Monday, January 30, 2023

How Fast Does Bladder Cancer Spread

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Treating Stage Ii Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer Guide

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall , but no farther. Transurethral resection is typically the first treatment for these cancers, but it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.

When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients.

Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.

If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.

For people who have had surgery, but the features of the tumor show it is at high risk of coming back, the immunotherapy drug, nivolumab, might be offered. When given after surgery, nivolumab is given for up to one year.

For patients who cant have surgery because of other serious health problems, TURBT, radiation, chemotherapy, or some combination of these may be options.

Complete Blood Count And Chemistry Panel

On the complete blood count , the presence of anemia or an elevated white blood cell count warrants further investigation for an explanation.

The chemistry panel should include liver function studies. Although BCG is administered intravesically, systemic absorption of this agent can produce acute hepatitis. Performing baseline liver function tests before initiating therapy and repeating these tests during the course of therapy is important to help prevent serious adverse events and to determine when therapy should be stopped. In patients with suspected metastasis to liver or bone, liver function tests and measurement of the bony fraction of alkaline phosphatase should be performed.

Kidney function should be evaluated prior to the initiation of therapy because patients with marginal or abnormal kidney function may have an obstruction or some type of renal disease that may worsen with intravesical therapy. Kidney function can be evaluated with serum creatinine measurements or technetium scans of the kidneys.

Surgery For Bladder Cancer

Surgery is done for most bladder cancers. The type you have depends on the stage of the cancer.

Removing the tumor from the inside bladder is the most common surgery for early bladder cancer. This can be done during a cystoscopy. A a cystoscope with a looped wire on the end is used to remove the tumor.

When the cancer is more invasive, the cancer is removed along with part of the bladder or the entire bladder.

If only part of the bladder is removed, you’ll still be able to hold and release urine as normal, though in smaller amounts. If the entire bladder is removed, you’ll need another way to store and pass urine. Your doctor can explain the options for this.

Side effects of surgery

Any type of surgery can have some risks and side effects. For instance, removing the bladder not only changes how your body passes urine, but it can also cause sexual side effects. If you have these or any other problems, let your doctors know. There are ways to help deal with many side effects.

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Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer

Symptoms of bladder cancer are relatively common symptoms of various diseases and are easy to miss. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is reddish or brownish-colored urine from blood in the urine. Other symptoms include the frequent urge to urinate, pain while urinating, and pain in the back or pelvis.

How Is Bladder Cancer Diagnosed

All About Bladder Cancer: For Patients and their Families

Anyone with blood in the urine should have other testing done. Often, the first thing that is done is a urine cytology, which looks at the urine under a microscope to find abnormal appearing cells. If these cells are seen, a diagnosis of cancer may be made. However, the test does not detect all cases of bladder cancer.

  • An X-ray of the upper urinary tract may be done to diagnose bladder cancer or to see if these structures contain cancer.
  • Ultrasound can be used to study the kidneys.
  • A CT scan is used to look at the entire urinary tract.
  • An intravenous pyelogram can be used to study the urinary tract. An IVP puts a dye into a patient’s vein and then an x-ray is done a short time later. The dye exits the body via the kidneys and urine and can be seen on the x-ray, showing the kidney collecting system, ureters, and often the bladder.

Though the above tests are useful, the most important test for diagnosis and staging is a cystoscopy. A fiberoptic camera is placed into the bladder, going through the urethra. Cystoscopy allows the provider to see the entire bladder and biopsy any suspicious lesions. If the biopsy reveals cancer, a repeat cystoscopy and resection is done to see the whole tumor and if it has started to spread.

If you are diagnosed with cancer, you will also have a complete physical done. Your provider will tell you what tests you need to have done to help determine the extent of the cancer and if it has spread.

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Combination With Conventional Treatments

Far safer ground is to use phytotherapy to support the cancer patient undergoing conventional treatments. Phytotherapy may be given prior to conventional treatments to help the patient prepare for them . They may also be given during conventional treatments to improve treatment outcomes, QOL and reduce side effects. They may be given after conventional treatment for all the above reasons, but also to prevent cancer recurrence and improve survival prospects. This is the most active area of research for phytotherapy in cancer and some relevant clinical studies will be reviewed.

Twenty-five patients with a variety of very advanced cancers of the gastrointestinal tract undergoing palliative radio- or chemotherapy received up to 3 g/day of GLA as evening primrose oil . They were matched to 25 controls.45 The group receiving EPO exhibited highly statistically significant and clinically relevant survival differences and fewer adverse effects were noted from concurrent conventional treatment. Cancer markers also fell in some patients .

Codonopsis is a widely prescribed adaptogen in China, used in conjunction with conventional cancer therapies to reduce side effects and support immunity.58 It was used as an adjuvant in 76 cancer patients during radiotherapy and reduced its immunosuppressive effect.59 Pharmacological studies suggest it can help both white and red blood cell production.60

What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need

There are many ways to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you.

Bladder cancer is most often treated with:

  • Surgery
  • Chemo
  • Immunotherapy

Sometimes more than one type is used. The treatment plan thats best for you depends on:

  • The stage and grade of the cancer
  • Whether the cancer has spread into the bladder wall
  • The chance that a type of treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
  • Other health problems you have
  • Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it

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Prognosis And Survival For Bladder Cancer

If you have bladder cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors best estimate of how cancer will affect someone and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type and stage and other features of the cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.

A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. A predictive factor influences how a cancer will respond to a certain treatment. Prognostic and predictive factors are often discussed together. They both play a part in deciding on a treatment plan and a prognosis.

