Tests For Bladder Cancer
Your doctor may do some tests to check for bladder cancer:
- internal examination the doctor may check inside your bottom or vagina with their finger, using gloves
- urine tests your urine will be checked for signs of bladder cancer
- blood tests to check your general health
- ultrasound a scan on the outside of your abdomen to check for cancer
- cystoscopy the doctor puts a small camera into your bladder to see inside
- biopsy the doctor takes a small sample of the cells from the bladder to check for signs of cancer.
Your doctor might ask you to have further tests. These can include:
- CT scan and x-rays scans that take pictures of the inside of the body, sometimes also called a CT-IVP or a triple phase abdominal-pelvic CT scan
- MRI scan a scan that uses magnetism and radio waves to take pictures of the inside of the body
- bone scan a scan that uses dye to show changes in your bones
- FDG-PET scan a scan that uses an injection of liquid to show cancer cells.
Bladder Cancer Stages And Survival Rates
Cancer survival rates are also categorized according to the stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed. The stage of cancer generally refers to how far it has progressed, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. For bladder cancer, the 5-year survival rate for people with:2,3
- Bladder cancer in situ is around 96 percent
- Localized bladder cancer is around 70 percent
- Bladder cancer that has spread to the regional lymph nodes is 35 percent
- Distant or metastasized bladder cancer is 5 percent
If you would like to learn more about bladder cancer statistics, consider speaking with someone on your health care team. They will be able to explain more about how these statistics apply to your cancer. Tell us about your experience in the comments below, or with the community.
Bladder Cancer Mortality By Age
Bladder cancer mortality is strongly related to age, with the highest mortality rates being in older people. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year around 7 in 10 deaths were in people aged 75 and over. This largely reflects higher incidence and lower survival for bladder cancer in older people.
Age-specific mortality rates rise steeply from around age 55-59. The highest rates are in the 90+ age group for females and males. Mortality rates are significantly lower in females than males in a number of age groups. The gap is widest at age 90+,when the age-specific mortality rate is 3.5 times lower in females than in males.
Bladder Cancer , Average Number of Deaths per Year and Age-Specific Mortality Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018
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Know Your Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Understanding what can increase your risk of developing bladder cancer as you age can empower you to take preventive steps.
Smoking tobacco is an important bladder cancer risk factor, as it is for numerous other cancers and diseases.
Dr. Grivas lists these additional risk factors:
- Exposure to industrial chemicals, such as aromatic amines, arsenic, rubber, leather, textiles, dyes , aluminum, plastic, carpet, metal and printing/paint products
- Personal and family history of bladder cancer
- Chronic bladder irritation or infections
- Bladder birth defects
- Certain chemotherapy drugs and radiation treatment
- Inadequate hydration
- Prolonged use of certain medications and certain Chinese herbs are linked with possible increased risk
- In areas where it is common, the Schistosoma haematobium parasite is linked with squamous cell bladder cancer.
Sexuality And Bladder Cancer
Having bladder cancer and treatment can change the way you feel about yourself, other people, relationships and sex. These changes can be very upsetting and hard to talk about. Doctors and nurses are very understanding and can give you support. You can ask for a referral to a counsellor or therapist who specialises in body image, sex and relationships.
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Different Genders Different Risk Levels
A man has about a 1 in 26 chance of developing bladder cancer during his lifetime, while a womans risk is about 1 in 90, says Dr. Grivas.
Men may develop bladder cancer more frequently than women because more men smoke tobacco and more may choose careers that involve incidental or chronic exposure to dangerous fumes and compounds.
Certain professions, such as firefighting, machining and truck driving may increase risk because people in these professions have more exposure to toxins and chemicals smoking can further increase this risk says Dr. Grivas.
Risk Of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer occurs mainly in older people. About 9 out of 10 people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 73.
Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27. For women, the chance is about 1 in 89.
Whites are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than African Americans or Hispanic Americans.
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When Is This Form Of Cancer Most Often Diagnosed And Treated
Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Roughly 50 percent of cases are diagnosed while the cancer is in situ . Only in 4 percent of cases has it spread to distant areas of the body.
