
- certain connective tissue disorders such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- certain medicines
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Related Conditions Of Overactive Bladder
Overactive bladder is distinct from, but related to, a number of other bladder and urinary conditions.
All of these conditions may be called bladder control problems. Healthcare providers may refer to them as lower urinary tract symptoms .
Other conditions that shouldnt be confused with overactive bladder include:
Stress Incontinence This refers to urine leakage due to movement, which puts pressure on your bladder. It can be caused by coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity.
Reflex Incontinence This refers to urine leakage without any warning or urge. Its often caused by damaged bladder nerves.
Overflow Incontinence This condition can affect people who have difficulty fully emptying their bladder. As a result, the bladder can more easily overflow and leak as a result.
Functional Incontinence This happens when an outside barrier, such as a physical or mental disability, prevents someone from reaching a toilet in time to urinate, resulting in urine leakage.
Temporary Incontinence Urine leakage can happen due to a temporary illness that passes, such as a bad cough.
Bed-Wetting Also known as nocturnal enuresis, bed-wetting can affect adults as well as children. It may be worsened by certain medicines or by consuming caffeine or alcohol late in the evening.
Certain health problems may cause both bed-wetting and frequent nighttime urination. These conditions include kidney stones, a urinary tract infection , enlarged prostate, and obstructive sleep apnea.
Overactive Bladder At Night
If you find that you wake up to urinate more than one time per night, you may have a condition called nocturia, or overactive bladder at night. Nocturia isnt the same as overactive bladder. In fact, some people who experience no OAB symptoms during the day can still have nocturia.
Nocturia is more common in people over age 60, but one in three adults over 30 need two or more trips to the bathroom each night. Most adults can sleep six to eight hours without waking up. Others may only need to wake up once.
If you require more bathrooms breaks during your slumber, you may be experiencing overactive bladder at night.
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Causes Of Urinary Incontinence
Incontinence can happen for many reasons. For example, urinary tract infections, vaginal infection or irritation, constipation. Some medicines can cause bladder control problems that last a short time. When incontinence lasts longer, it may be due to:
- Weak bladder muscles
- Overactive bladder muscles
- Weak pelvic floor muscles
- Damage to nerves that control the bladder from diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, or Parkinsons disease
- Blockage from an enlarged prostate in men
- Diseases such as arthritis that may make it difficult to get to the bathroom in time
- Pelvic organ prolapse, which is when pelvic organs shift out of their normal place into the vagina. When pelvic organs are out of place, the bladder and urethra are not able to work normally, which may cause urine to leak.
Most incontinence in men is related to the prostate gland. Male incontinence may be caused by:
- Prostatitisa painful inflammation of the prostate gland
- Injury, or damage to nerves or muscles from surgery
- An enlarged prostate gland, which can lead to Benign Prostate Hyperplasia , a condition where the prostate grows as men age.
Overactive Bladder Vs Urinary Incontinence
- Condition in which the bladder can no longer hold urine normally.
- Often feel a sudden urge to urinate or experience an accident.
- Defining symptom is urgency, or the inability to postpone urination.
- OAB is typically a chronic problem
- Often requires strengthening of pelvic floor muscles to get rid of symptoms like urinary incontinence.
- Symptoms including urinary incontinence are ongoing.
- Bladder muscle problems at the root of it.
- Can result from regularly consuming alcohol and caffeine in large quantities.
- Serious health conditions can lead to OAB including a stroke, diabetes, kidney disease, multiple sclerosis , or Parkinsons disease.
- Is when you lose control of your bladder.
- Isnt a condition its a symptom.
- Is a symptom of OAB.
- Can be caused by a loss or weakening of control over the urinary sphincter.
- Can be a sign of something simple like a singular occasion of too much fluid consumption, a temporary problem.
- Is a common symptom of a UTI along with a burning sensation during urination and/or blood in the urine.
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Prevention Of Overactive Bladder
Following a healthy diet and getting enough physical activity can help improve bladder symptoms by strengthening muscles in your torso, ensuring bowel regularity, and helping you maintain a healthy body weight.
Certain foods and ingredients can irritate your bladder, and you may want to keep a diary to figure out whether any are contributing to your symptoms.
