Tests That May Be Done
Physical exam: The doctor will check you for signs of bladder cancer and other health problems. This might include a rectal exam, during which a gloved finger is put into your rectum. If you are a woman, a pelvic exam might also be done. During these exams, the doctor can sometimes feel a bladder tumor.
Urine tests: For these tests, you’ll be asked to pee in a cup. Your urine is then tested for cancer cells, blood, or certain proteins .
Cystoscopy: For this exam, a doctor called a urologist looks at the inside of your bladder using a tool called a cystoscope. This is a thin tube with a tiny light and camera on its end. It’s put through the opening of your urethra and moved up into your bladder.
Blue light cystoscopy: Sometimes, special drugs are put into the bladder during the exam. Cancer cells soak up these drugs and then glow when the doctor shines a blue light through the scope. This can help the doctor see cancer cells that might have been missed with the normal light.
Bladder biopsy: This is needed to know for sure if you have bladder cancer. For this test, a cystoscope is used it to take a tiny piece of the bladder . More than one sample may be taken because sometimes cancer starts in more than one part of the bladder. Salt water washings of the inside of your bladder may also be collected to look for cancer cells. Any samples are sent to a lab and tested to see if there are cancer cells in them.
Kidney Pain Location And Sensation
Most people tend to associate pain in the area between the ribs and hips as either digestive problems or muscular back pain. However, kidney pain isnt always felt in the same place as the kidneys location.
Dr. Charles Patrick Davis on MedicineNet explains that renal or flank pain can be felt anywhere between the lowest rib and the buttocks. The pain may also radiate to the groin or abdominal area. Depending on the underlying cause of the kidney pain, you may feel the pain in just the left or right side of your back. However, sometimes kidney pain affects both sides of the back.3
You Have A Nerve Issue
Neurological problems can prevent normal signaling between the brain and the bladder and urethra, which could lead to trouble with bladder emptying. These include Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes or birth defects like spina bifida, according to the NIDDK.
Injuries that occur from a stroke or vaginal birth, as well as spinal cord injuries, pelvic injuries or brain injuries can also cause nerve damage that may lead to bladder problems.
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Promoting Good Bladder Health
Sometimes, there is no choice but to hold urine, but it may not be good for the bladder. “Holding your urine for a short period of time, usually up to one hour, is typically okay,” Ramin said. “However, protracted and repeated holding of urine may cause over-expansion of bladder capacity, transmission of excess pressure into the kidneys, and the inability to completely empty the bladder. These problems in turn may lead to UTI , cystitis and deterioration of kidney function.”
Drinking plenty of water throughout the day can also help prevent bladder stones by preventing the concentration of minerals that cause the stones. The Mayo Clinic suggests asking a medical profession about how much water the body needs according to age, size and activity level.
Editor’s Note: If you’d like more information on this topic, we recommend the following book:
Interstitial Cystitis/painful Bladder Syndrome
Interstitial cystitis, also referred to as bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic condition that causes painful urinary symptoms. It affects mostly women, according to the . The cause of the condition is currently unknown, but certain factors may trigger symptoms, such as infections, physical or emotional stress, diet, bladder injury, or certain medications.
Symptoms of interstitial cystitis
The symptoms can range from mild to severe and vary from person to person. Symptoms can include:
- urinalysis to check for infection
- cystoscopy to view the lining of your bladder
- urinary function tests
- potassium sensitivity test
Your doctor may also perform other tests to help rule out cancer as the cause of your symptoms, such as a biopsy, which is usually performed during cystoscopy or urine cytology to check for cancer cells in your urine.
Treatments for interstitial cystitis
There is no one specific treatment for interstitial cystitis. Your doctor will recommend treatments for your individual symptoms, which may include:
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What Is The Urinary Tract
The urinary tract is the bodys drainage system for removing urine, which is made up of wastes and extra fluid. For normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together, and in the correct order.
Kidneys. Two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below your rib cage, one on each side of your spine. Every day, your kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to remove wastes and balance fluids. This process produces about 1 to 2 quarts of urine per day.
Ureters. Thin tubes of muscle that connect your kidneys to your bladder and carry urine to the bladder.
Bladder. A hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ that expands as it fills with urine. The bladder sits in your pelvis between your hip bones. A normal bladder acts like a reservoir. It can hold 1.5 to 2 cups of urine. Although you do not control how your kidneys function, you can control when to empty your bladder. Bladder emptying is known as urination.
Urethra. A tube located at the bottom of the bladder that allows urine to exit the body during urination.