In 90 percent of cases, surgery is recommended as part of the treatment plan. It may be the sole treatment or used in combination with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or immunotherapy.
The five-year survival rate is 77.3 percent for the general population. However, this number can vary quite a bit based on the stage of the bladder cancer at diagnosis. A more relevant number may come from relative survival rate, which compares an individual to a subset of the general population that matches in:
- Other demographics
Signs Of Bladder Cancer: What Women Should Know
Bladder cancer may not be on your radar even if youre vigilant about getting routine GYN care. After all, its far more common among men than women, and the majority of cases affect patients over age 65. However, dont let those stats keep you from learning to spot the warning signs.
While bladder cancer isnt one of the most common cancers in women, about 18,000 women are diagnosed with bladder cancer every year in the United States . The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network reports that women are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer at an advanced stage because they may not be on the lookout for early signs.
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What Is Bladder Cancer
The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen that stores urine to be passed out of the body. The most common form of bladder cancer starts in cells within the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. When cancer in the lining of the bladder spreads to nearby organs and lymph nodes, it is considered invasive.
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common cancer in women. About 80,000 people in the United States are estimated to be diagnosed annually.
What Are The Risks Of Bladder Cancer
No single factor is directly connected to bladder cancer, but factors that can increase the risk include:
- Age: Bladder cancer typically affects people age 55 and older.
- Smoking: Carcinogens from tobacco smoke come in contact with the lining of the bladder. Smokers are three times as likely as non-smokers to get bladder cancer.
- Family history: There is evidence that bladder cancer may have a genetic component.
- Industrial chemicals: Chemicals known as aromatic amines are often used in the dye industry. Workers who have daily exposure to them, such as painters, machinists and hairdressers, may be at a higher risk for bladder cancer.
- Drinking contaminated water: This includes water that has been treated with chlorine or drinking water with a naturally high level of arsenic, which occurs in many rural communities in the United States,.
- Taking certain herb: Supplements such as Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb, sometimes used for weight loss has been linked to higher rates of bladder cancer.
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Treatment For Bladder Cancer
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on how quickly the cancer is growing. Treatment is different for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. You might feel confused or unsure about your treatment options and decisions. Its okay to ask your treatment team to explain the information to you more than once. Its often okay to take some time to think about your decisions.
Bladder Cancer: Risk Factors Signs And Symptoms
This year, its estimated that over 81,000 Americans will be diagnosed with bladder cancer. While it may not be a type of cancer we hear much about, its the fourth most common type of cancer for men. While women get it too, its three times more common in males.
There are certain characteristics that make one individual more likely to develop bladder cancer than another, says Ostap Dovirak, M.D., urologist with Riverside Health System. However, everyone should be aware of the risk factors and symptoms associated with the disease.
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It Was Estimated That In :
- 118,200 Canadian men would be diagnosed with cancer and 44,600 men would die from cancer.
- 110,900 Canadian women would be diagnosed with cancer and 40,000 women would die from cancer.
- On average, 628 Canadians would be diagnosed with cancer every day.
- On average, 232 Canadians would die from cancer every day.
- Lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer are the most commonly diagnosed types of cancer in Canada .
- These 4 cancers account for 46% of all new cancer cases.
- Prostate cancer accounts for one-fifth of all new cancer cases in men.
- Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all new cases of cancer.
- Breast cancer accounts for one-quarter of all new cancer cases in women
- Colorectal cancer accounts for 11% of all new cancer cases
Risk Factors Of Bladder Cancer
By far, smoking is the biggest risk factor to be concerned about when it comes to bladder cancer. According to the National Institutes of Health, about 50% of women diagnosed with bladder cancer are smokers. Because the rate of occurrence is so much higher for smokers, if you notice any of the above symptoms and you smoke, let your doctor know as soon as possible.
Another major risk factor is previously having bladder cancer. Bladder cancer has a 50-80% recurrence rate, which is among the highest of any form of cancer. This is why it is imperative to continue to see your physician and be on the lookout for any symptoms of bladder cancer if youve had it before. When in doubt, get it checked out.
Age is another major factor. The average age of diagnosis in women is 73. Any woman over the age of 55 years old should keep an extra eye out for symptoms.