Foods and beverages that may contribute to OAB include:
What If I Take Too Much
If you take too much mirabegron, it is unlikely to harm you.
If you take an extra dose by mistake, you might get some of the common side effects, such as increased heart rate, or headache and dizziness.
Urgent advice: Contact 111 now for advice if:
Youve taken more than your usual dose of mirabegron and:
- youre having side effects
Call or go to 111.nhs.uk
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Botox Injection For Bladder Problems
Botox injection has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of overactive bladder for patients who have failed to respond to standard therapy with anticholinergic medications.
Overactive bladder is a type of urinary incontinence caused by overactivity of the muscles in the bladder, causing frequent squeezing of the bladder and, thus, frequent urge to urinate. Botox can be injected into the bladder directly through a cystoscope .
Causes And Risk Factors Of Overactive Bladder
Overactive bladder happens when your bladder muscles contract too readily, giving you a stronger or more frequent urge to urinate.
This problem can be caused by incomplete bladder emptying, overactive bladder muscles, or improper nerve signals from your brain that tell your bladder to contract.
Several different health issues can contribute to overactive bladder, including the following:
Overactive Bladder: Causes Risk Factors And Fixes
Overactive bladder is just what it sounds like: A condition that causes the sudden and frequent urge to urinate.
OAB isnt uncommon. It affects as many as 16 percent of adult men and 33 percent of adult women.
Overactive bladder can be neurogenic, caused by neurological problems such as stroke or spinal cord injuries. Neurogenic OAB can also be a result of Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida or Alzheimers disease.
But in many cases, an overactive bladder has no apparent neurological cause and is known as non-neurogenic.
One of the inconvenient things about OAB is that it leaves you with little or no control over your bladder, often resulting in urinary incontinence.
The risk for OAB increases with age, but you shouldnt consider it to be just a normal, inevitable consequence of aging. If youre experiencing problems, consider these common causes
Types Of Urinary Incontinence
There are different types of incontinence:
- Stress incontinence occurs when urine leaks as pressure is put on the bladder, for example, during exercise, coughing, sneezing, laughing, or lifting heavy objects. Its the most common type of bladder control problem in younger and middle-age women. It may begin around the time of menopause.
- Urge incontinence happens when people have a sudden need to urinate and cannot hold their urine long enough to get to the toilet. It may be a problem for people who have diabetes, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, or stroke.
- Overflow incontinence happens when small amounts of urine leak from a bladder that is always full. A man can have trouble emptying his bladder if an enlarged prostate is blocking the urethra. Diabetes and spinal cord injuries can also cause this type of incontinence.
- Functional incontinence occurs in many older people who have normal bladder control. They just have a problem getting to the toilet because of arthritis or other disorders that make it hard to move quickly.
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What Medications Can Cause Overactive Bladder
After-dribble/overflow incontinence is where a small amount of urine leaks out after youve finished.
The good news is that this type of incontinence responds well to self-treatment. Here are some tips:
- Sit down on the toilet to empty your bladder.
- Make sure elatics, belts or briefs are not tight around your penis and scrotum to ensure the urethra is straightened when urinating.
- Alternatively, place your fingertips behind the scrotum and apply gentle upward and forward pressure to encourage urine flow.
What Causes Oab In Children
There are several possible causes of OAB. Some causes vary based on a childs age. For example, in children 4 to 5 years old, the cause may be:
- change in routine, such as moving to a new city or having a new brother or sister in the house
- forgetting to use the toilet because they are engaging in other activities
Other causes in children of all ages can include:
- nerve damage or malfunction that causes a child to have difficulty recognizing a full bladder
- refraining from completely emptying the bladder when on the toilet
- underlying sleep apnea
In some children, it may be a delay in maturation and will eventually go away with age. But because bladder contractions are controlled by nerves, its possible that OAB may be caused by a neurological disorder.
A child may also learn to deliberately hold their urine, which can affect their ability to fully empty their bladder. The long-term effects of this habit can be urinary tract infections, increased urinary frequency, and kidney damage. See a doctor if youre concerned that your childs OAB hasnt gone away on its own.
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