The urinary tract includes two sets of muscles that work together as a sphincter, closing off the urethra to keep urine in the bladder between your trips to the bathroom.
How Will I Feel After A Hysterectomy
After a hysterectomy, your periods will stop. Occasionally, you may feel bloated and have symptoms similar to when you were menstruating. It is normal to have light vaginal bleeding or a dark brown discharge for about four to six weeks after surgery.
You may feel discomfort at the incision site for about four weeks, and any redness, bruising or swelling will disappear in four to six weeks. Feeling burning or itching around the incision is normal. You may also experience a numb feeling around the incision and down your leg. This is normal and, if present, usually lasts about two months. Its normal to have scarring, both internally and externally. Laparoscopic surgeries will cause smaller, less visible scars as opposed to abdominal hysterectomy.
If the ovaries remain, you should not experience hormone-related effects. If the ovaries were removed with the uterus before menopause, you may experience the symptoms that often occur with menopause, such as hot flashes. Your healthcare provider may prescribe hormone replacement therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms.
People who undergo a subtotal hysterectomy may continue to have a light period for a year after the procedure. This happens because small amounts of the endometrial lining can remain in the cervix, causing light periods.
Emotional reactions to a hysterectomy vary and can depend on how well you were prepared for the surgery, the reason for having it and whether the problem has been treated.
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Questions To Ask The Doctor
- What treatment do you think is best for me?
- Whats the goal of this treatment? Do you think it could cure the cancer?
- Will treatment include surgery? If so, who will do the surgery?
- What will the surgery be like?
- How will I pee after surgery?
- Will I have other types of treatment, too?
- Whats the goal of these treatments?
- What side effects could I have from these treatments?
- Is there a clinical trial that might be right for me?
- What about treatments like special vitamins or diets that friends tell me about? How will I know if they are safe?
- What should I do to be ready for treatment?
- Is there anything I can do to help the treatment work better?
- Whats the next step?
Anatomy Of The Urinary Bladder
The empty urinary bladder is somewhat tetrahedral in shape like a three sided pyramid with a triangular base . This gives the bladder one superior surface , two inferolateral surfaces and a posterior surface . The external aspect of the superior surface of the bladder is covered by peritoneum.
The internal surface of the bladder is lined with mucosa, which is folded to form rugae. This makes the internal surface of the bladder rough except for the smooth area of the trigone. The bulk of the bladder wall is composed of the detrusor muscle. which is smooth muscle and therefore under involuntary control.
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The Layers Of The Bladder Wall
The bladder walls are mainly made up of muscle tissue, but the inside of the bladder is lined with two different types of tissue.1-3 The inside of the bladder is lined with a thin layer of cells, which is called the urothelium. Between this lining of cells and the muscles of the bladder is another very thin layer of tissue called the lamina propria. Most bladder cancers start in the cells of the bladder lining.
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When To See A Doctor About Urinary Retention
Sudden, severe urinary retention can be life-threatening. You should seek emergency medical attention if you haven’t been able to urinate for more than four hours, Dr. Ramin recommends.
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Surgery For Bladder Cancer
Surgery is done for most bladder cancers. The type you have depends on the stage of the cancer.
Removing the tumor from the inside bladder is the most common surgery for early bladder cancer. This can be done during a cystoscopy. A a cystoscope with a looped wire on the end is used to remove the tumor.
When the cancer is more invasive, the cancer is removed along with part of the bladder or the entire bladder.
If only part of the bladder is removed, you’ll still be able to hold and release urine as normal, though in smaller amounts. If the entire bladder is removed, you’ll need another way to store and pass urine. Your doctor can explain the options for this.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have some risks and side effects. For instance, removing the bladder not only changes how your body passes urine, but it can also cause sexual side effects. If you have these or any other problems, let your doctors know. There are ways to help deal with many side effects.
Less Active Lifestyles Impact Bladder Capacity And Kidney Functioning
“The results of a survey of 1198 people from Aeroflow Urology showed that 43 percent of people were less active and peeing more during the pandemic,” says Dr. Fosnight. “The relationship between physical activity and bladder health is actually quite significant. Moving your body regularly throughout the day helps your heart and kidneys move blood through your body and into your kidneys. When this happens, your kidneys filter your blood and create more pee. Having movement in your life can help you keep your kidney and bladder function working optimally by improving circulation and filtration.”
Getting up and walking around and not sitting for large chunks of hours is a great way to support your overall healthwhich includes your bladder.