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Symptoms In Men And Women
Women are more likely to mistake bladder cancer symptoms for urinary tract infections or menstruation.
Rarely, bladder cancer may also be misdiagnosed as interstitial cystitis in women. IC is a painful, inflammatory bladder condition that affects more women than men.
In one study, doctors found bladder cancer in about one percent out of 600 patients referred to them for IC treatment, according to an article in Urology Times.
What Causes Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer forms when the DNA in cells in the bladder mutate or change, disabling the functions that control cell growth. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. But some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a tumor in the bladder.
While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.
Known risk factors for bladder cancer include:
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Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
There are some things that can make you more likely to develop bladder cancer. These are called risk factors and they include:
- smoking chemicals in cigarettes can cause bladder cancer, so if you smoke, your risk is up to three times that of a non-smoker
- age most people with bladder cancer are over 60 years of age
- family history a first degree relative with bladder cancer increases risk up to nearly 2 times higher than the general population
- chemicals being in contact with certain chemicals for a long period of time, like aromatic amines, benzene products and aniline dyes, which have been linked to bladder cancer
- frequent infections of the bladder over a long period of time
- some types of radiation therapy around the pelvis, and the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide.
Having these risk factors doesnt mean you will develop bladder cancer. Often there is no clear reason for getting bladder cancer. If you are worried about your risk factors, ask your doctor for advice.
Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer
When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.
Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.
If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.
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Bladder Cancer Incidence By Sex And Uk Country
Bladder cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 3% of all new cancer cases .
In females in the UK, bladder cancer is the 16th most common cancer . In males in the UK, it is the 8th most common cancer .
27% of bladder cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 73% are in males.
Bladder cancer incidence rates rate ) for persons are significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.
For bladder cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.
Bladder Cancer , Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018
Bladder Cancer In Men Vs Women
In the United States, bladder cancer is more common in men than in women. The rates of bladder cancer diagnoses and deaths from bladder cancer have been dropping in women in men, incidence rates of bladder cancer are dropping but mortality rates have stayed stable.2 Other statistics include:1,3
- A mans chance of developing bladder cancer is approximately 4 times higher than a womans chance of developing bladder cancer
- White men are twice as likely to develop bladder cancer than Black men
- In 2019, approximately 61,700 men will be diagnosed with bladder cancer
- Approximately 18,700 women will be diagnosed with bladder cancer in 2019
- It is the fourth most common cancer in men
- For women, the chance of developing bladder cancer is about 1 in 88
- For men, the chance of developing bladder cancer is about 1 in 26
In the United States, bladder cancer is also more common among certain ethnicities than others. Caucasian/White Americans are around twice as likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer as Black Americans or Hispanic/Latino Americans.2
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Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Each year, more than 80,000 Americans are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Anyone can get bladder cancer, but factors such as age, race and gender may increase the risk of the disease. Knowing behavior-related risk factors for bladder cancer may help you take preventive measures to reduce your chances of developing the disease or may help you and your doctor detect signs of bladder cancer earlier.
Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival
It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.
Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.
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Bladder Cancer Survival Trends Over Time
Bladder cancer survival trends are difficult to interpret because of changes to classification and coding practices affecting the definition of invasive carcinoma of the bladder.The decrease in bladder cancer survival since the 1990s is likely to be due to an increasing proportion of bladder tumours now being coded as in situ or uncertain.
One-year age-standardised net survival for bladder cancer in men has increased from 63% during 1971-1972 to 80% during 1990-1991 and then decreased to 77% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales. In women, one-year survival has increased from 53% to 70% and then decreased to 62% over the same time periods.
Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised One-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Five-year age-standardised net survival for bladder cancer in men has increased from 41% during 1971-1972 to 63% during 1990-1991 and then decreased to a predicted survival of 57% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales. In women, five-year survival has increased from 35% to 55% and then decreased to 46% over the same time periods.
Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised Five-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Five-year survival for 2010-2011 is predicted using an excess hazard statistical model
Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised Ten-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011
Ten-year survival for 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 is predicted using an excess hazard statistical model