Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with your situation ask how these numbers may apply to you.
What Are The 5
In 2020, approximately 17,980 deaths in the United States are predicted to be attributed to bladder cancer1. This represents the eighth most common cause of cancer deaths in men.
The general 5-year survival rate for people with bladder cancer is 77%, while the 10-year survival rate is 70% and the 15-year survival rate is 65%1. Notably, as each patient and cancer are different, it is not possible to definitely know the disease course for an individual patient.
Stages Of Prostate Cancer
In order to determine the stage of a patients prostate cancer, most doctors start by using the TNM staging system, which helps describe different aspects of the cancers growth.
- T the T category measures the size and extent of the Tumor
- N the N category measures whether and how far the cancer has spread to the Lymph Nodes
- M the M category whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (a process called Metastasis
The score for each of these categories is determined based on a pre-determined set of criteria. Your doctor cannot feel or see the tumor with a score of T1. A score of T3 means that the tumor has begun to grow outside of the prostate.
After calculating the TNM categories, doctors will combine the TNM score with the patients Gleason score and PSA levels assigning of a specific stage to the patients cancer.
Prostate cancer prognosis and survival rates can help give patients an idea of their chances of surviving the disease based on the stage and time of diagnosis. While some patients may find this information helpful, others may not want to know.
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Genetic Factors In Pathogenesis
Divergent, yet interconnected and overlapping, molecular pathways are likely responsible for the development of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumors. Somatic mutations in fibroblast growth receptor3 and tumor protein p53 in tumor cells appear to be important early molecular events in the noninvasive and invasive pathways, respectively.
FGFR-3, Ras, and PIK3CA mutations occur with high frequency in noninvasive tumors, leading to upregulation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase . Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9 is among the most frequent genetic alterations in bladder tumors and is considered an early event.
Large numbers of genomic changes have been detected using karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis in urothelial carcinoma. Numerically common are losses of 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 18q, and Y. Gains of 1q, 5p, 8q, and 17q are frequently present, and high-level amplifications can be found however, the target genes in the regions of amplifications have not been conclusively identified.
Alterations in the TP53 gene are noted in approximately 60% of invasive bladder cancers. Progression-free survival is significantly shorter in patients with TP53 mutations and is an independent predictor of death among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Life Expectancy Of Stage 4 Kidney Disease Patients
Without treatment in the form of kidney dialysis, stage 4 kidney disease patients will be subjected to several negative symptoms that will not only cause pain, but also an overall decrease in quality of life. It is expected that stage 4 patients will not survive more than a year without dialysis treatment.
With dialysis, however, patients are expected to increase survivability considerably, allowing them to extend their prognosis by an additional 25 years. By allowing a dialysis machine to perform the work normally done by the kidneys, your body can perform optimally again. However, it is important to note that every patient is different and may have additional circumstances that may affect survival.
Dialysis should only be considered as a temporary measure to help get rid of harmful toxins and wastes from the body. All efforts are geared toward promoting kidney treatment and recovery that help repair diseased cells and tissues so that eventually a patients kidney function is sufficient enough to do the job on its own. This will require the dedication and vigilance of the patient to adhere strict dietary plans and treatments prescribed by the doctor.
However, some cases of kidney disease are beyond what can be treated with modern medicine, with the only resort left being kidney transplantation.
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Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the bladder.
- Regional: The cancer has spread from the bladder to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
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Coping With Prostate Cancer
The diagnosis of cancer can cause great anxiety to the individual and his family and friends. At times, one may have troubles coping with the diagnosis, the disease, and its treatment. Searching online for information may prove overwhelming also and may not be the best resource. Ask your physician or local hospital about local resources. Often, there are local prostate cancer support groups which may help you cope with your feelings and provide local resources for more knowledge.
You may consider contacting one or more of the following organizations:
- US Prostate Cancer Foundation,
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ,
- American Cancer Society, and
- Patient Advocates for Advanced Cancer Treatment.
The Internet has provided access to a number of sites focusing on prostate cancer treatment and outcomes. The National Cancer Institute and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network have patient information, as well as the American Urological Association.
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Bladder Cancer And Its Stages
Bladder cancer is a disease that can have varying symptoms and severity according to its stage. The estimated life expectancy of people who are diagnosed with bladder cancer is dependent on their condition and treatment.
