Living With Bladder Cancer
Cancer is a life-changing experience. And although there’s no surefire way of preventing a recurrence, you can take steps to feel and stay healthy. Eating plenty of fruits, veggies, whole grains, and keeping to modest portions of lean meat is a great start. If you smoke, stop. Limit alcohol to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Daily exercise and regular checkups will also support your health and give you peace of mind.
Types Of Bladder Cancer
The type of bladder cancer depends on how the tumors cells look under the microscope. The 3 main types of bladder cancer are:
Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers. It also accounts for 10% to 15% of kidney cancers diagnosed in adults. It begins in the urothelial cells that line the urinary tract. Urothelial carcinoma used to be called transitional cell carcinoma or TCC.
Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells develop in the bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation. Over time, these cells may become cancerous. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 4% of all bladder cancers.
Adenocarcinoma. This type accounts for about 2% of all bladder cancers and develops from glandular cells.
There are other, less common types of bladder cancer, including micropapillary, plasmacytoid, sarcomatoid carcinoma of the bladder, and small cell bladder cancer, among others. Sarcomas of the bladder often begin in the fat or muscle layers of the bladder. Small cell bladder cancer is a rare type of bladder cancer that is likely to spread to other parts of the body.
Here Are The Instructions From The Icd
Do not code diagnoses documented as probable, suspected, questionable, rule out, or working diagnosis or other similar terms indicating uncertainty. Rather, code the condition to the highest degree of certainty for that encounter/visit, such as symptoms, signs, abnormal test results, or other reason for the visit.
Please note: This differs from the coding practices used by short-term, acute care, long-term care and psychiatric hospitals.
Primary malignancy previously excised
When a primary malignancy has been previously excised or eradicated from its site and there is no further treatment directed to that site and there is no evidence of any existing primary malignancy, a code from category Z85, Personal history of malignant neoplasm, should be used to indicate the former site of the malignancy.
Follow ICD-10 coding rules when reporting suspected or confirmed malignancy and personal history of malignant neoplasm. Remember, the codes that are selected stay with the patient.
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Drg Mapping Rules For C672
Diagnostic codes are the first step in the DRG mapping process.
The patient’s primary diagnostic code is the most important. Assuming the patient’s primary diagnostic code is C67.2, look in the list below to see which MDC’s “Assignment of Diagnosis Codes” is first. That is the MDC that the patient will be grouped into.
From there, check the subsections of the MDC listed. The patient will be mapped into the first subsection for which the treatment performed on the patient meet the listed requirements of that subsection.
DRG grouping rules are adjusted each year, so make sure to check the rules for the fiscal year of the patient’s discharge date.
Cystectomy Cystoprostatectomy And Pelvic Exenteration Specimens
Proper fixation of the specimen is a prerequisite for adequate histological evaluation. We recommend that large bladder specimens be fixed in formalin overnight. Some prefer to expand the bladder with formalin. Injection of formalin into the urinary bladder cavity is accomplished either through the urethra by a Foley catheter or through the bladder dome using a large-gauge needle after the urethra has been clamped. We prefer to open the bladder before formalin fixation. It should be opened anteriorly from the urethra to the bladder dome. Thus the bladder mucosa may be everted for close examination. Any subtle alteration of the mucosa, such as granularity, ulceration, hemorrhage, or erythema, is documented. If a grossly visible tumor is identified, the size, location, configuration , color and consistency of the tumor should be documented.
The minimum number of sections to be taken are as follows: tumor bladder neck , trigone , anterior wall , posterior wall , lateral walls , dome , ureteral orifices , margins , any abnormal appearing bladder mucosa and any perivesical lymph nodes .
Illustration of a cystoprostatectomy specimen. Sections should be taken from tumor, bladder neck, trigone, anterior wall, posterior wall, lateral walls, dome, ureteral orifices , margins , and any abnormal appearing bladder mucosa. The prostate should be sampled using the standard protocol for radical prostatectomy specimens.
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Treatment Of Stages Ii And Iii Bladder Cancer
For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
There Are Different Types Of Treatment For Patients With Bladder Cancer
Different types of treatment are available for patients with bladder cancer. Some treatments are standard , and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
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Smoking Can Affect The Risk Of Bladder Cancer
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer.
Risk factors for bladder cancer include the following:
- Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes.
- Having a family history of bladder cancer.
- Having certain changes in the genes that are linked to bladder cancer.
- Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace.
- Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide.
- Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.
- Drinking water from a well that has high levels of arsenic.
- Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine.
- Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.
- Using urinarycatheters for a long time.
Older age is a risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.
How Are Neoplasms Of Uncertain Behavior Coded In Icd
Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ectopic pancreatic malignant neoplasms are coded to pancreas, unspecified . Categories D37 D44, and D48 classify by site neoplasms of uncertain behavior, i.e., histologic confirmation whether the neoplasm is malignant or benign cannot be made.
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Genetic Factors In Pathogenesis
Divergent, yet interconnected and overlapping, molecular pathways are likely responsible for the development of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumors. Somatic mutations in fibroblast growth receptor3 and tumor protein p53 in tumor cells appear to be important early molecular events in the noninvasive and invasive pathways, respectively.
FGFR-3, Ras, and PIK3CA mutations occur with high frequency in noninvasive tumors, leading to upregulation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase . Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9 is among the most frequent genetic alterations in bladder tumors and is considered an early event.
