What Is A Radical Cystectomy
A urologist may suggest removal of the bladder or a radical cystectomy if a bladder tumor invades the muscle wall or if CIS or a T1 tumor still persists after BCG therapy. Before any radical surgery is performed, a series of CT scans or an MRI will be ordered to exclude the possibility of metastatic or distant disease in other parts of the body. If the patient has metastatic disease, surgery to remove the bladder is not recommended and patients will be referred to a medical oncologist to discuss chemotherapy. The two types of surgery performed for muscle-invasive bladder cancer are partial or complete radical cystectomy.
Quality Of Life After Surgery
Since bladder removal surgery involves restructuring the way urine exits the body, a person may initially experience a decrease in their quality of life. However, managing urine secretion usually becomes easier as time goes on.
Immediately following surgery, doctors usually restrict what the person can do. This restriction, though temporary, may feel frustrating.
It is common for the new urinary system, such as urinary sacks or stomas, to feel uncomfortable at first. If the person has trouble adjusting, they may want to discuss their concerns and feelings with a doctor, social worker, or counselor. Joining a support group can also help.
The person should be able to return to all their normal life activities within 46 weeks following surgery.
During recovery, the person will be able to get used to their new means of urinating. As their familiarity with the new urinary system grows, any inconvenient symptoms should lessen.
Preparing For A Radical Cystectomy
Once your surgery date has been scheduled, youll receive Your Guide to Radical Cystectomy: Preparing for and Recovering from Surgery. This booklet provides checklists for tracking each step you need to take before and after surgery, details about what to expect throughout each stage of the process, and instructions on what to do, what to bring and where to go on the day of surgery. At Johns Hopkins, we have developed an enhanced recovery after surgery critical care pathway to improve outcomes of our bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
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What Is A Partial Or Radical Cystectomy
The most common type of cystectomy is a radical cystectomy, in which the surgeon removes the patients entire bladder, lymph nodes in the pelvis, and potentially additional tissues and organs. Male patients may have the prostate and seminal vesicles removed in female patients, surgeons may remove the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and part of the vagina. Partial cystectomies, in which only part of the bladder is removed, are less commonly used to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
What Is The Prognosis For People Who Have Cystectomy
Your recovery depends on the type of bladder removal surgery you have. Typically, patients who undergo a partial cystectomy will have a shorter recovery period compared with patients who undergo a radical cystectomy. Many patients will have poor appetite and abnormal bowel function immediately after radical cystectomy, and complete recovery may take several weeks to months.
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If Treatment Does Not Work
Full recovery from bladder cancer is not always possible. If the cancer cannot be cured or controlled, the disease may be called advanced or metastatic.
This diagnosis is stressful, and for many people, advanced cancer is difficult to discuss. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team has special skills, experience, expertise, and knowledge to support patients and their families, and is there to help. Making sure a person is physically comfortable, free from pain, and emotionally supported is extremely important.
Patients who have advanced cancer and who are expected to live less than 6 months may want to consider hospice care. Hospice care is a specific type of palliative care designed to provide the best possible quality of life for people who are near the end of life. You and your family are encouraged to talk with the health care team about hospice care options, which include hospice care at home, a special hospice center, or other health care locations. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable option for many families. Learn more about advanced cancer care planning.
After the death of a loved one, many people need support to help them cope with the loss. Learn more about grief and loss.
Will I Be On A Special Diet After Surgery
Specific diet recommendations will be given at the time of discharge. Most patients will be able to eat a regular diet at the time of discharge. However, it is common for the intestines to slow down after this type of surgery, so we recommend eating smaller, more frequent meals, and drinking plenty of liquids until your initialfollow-up appointment.
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Cystectomy Neobladder And Urinary Diversion
A cystectomy is surgery to remove the bladder. This procedure is used to treat bladder cancer that has grown into the muscle. A partial cystectomy removes only a portion of the bladder. A radical cystectomy removes the entire bladder as well as nearby lymph nodes and organs that may contain cancer.
During a partial or radical cystectomy, the surgeon may be able to create a new bladder, called a neobladder. It is built from part of the small intestine. If a neobladder is not possible, the surgeon may divert urine through part of the small intestine to an opening on the outside of the abdomen. This is called a stoma.
How Do You Live Without A Bladder
How do you live without a bladder? Yes. You can live without a bladder. However, you still need something that can perform the two basic functions of the bladder: storing and emptying of urine. Physicians have come up with many ways over the years to accomplish these tasks, many of which are still used today.
What are the options for removal of a bladder? There are two different surgical options for basic bladder removal surgery. These are: A partial cystectomy, which is done when the cancer is located in only one spot on the bladder wall, and it has not spread to the opening where urine leaves the body.