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What Are Some Of The Causes Of Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease is defined as having some type of kidney abnormality, or “marker”, such as protein in the urine and having decreased kidney function for three months or longer.
There are many causes of chronic kidney disease. The kidneys may be affected by diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Some kidney conditions are inherited .
Others are congenital that is, individuals may be born with an abnormality that can affect their kidneys. The following are some of the most common types and causes of kidney damage.
Diabetes is a disease in which your body does not make enough insulin or cannot use normal amounts of insulin properly. This results in a high blood sugar level, which can cause problems in many parts of your body. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease.
High blood pressure is another common cause of kidney disease and other complications such as heart attacks and strokes. High blood pressure occurs when the force of blood against your artery walls increases. When high blood pressure is controlled, the risk of complications such as chronic kidney disease is decreased.
Glomerulonephritis is a disease that causes inflammation of the kidney’s tiny filtering units called the glomeruli. Glomerulonephritis may happen suddenly, for example, after a strep throat, and the individual may get well again.However, the disease may develop slowly over several years and it may cause progressive loss of kidney function.
How Long Do Kidney Stone Symptoms Last
As mentioned, the time frame for these symptoms can be as short as a week or up to a month and beyond. So, even if it feels like your kidney stone pain has subsided, it’s important to reach out to your doctor since sporadic pain is common with this condition.
“While some kidney stones pass on their own, others require treatment such as medications or procedures to help break up the stone or even surgical removal. Your doctor can perform the tests needed to determine whether the stone is likely to pass on its own or if you might need treatment. In addition, your doctor can help you manage the pain associated with passing the stone,” adds Dr. Kannady.
Differences Between Male And Female Urinary Tracts
Men and women have lower urinary tracts that carry out the same job of storing and releasing urine from the body.2,3 However, parts of the male and female lower urinary tracts are structured differently. The bladder is the same, but the urethra is not. The urethra is a thin tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body during urination.
What Medications Treat A Prolapsed Bladder
Estrogen replacement therapy may be used to help the body strengthen the muscles in and around the vagina.
- Estrogen replacement therapy may be contraindicated . The ovaries stop producing estrogen naturally after menopause, and the muscles of the vagina may weaken as a result.
- In mild cases of prolapsed bladder, estrogen may be prescribed in an attempt to reverse bladder prolapse symptoms, such as vaginal weakening and incontinence. For more severe degrees of prolapse, estrogen replacement therapy may be used along with other types of treatment.
- Estrogen can be administered orally as a pill or topically as a patch or cream. The cream has very little systemic absorption and has a potent effect locally where it is applied.
- Topical administration has less risk than the oral preparations.
- The application of estrogens to the anterior vagina and urethral area may be very helpful in alleviating urinary symptoms, such as urgency and frequency, even in the face of prolapsed bladder.
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Why Are The Kidneys So Important
Most people know that a major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. This process is necessary to maintain a stable balance of body chemicals.
The critical regulation of the body’s salt, potassium and acid content is performed by the kidneys. The kidneys also produce hormones that affect the function of other organs. For example, a hormone produced by the kidneys stimulates red blood cell production. Other hormones produced by the kidneys help regulate blood pressure and control calcium metabolism.
The kidneys are powerful chemical factories that perform the following functions:
- remove waste products from the body
- remove drugs from the body
- balance the body’s fluids
- release hormones that regulate blood pressure
- produce an active form of vitamin D that promotes strong, healthy bones
- control the production of red blood cells
Below you will find more information about the kidneys and the vital role they play in keeping your body functioning.
Who To See For Bladder Problems
Bladder pain or discomfort, blood in urine, or urinary leaking are symptoms to report to a healthcare professional. They can help diagnose and treat any underlying condition causing bladder symptoms.
In many cases, a person may find going to their primary care doctor is a good place to start. Some insurances also require a referral to a specialist from a primary care doctor.
Some doctors specialize in bladder health. Specialists include:
- Urologists: Urologists specialize in treating urological conditions, such as UTIs, kidney stones, and other conditions of the urinary tract. They often form the head of a treatment team when a person has a condition affecting their urinary tract.
- Oncologist: A urologist or primary care doctor may refer a person to an oncologist to help with cancer detection and treatment.
- Gynecologist: A gynecologist specializes in female reproductive organs and may be able to help with certain issues that can affect the bladder.
- Urogynecologist: A urogynecologist specializes in female pelvic medicine and reproductive surgery, including surgery to treat stress urinary incontinence.
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