The following are prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer.

Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body

Bladder Cancer: What to Know If Youve Just Been Diagnosed

When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.

  • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if bladder cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually bladder cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bladder cancer, not bone cancer.

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Treatment Of Stage I Bladder Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include the following:

  • Radical cystectomy.
  • A clinical trial of a new treatment.
  • Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Stages Of Bladder Cancer: What You Need To Know

    When you are first diagnosed with bladder cancer, your doctors will perform tests to determine the stage and grade of your disease. The bladder cancer staging and grading processes help your doctors make treatment decisions and estimate your chance of recovery.

    Bladder cancer is a growth that starts in the inner wall of the bladder, the organ that collects and expels urine created by the kidneys. The bladder has three layers of muscular walls that make up its structure. A cancerous growth in the bladder can grow uncontrollably and start spreading to other parts of the body.

    When doctors first diagnose a cancerous tumor of any kind, they assess how much it has grown, how far it has spread in the body, and how abnormal, or wild, the cancerous cells in the tumor look. These assessments are used to determine cancers stage and grade.

    Doctors use the staging information to compare treatment options and patient outcomes. Staging and grading also important in determining your eligibility for cancer treatment clinical trials.

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    Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

    When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.

    Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

    If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.

    Treating Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

    Can Colon Cancer Spread To Bladder

    These cancers have reached the pelvic or abdominal wall , may have spread to nearby lymph nodes , and/or have spread to distant parts of the body . Stage IV cancers are very hard to get rid of completely.

    Chemotherapy is usually the first treatment if the cancer has not spread to distant parts of the body . The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options. If there are still signs of cancer in the bladder, chemo with or without radiation, changing to another kind of chemo, trying an immunotherapy drug, or cystectomy may be recommended.

    Chemo is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body . After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done. If there are still signs of cancer, options might include chemo, radiation, both at the same time, or immunotherapy.

    In most cases surgery cant remove all of the cancer, so treatment is usually aimed at slowing the cancers growth and spread to help people live longer and feel better. If surgery is a treatment option, it’s important to understand the goal of the operation whether it’s to try to cure the cancer, to help a person live longer, or to help prevent or relieve symptoms from the cancer.

    Because treatment is unlikely to cure these cancers, many experts recommend taking part in a clinical trial.

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    Oral Cancer Symptoms And Risks

    Some early signs of oral cancer include a sore in your mouth that does not heal, an unusual lump in your neck, bleeding from the mouth, persistent earaches, a mass or growth anywhere in your oral cavity, weight loss and numbness.

    It is beneficial to be proactive and visit the doctor so that cancer can be diagnosed early and oral cancer treatment can begin from the early stages itself.

    Apart from this, oral cancer can be a result of some unhealthy habits like smoking and consuming alcohol in large quantities. An HPV infection, genetics, returning cancers, weak immune systems and poor nutrition are all factors that could lead to a person contracting oral cancer.

    How Can I Prevent Bladder Cancer

    Stopping smoking is the best way to prevent bladder cancer. You should also reduce your exposure to cancer-causing agents to help prevent bladder cancer. Other than these measures, decreasing your risk of invasive bladder cancer relies on early detection of symptoms and possibly screening if you are high-risk.

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    Treatment Of Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has not spread to other parts of the body may include the following:

    Treatment of stage IV bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung, bone, or liver, may include the following:

    • External radiation therapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
    • Urinary diversion or cystectomy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
    • A clinical trial of new anticancer drugs.

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Five Types Of Standard Treatment Are Used:

    Bladder Cancer: The Basics | Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute

    Surgery

    One of the following types of surgery may be done:

    • Transurethral resection with fulguration: Surgery in which a cystoscope is inserted into the bladder through the urethra.A tool with a small wire loop on the end is then used to remove thecancer or to burn the tumor away with high-energy electricity. This is known as fulguration.
    • Radical cystectomy: Surgery to remove the bladder and anylymph nodes and nearby organs that contain cancer. This surgery may bedone when the bladder cancer invades the muscle wall, or when superficialcancer involves a large part of the bladder. In men, the nearby organs that areremoved are the prostate and the seminal vesicles. In women, the uterus, theovaries, and part of the vagina are removed. Sometimes, when the cancer hasspread outside the bladder and cannot be completely removed, surgery to removeonly the bladder may be done to reduce urinarysymptoms caused by the cancer.When the bladder must be removed, the surgeon creates another way for urine toleave the body.
    • Partial cystectomy: Surgery to remove part of thebladder. This surgery may be done for patients who have a low-grade tumor thathas invaded the wall of the bladder but is limited to one area of the bladder.Because only a part of the bladder is removed, patients are able to urinate normally afterrecovering from this surgery. This is also called segmental cystectomy.
    • Urinary diversion: Surgery to make a new way forthe body to store and pass urine.

    Radiation therapy

    Chemotherapy

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    Survival For All Stages Of Bladder Cancer

    Generally, for people diagnosed with bladder cancer in England:

    • around 75 out of every 100 survive their cancer for 1 year or more after diagnosis
    • almost 55 out of every 100 survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed
    • around 45 out of every 100 survive their cancer for 10 years or more after diagnosis

    Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019Office for National Statistics

    These statistics are for net survival. Net survival estimates the number of people who survive their cancer rather than calculating the number of people diagnosed with cancer who are still alive. In other words, it is the survival of cancer patients after taking into account that some people would have died from other causes if they had not had cancer.

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