The stages of bladder cancer have different levels of effects to the patient. Although living with bladder cancer can be difficult and challenging, do not lose hope as some of the stages of bladder cancer can be treated.
If people with bladder cancer receive treatment early on the first stage of cancer, the symptoms can be neutralized. The stages of bladder cancer usually depend on the formation of cancer in other parts of the body. If the first stage is managed early, the spread of cancer can be stopped.
What Are The Symptoms Of Stage 4 Bladder Cancer
The most common and most noticeable symptom of bladder cancer is bloody. According to the American Cancer Society, other symptoms of bladder cancer include
- Frequent urination
- A feeling of burning or pain while urinating
- Urinary urgency, even after emptying your bladder
- Difficulty starting or maintaining a strong urine stream
- Frequent trips to the bathroom during the night
It is worth noting that these symptoms can resemble a urinary tract infection. Regardless of the cause these indicators should be quickly evaluated by a medical professional so that treatment can begin for whatever condition should be the cause.
As bladder cancer progresses, though, so do the symptoms. With the progression of cancer, come more severe symptoms such as the inability to pass urine, bone pain, weight loss, pain in the back , swelling in the feet, and generalized weakness.
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Prognosis Of Patients With Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Who Are Intolerable To Receive Any Anti
Muscle invasive bladder tumor has a high propensity for rapid growth and distant metastasis.
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognosis of patients who had been diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer and did not receive anti-cancer treatment because of their physical characteristics.
We evaluated 26 patients. Median overall survival was 12 months.
These results may assist in counseling older patients with MIBC if the disease is left untreated.
Subtleties And Future Questions
Several factors have to be carefully considered in interpreting the trial results, explained Dr. Apolo.
A major one is that the study did not directly compare survival between people who got avelumab immediately versus when their cancer progressed. Only about half of the participants who initially received supportive care alone went on to receive immunotherapy after their cancer got worse. There could be many reasons for this, including lack of access to these drugs in different countries, Dr. Apolo said.
But it also might be that, for some people, the cancer was progressing too rapidly, she added. When these tumors start growing, they start growing very quickly. So if you wait to start at the time of progression, maybe its too late, added Dr. Apolo.
Not all patients will be caught by the second-line safety net, agreed Dr. Plimack.
So, for now, said Dr. Balar, the takeaway message from the JAVELIN study is after chemotherapy, dont wait to give immunotherapy.
But more and more, studies are looking at whether some patients should receive immunotherapy as first-line treatment, he continued. Immunotherapy is one of the most important advances weve made in the last 30 years, Dr. Balar said.
The JAVELIN results cant provide any insight into which patients benefit from first-line treatment with a platinum-based chemotherapy, he added. This trial wasnt designed to ask: Is chemotherapy necessarily the best choice for every patient? he explained.
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What Is Intermittent Adt
Researchers have investigated whether a technique called intermittent androgen deprivation can delay the development of hormone resistance. With intermittent androgen deprivation, hormone therapy is given in cycles with breaks between drug administrations, rather than continuously. An additional potential benefit of this approach is that the temporary break from the side effects of hormone therapy may improve a mans quality of life.
Randomized clinical trials have shown similar overall survival with continuous ADT or intermittent ADT among men with metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer, with a reduction in some side effects for intermittent ADT .
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Where Does Bladder Cancer Most Often Spread
Lymph nodes, bones, lung, liver, and peritoneum are the most common sites of metastasis from bladder cancer. Tumors in a more advanced T category and those with atypical histologic features metastasize earlier. Tumors with atypical histologic features also have a higher frequency of peritoneal metastasis.
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Patients May Want To Think About Taking Part In A Clinical Trial
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of todayâs standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
Stage 4 Prostate Cancer: Survival Rates Treatment And Support
Prostate cancer is in stage 4 when the cancer spreads beyond the lymph nodes and into other areas of the body. While the vast majority of prostate cancer cases are caught before this happens, when the cancer is treatable, stage 4 is far more difficult to treat. Therefore, the survival rate among men with stage 4 prostate cancer is much lower.
There are two types of stage 4 prostate cancer: 4A and 4B, according to the American Cancer Society. The type assigned to a persons diagnosis is based on whether the cancer has spread and to what degree, and the value assigned to two additional factors called the Grade Group and the prostate-specific antigen . The Grade Group is a measure of how likely the cancer is to spread quickly, and the PSA is a measure of a protein in the blood produced by cells in the prostate.