What happens after bladder removal surgery? Post Bladder Removal surgery, the following complications may arise: Infection in the surgical wound. Urine leakage inside the abdomen. Urinary tract infection. Loss of blood supply to the stoma. Bowel blockage. Hernia.
What is surgical removal of the bladder called? Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back following initial treatment.
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Treating Stage I Bladder Cancer
Stage I bladder cancers have grown into the connective tissue layer of the bladder wall , but have not reached the muscle layer.
Transurethral resection with fulguration is usually the first treatment for these cancers. But it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it. If no other treatment is given, many people will later get a new bladder cancer, which often will be more advanced. This is more likely to happen if the first cancer is high-grade .
Even if the cancer is found to be low grade , a second TURBT is often recommended several weeks later. If the doctor then feels that all of the cancer has been removed, intravesical BCG or intravesical chemo is usually given. If all of the cancer wasn’t removed, options are intravesical BCG or cystectomy .
If the cancer is high grade, if many tumors are present, or if the tumor is very large when it’s first found, radical cystectomy may be recommended.
For people who arent healthy enough for a cystectomy, radiation therapy might be an option, but the chances for cure are not as good.
Continent Diversion With A Continent Diversion You Control Urination The Surgeon Makes A Pouch To Hold The Urine You Drain The Urine From This New Pouch Either With A Tube Or Through The Ureter A Continent Cutaneous Reservoir Is Also Called A Continent Diversion With Catheterizable Cutaneous Stoma The Surgeon Creates A Pouch Using The Right Side Of The Colon And A Piece Of The Small Intestine The Pouch Is Attached To An Opening Made In The Abdominal Wall And Skin You Drain Urine From The Pouch By Inserting A Tube Into The Opening Several Times Throughout The Day
An orthotopic neobladder is when the surgeon makes a pouch usually from part of the small intestine. The ureters are attached to the pouch, which is then attached to the urethra. You empty the pouch by urinating normally. An orthotopic neobladder is a more difficult type of surgery than other urinary diversions and there is more chance of problems . So it is usually done in younger people without serious medical problems.
Find out more about .
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How Is Bladder Tumor Biopsy And Resection Performed
You may have general anesthesia for this procedure, which means youll be asleep for it. Some providers might use regional anesthesia, which means youll be awake. However, you wont feel any pain.
Bladder tumor biopsy and resection is performed when a doctor inserts a rigid instrument called a resectoscope into the bladder through the urethra. Inserting the resectoscope in this way means that no incisions are necessary.
Your provider will use the resectoscope to remove the tumor, which will be sent to a pathology lab for testing. Once the tumor is removed, your doctor will attempt to destroy any remaining cancer cells by burning the area using electric current by a process called fulguration or cauterization.
Your provider may decide to insert some type of chemotherapy medicine into the bladder using the scope. This is called intravesical chemotherapy. Your provider might suggest that you have maintenance intravesical chemotherapy for a period of time, meaning that youll have regular treatments.
Sexual Effects Of Radical Cystectomy In Women
This surgery often removes the front part of the vagina. This can make sex less comfortable for some women, though most of the time it’s still possible. One option is to have the vagina rebuilt . There’s more than one way to do this, so talk with your surgeon about the pros and cons of each method. Whether or not you have reconstruction, there are many ways to make sex more comfortable.
Radical cystectomy can also affect a womans ability to have an orgasm if the nerve bundles that run along each side of the vagina are damaged. Talk with your doctor about whether these nerves can be left in place during surgery.
If the surgeon takes out the end of the urethra where it opens outside the body, the clitoris can lose some of its blood supply, which might affect sexual arousal. Talk with your surgeon about whether the end of the urethra can be spared.
For more on ways to cope with these and other sexual issues, see Sex and the Woman With Cancer.
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Risks And Side Effects Of Cystectomy
The risks with any type of cystectomy are much like those with any major surgery. Problems during or shortly after surgery can include:
- Reactions to anesthesia
- Blood clots in the legs or lungs
- Damage to nearby organs
Most people will have at least some pain after the operation, which can be controlled with pain medicines.
When Will I Have My First Follow
Even after surgery, you will need to be seen routinely in clinic to make sure the cancer has not returned or to arrange further treatments. Make sure you donât miss any follow-up appointments.
However, if you experience any of the following before your appointment, please call your surgeonâs office at any time. After hours you will be able to contact an on-call physician. Occasionally, you may need to be directed to the nearest emergency room.
- You notice any pain or swelling in your legs, sudden chest pain, or shortness of breath
- Expanding redness, tenderness, warmth, or swelling at the incision
- You develop a fever
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Doctor Visits And Tests
Your schedule of exams and tests will depend on the stage and grade of the cancer, what treatments youve had, and other factors. Be sure to follow your doctors advice about follow-up tests.