Large numbers of genomic changes have been detected using karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis in urothelial carcinoma. Numerically common are losses of 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 18q, and Y. Gains of 1q, 5p, 8q, and 17q are frequently present, and high-level amplifications can be found however, the target genes in the regions of amplifications have not been conclusively identified.
Alterations in the TP53 gene are noted in approximately 60% of invasive bladder cancers. Progression-free survival is significantly shorter in patients with TP53 mutations and is an independent predictor of death among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body
- Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
- Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
- Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.
Malignant Neoplasm Of Unspecified Lacrimal Gland And Duct
ICD-10 code C69.50 for Malignant neoplasm of unspecified lacrimal gland and duct
ICD-10 International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems , a medical classification list by the World Health Organization .
It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.
The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.
It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology .
The defined daily dose is a statistical measure of drug consumption, defined by the World Health Organization .
It is used to standardize the comparison of drug usage between different drugs or between different health care environments.
What Is Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.
In the U.S., bladder cancer is the third most common cancer in men. Each year, there are more than 83,000 new cases diagnosed in men and women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC. Bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older. It is found most often in the age group of 75-84. Caucasians are more likely to get bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African-Americans who do not survive the disease.
What is Cancer?
Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control. When this happens, the body cannot work the way it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. Not all lumps are cancers. Cancerous lumps are sometimes called malignant tumors.
What is Bladder Cancer?
When cells of the bladder grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in his/her bladder.
How Does Bladder Cancer Develop and Spread?
The bladder wall has many layers, made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium or transitional epithelium. This is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.
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Cancer That Has Spread To The Bladder
Sometimes cancer that has started elsewhere in the body can spread to the bladder. This can happen with prostate, rectum, ovary, cervix and womb cancer for example.
Cancers that have spread from somewhere else in the body are called secondary cancers. The cancer cells are the same type as the first cancer. So is the treatment.
If you have cancer that has spread to the bladder, you need to go to the section about your primary cancer.
Cancer and Its Management J Tobias and D HochhauserWiley Blackwell, 2015
A M Kamat and othersThe Lancet, 2016. Volume 388, Pages 276 -2810
AJCC Cancer Staging Manuel American Joint Committee on CancerSpringer, 2017
Bladder cancer: diagnosis and management of bladder cancerNational Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, 2015
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PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Bladder Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .
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After Bladder Cancer Has Been Diagnosed Tests Are Done To Find Out If Cancer Cells Have Spread Within The Bladder Or To Other Parts Of The Body
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within thebladder lining and muscle or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:
Specific Coding For Malignant Neoplasm Of Bladder
Non-specific codes like C67 require more digits to indicate the appropriate level of specificity. Consider using any of the following ICD-10 codes with a higher level of specificity when coding for malignant neoplasm of bladder:
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.0 for Malignant neoplasm of trigone of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.1 for Malignant neoplasm of dome of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.2 for Malignant neoplasm of lateral wall of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.3 for Malignant neoplasm of anterior wall of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.4 for Malignant neoplasm of posterior wall of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.5 for Malignant neoplasm of bladder neck
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.6 for Malignant neoplasm of ureteric orifice
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.7 for Malignant neoplasm of urachus
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.8 for Malignant neoplasm of overlapping sites of bladder
- BILLABLE CODE Use C67.9 for Malignant neoplasm of bladder, unspecified
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Other Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factors
Having bladder diverticula may increase an individuals chance of developing SCC. Rarely, bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment for CIS has been reported to lead to development of SCC. Development of bladder cancer at a younger age has been associated with bladder exstrophy. SCC has also been described in urachal remnants.
Coffee consumption does not increase the risk of developing bladder cancer. Early studies of rodents and a minority of human studies suggested a weak connection between artificial sweeteners and bladder cancer however, most recent studies show no significant correlation.
What Is Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells develop, they can form a tumor and, with time, spread to other parts of the body.
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. It has flexible, muscular walls that can stretch to hold urine and squeeze to send it out of the body. The bladder’s main job is to store urine. Urine is liquid waste made by the 2 kidneys and then carried to the bladder through 2 tubes called ureters. When you urinate, the muscles in the bladder contract, and urine is forced out of the bladder through a tube called the urethra.
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What Are The Treatment Options For Bladder Cancer
There are four types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. These include:
Sometimes, combinations of these treatments will be used.
Surgery is a common treatment option for bladder cancer. The type of surgery chosen will depend on the stage of the cancer.
- Transurethral resection of the bladder is used most often for early stage disease . It is done under general or spinal anesthesia. In this procedure, a special telescope called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The tumor is then trimmed away with the resectoscope, using a wire loop, and the raw surface of the bladder is then fulgurated .
- Partial cystectomy is the removal of a section of the bladder. At times, it is used for a single tumor that invades the bladder wall in only one region of the bladder. This type of surgery retains most of the bladder. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is often used in combination. Only a minority of patients will qualify for this bladder-sparing procedure.
- Radical cystectomy is complete removal of the bladder. It is used for more extensive cancers and those that have spread beyond the bladder .
Some common chemotherapy drugs that are used for the treatment of bladder cancer include:
Chemotherapy can be used alone, but is often used with surgery or radiation therapy.
Bladder cancer may be treated with intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy.