How And Why Cancers Metastasize To Bones
The spread of cancer to bone is a complex process that doctors are just beginning to understand. Metastasis typically involves the following process:
Cancer cells invade normal tissue nearby, then move through the walls of nearby lymph or blood vessels and begin circulating through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to reach other parts of the body. After stopping in small blood vessels at a further location, they invade the blood vessel walls and migrate into surrounding tissue where they multiply and form smaller tumors. Those new tumors need a blood supply for continued growth, so they stimulate the growth of new blood vessels.
Once they’ve reached the bone, cancer cells must avoid attacks from the body’s immune system. So they may go through more changes. This means the new tumor may be somewhat different from the primary tumor. This can make it more difficult to treat.
Preparing For Your Bone Scan
You can eat and drink normally before your scan. Take your medicines as normal unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
Phone the department where you are having the scan if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. You might have to stop breastfeeding for a short period of time after having the scan. So you might want to store enough expressed milk for 1 or 2 feeds beforehand. The staff at the department will advise you.
You have to arrive at the hospital about 4 hours before your scan. Your appointment letter will tell you the exact time.
Tell the department beforehand if you have difficulties passing urine, need to pass urine urgently, or have prostate related problems.
How Can I Prevent Bladder Cancer
You may not be able to prevent bladder cancer, but it may be helpful to know the risk factors that may increase the chance youll develop bladder cancer. Bladder cancer risk factors may include:
- Smoking cigarettes: Cigarette smoking more than doubles the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars or being exposed to second-hand smoke also increases that risk.
- Cancer treatments: Radiation therapy is the second-most common risk factor. People who have certain chemotherapy drugs may also develop an increased risk of bladder cancer.
- Exposure to certain chemicals: People who work with chemicals, such as aromatic amines , are at an increased risk. Extensive exposure to rubber, leather, some textiles, paint and hairdressing supplies, typically related to occupational exposure, also appears to increase the risk.
- Infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract diseases may have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Past bladder cancer: People with a previous bladder cancer are at increased risk to form new or recurrent bladder tumors.
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Bone Metastasis: Cancers That Commonly Spread To Bone
Bone metastasis is more likely with cancers such as:
About three out of four cases of bone metastasis result from tumors in the breast, prostate, lung, or kidney. Almost 70% of people with advanced breast or prostate cancer have bone metastasis bone is commonly the third most common organ affected by metastases, after the lung and liver.
When Does Bladder Cancer Spread To The Bones
Synchronous bone metastases occur in 1.395.5% of bladder cancer patients, while 3040% of cases are metachronous. Bone morphogenetic proteins play a key role in regulating proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells in bone microenvironment of bone metastases from metastatic urothelial carcinoma .
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What Kind Of Treatment Will I Need
There are many ways to treat bladder cancer. You might want to get a second opinion about the best treatment plan for you.
Bladder cancer is most often treated with:
Sometimes more than one type is used. The treatment plan thats best for you depends on:
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- Whether the cancer has spread into the bladder wall
- The chance that a type of treatment will cure the cancer or help in some way
- Other health problems you have
- Your feelings about the treatment and the side effects that come with it
What Is The Prognosis For Liver Metastases
Prognosis is a clinical term describes how a disease condition develops, the signs and symptoms of the disease, how soon an affected individual is expected to recover, and how will be the quality of life of the affected individual over a period of time post treatment like ability to carry out activities of daily living the chances of any complications and other health concerns, and the chances of overall survival in cases of rare or incurable disease. In short, prognosis is referred to as the expected length of the disease, course of the disease, chances of any expected or unforeseen adverse events.
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What Is Renal Ultrasound
Renal ultrasound is the least invasive way to evaluate the kidneys. It does not require radiation and avoids contrast. It may be used in lower risk patients and those with contrast allergies or poor renal function. Unfortunately, it can miss small kidney stones and tumors. Also, it will not detect tumors in the ureter unless they are causing a blockage leading to hydronephrosis.