Most experts recommend repeat exams every 3 to 6 months for people who have no signs of cancer after treatment. These are done to see if the cancer is growing back or if theres a new cancer in the bladder or urinary system. Your follow-up plan might include urine tests, physical exams, imaging tests , and blood tests. These doctor visits and tests will be done less often as time goes by and no new cancers are found.
- If your bladder hasnt been removed, regular cystoscopy exams will also be done every 3 months for at least the first 2 years.
- If you have a urinary diversion, you will be checked for signs of infection and changes in the health of your kidneys. Urine tests, blood tests, and x-rays might be used to do this. Your vitamin B12 will be checked at least once a year because urinary diversions made with your intestine can affect B12 absorption. Your doctor will also talk to you about how well youre able to control your urine. Tests will be done to look for signs of cancer in other parts of your urinary tract, too.
Some doctors recommend other lab tests as well, such as the urine tumor marker tests discussed in Can Bladder Cancer Be Found Early? Many of these tests can be used to help see if the cancer has come back, but so far none of these can take the place of cystoscopy.
Sexual Effects Of Radical Cystectomy In Men
Radical cystectomy removes the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. Since these glands make most of the seminal fluid, removing them means that a man will no longer make semen. He can still have an orgasm, but it will be dry.
After surgery, many men have nerve damage that affects their ability to have erections. In some men this may improve over time. For the most part, the younger a man is, the more likely he is to regain the ability to have full erections. If this issue is important to you, discuss it with your doctor before surgery. Newer surgical techniques may help lower the chance of erection problems.
For more on sexual issues and ways to cope with them, see Sex and the Man With Cancer.
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Cystectomy Surgery Radical And Partial
- Open Radical Cystectomy
- Robotic Radical Cystectomy, which is the robotic-assisted, minimally invasive removal of the bladder, may be the optimal treatment for bladder cancer for aggressive or recurrent disease. The surgery typically includes removal of the surrounding pelvic lymph nodes. Often, the urinary diversion can also be completed robot-assisted laparoscopically.
Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials
Major drug companies continually research and develop new medications and treatments for bladder cancer that must be shown to be safe and effective before doctors can prescribe them to patients. Through clinical trials, researchers test the effects of new drugs on a group of volunteers who have bladder cancer. Following a strict protocol and using carefully controlled conditions, researchers evaluate the investigational drugs under development and measure the ability of the new drug to treat bladder cancer, its safety, and any possible side effects.
Some patients are reluctant to take part in clinical trials for fear of getting no treatment at all. But patients who participate in clinical trials receive the most effective therapy currently available for the condition, or they may receive treatments that are being evaluated for future use. These bladder cancer drugs may be even more effective than current treatment. Comparing them in a clinical trial is the only way to find out.
Hereâs where to find information about whether a bladder cancer clinical trial is right for you.
This website lists industry-sponsored clinical trials that are actively recruiting patients.
American Cancer Society: âBladder Cancer Treatment,â âBladder Cancer Surgery,â âRadiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer,â âChemotherapy for bladder cancer,â âFDA Approves New Immunotherapy Drug for Bladder Cancer,â âImmunotherapy for bladder cancer.â
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How The Surgery Is Done
Surgery to remove the bladder and create a urinary diversion is a major and complicated operation. It is important to have this surgery in a specialised centre with a surgeon who does a lot of cystectomies.
Different surgical methods may be used for removing the bladder:
- Open surgery makes one long cut in the abdomen. A cut is usually made from the area below the bellybutton to the pubic area.
- Keyhole surgery, also known as minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery, makes several smaller cuts in the abdomen. Instruments are inserted through the cuts, sometimes with help from a robotic system.
Recovery may be faster and the hospital stay may be shorter with keyhole surgery, but the surgery may be more difficult and take longer.
In general, having an experienced surgeon is more important than the type of surgery.
Talk to your surgeon about the pros and cons of each surgical method, and check what youll have to pay. Unless you are treated as a public patient in a public hospital, there are likely to substantial costs not covered by Medicare or your health fund.
Types Of Urinary Diversions
Types of reconstructive surgery include:
- Incontinent diversion
- Continent diversion
In all three types of reconstructive surgery following radical cystectomy, the surgeon utilizes a piece of the patients intestine to connect to the ureters, which are small tube-like organs that deliver urine from the kidneys to the bladder. In patients with an incontinent diversion, the urine is then stored outside of the body in a pouch connected to an opening in the abdomen called a stoma. In patients with continent diversion, the urine is stored inside of the body in a pouch and then passed through a catheter connected to the stoma several times a day. In patients with a neobladder, urine is stored in a new bladder that is made from part of the intestine, which is attached to the patients urethra. This allows patients to potentially urinate in a more normal way after they recover from the surgery.
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