With stage 4A, the tumor has already spread into the lymph nodes and may be spreading into tissues adjacent to the prostate, but has not spread to other areas of the body. The Grade Group can be of any value, as can the PSA.
With stage 4B, the tumor may have spread into the lymph nodes, may be spreading into nearby tissues and has spread to other areas of the body like the bones, certain organs and distant lymph nodes. The Grade Group and PSA can be of any value.
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Treatment For Bladder Cancer
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on how quickly the cancer is growing. Treatment is different for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. You might feel confused or unsure about your treatment options and decisions. Its okay to ask your treatment team to explain the information to you more than once. Its often okay to take some time to think about your decisions.
Metastatic Lung Cancer Started Someplace Else
Primary tumors can spread from almost anywhere in the body to your lungs. But some types of cancer are more likely to grow in your lungs. These include:
- Cancer treatments youÃ¢ve already had
- How you want to treat your cancer
Cancer that has spread to your lungs is also probably in your bloodstream. It could be in places that donÃ¢t show up on imaging scans. ThatÃ¢s why doctors mostly use chemotherapy to treat metastatic lung cancer. It destroys cancerous cells everywhere in your body.
Surgery Is less common. Doctors use it if the tumors are only in a small part of the lung . It can also help when the primary cancer is colorectal cancer, bone cancer, or soft tissue sarcoma.
Other treatment options include:
- Hormonal therapy. This slows the growth of certain types of cancer cells and eases your symptoms.
- Targeted therapy. It uses medications that attach to proteins on cancer cells to stop or slow their growth.
- Immunotherapy. This uses your bodyÃ¢s immune system to destroy cancer cells.
- Ablation therapy. It destroys cancer cells or tumors with lasers or electrical currents.
- Radiation. High energy X-rays are used to destroy tumors.
- Thoracentesis. This uses a needle to remove fluid in the space between your lungs and chest wall.
- Oxygen therapy. It helps you breathe.
- Stents. They open up narrowed airways.
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Stage I Bladder Cancer
Stage I describes superficial non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. It is present in the bladders inner lining but hasnt invaded the muscle wall. We usually perform an initial TUR to determine the extent of the cancer as well as the grade. We typically do a second TUR to remove the rest of the tumor followed by intravesical therapy with either BCG or chemotherapy.
The Truth About Stage 4 Metastatic Cancer
The most advanced stage of any types of cancers is stage 4 metastatic cancer. Stage 4 cancer of any kind is hard to treat. This still means that there is a chance for curing. There are many clinical trials that are improving that contribute in the increase of survival rates of patients.
Stage 4 Metastatic Cancer
However, the improvement of prognosis depends on the treatment. How a patient responds to the treatment matters a lot. Having the right treatment is very important for survival.
Stage 4 metastatic cancer life expectancy is not good at all. It has the lowest percentage when it comes to the five-year survival rate. This is because the cancerous cells have already spread to other parts of the body. Therefore, the stage 4 metastatic cancer prognosis of patient is poor and not progressive. Lets take an example such as in stage 4 metastatic cancer liver. This is the condition wherein the cancer has spread from the liver to others parts of the body. This cancer of the liver which is already in its most advanced stage has originated from the lungs that spread to breast, pancreas, large intestines and stomach. This is a condition that may be difficult to cure. Another example is the stage 4 metastatic cancer spine is the cancer in the spine that has widely spread the cancer cells to the whole spine and to other parts of the body too.Treating this stage cancer very extensively is needed for patients to survive.
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Tests For Bladder Cancer
Your doctor may do some tests to check for bladder cancer:
- internal examination the doctor may check inside your bottom or vagina with their finger, using gloves
- urine tests your urine will be checked for signs of bladder cancer
- blood tests to check your general health
- ultrasound a scan on the outside of your abdomen to check for cancer
- cystoscopy the doctor puts a small camera into your bladder to see inside
- biopsy the doctor takes a small sample of the cells from the bladder to check for signs of cancer.
Your doctor might ask you to have further tests. These can include:
- CT scan and x-rays scans that take pictures of the inside of the body, sometimes also called a CT-IVP or a triple phase abdominal-pelvic CT scan
- MRI scan a scan that uses magnetism and radio waves to take pictures of the inside of the body
- bone scan a scan that uses dye to show changes in your bones
- FDG-PET scan a scan that uses an injection of liquid to show cancer cells.
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