How Is The Pain Evaluated
The symptom of bone pain refers to feelings of pain, tenderness, aching, or discomfort in the bone.1,2 To find out what may be causing bone pain, healthcare providers usually perform a physical evaluation in addition to other types of testing to help make a diagnosis. If you have bone pain as well as problems or changes related to urination, then a urine sample can be tested to check for signs of infection or other problems.
A procedure called cystoscopy can be used to examine the inside lining of the urethra and the bladder. It can also be used to take tissue samples for analysis to detect the possible presence of cancer cells.
Patients who receive a diagnosis of bladder cancer usually undergo further testing to find out if the bladder cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. This may include imaging scans, such as MRI, CT/CAT scans, and/or x-rays. For patients with the symptom of bone pain, bone scans may be used to see if the cancer cells have spread to bones.
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What Is It Called When A Tumor Spreads To The Bone
Cancer that has started in one place can spread to and invade other parts of the body. This spread is called metastasis. If a tumor spreads to the bone, its called bone metastasis. Cancer cells that have spread to the bone can damage the bone and cause symptoms. Different treatments can be used to control the symptoms and the spread
What Will Happen After Treatment
Youll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about this. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. Be sure to go to all of your follow-up visits. People who have had bladder cancer are at high risk of having a second bladder cancer.
If you have no signs of cancer, most experts advise seeing with your doctor every 3 to 6 months. These visits might include urine tests, blood work, and other tests. If you still have your bladder, you will need regular exams of your bladder, too. The time between doctor visits may be longer after a few years if no new cancers are seen.
Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.
You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life making healthy choices and feeling as well as you can.
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Treatment For Secondary Bone Cancer
Bladder cancer that spreads to the bones is called secondary bone cancer. You might have different treatments to help strengthen your bones and prevent problems.
Advanced bladder cancer can sometimes spread to your bones. Read about the different treatments you might have.
Questions about cancer? Call freephone 9 to 5 Monday to Friday or email us
Where Does Metastatic Bladder Cancer Spread To
Bladder cancer spreads when cancerous cells reproduce and invade surrounding healthy tissues. This is known as metastasis. Usually, metastatic bladder cancer refers to cancer that has spread to distant organs, but metastasis can occur locally in the muscles and connective tissues that are directly adjacent to the bladder as well.
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When Bladder Cancer Spreads To Other Parts Of The Body
When cancer cells break away from where they started to grow and start spreading to other parts of the body, it is called metastasis. Metastatic bladder cancer is the name for bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, the liver, or the bones. Even if the cancer cells are first discovered in the bones, for example, if they first started growing in the bladder it is still called metastatic bladder cancer.1
Bone Scan For Bladder Cancer
You might have this test to check whether the bladder cancer has spread to your bones. Get information about what happens.
A bone scan shows up changes or abnormalities in the bones. It is also called:
- a radionuclide scan
- bone scintigraphy
- nuclear medicine bone scan
A bone scan can look at a particular joint or bone. In cancer it is more usual to scan the whole body.
A large camera scans you and picks up radioactivity.
You have the scan in either the medical physics, nuclear medicine or x-ray department at the hospital. The scan can take between 30 to 60 minutes, but you’ll be at the hospital for several hours.
If there are changes on the scan they may be called hot spots. These are not always cancer. Bone changes can happen for other reasons like arthritis. You might need to have a CT scan to know exactly where these abnormal areas are.
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Where Can I Find A Support Group
To find a local group, talk to your healthcare provider. Local and Zoom meeting lists are also available through organizations such as CancerCare.
Joining a support group of people dealing with advanced cancer may help provide camaraderie and knowledge. You can connect with people who understand what you’re going through.
Treating cancer means looking after your whole self. This includes keeping an active lifestyle, eating healthy, practicing mindfulness, and socializing with family and friends to improve your mood and overall health. If you smoke cigarettes or use nicotine products, this is a good time to try to quit or cut down.
It’s also important to look after your mental health. Meeting with a therapist can help you navigate intense emotions and provide you with tools to feel more in control of your daily life.
Palliative care may also be beneficial. Your palliative care provider can help you learn about pain management options. Palliative care providers can also assist with finding mental health services, such as counseling.
Surgery For Bladder Cancer
Surgery is done for most bladder cancers. The type you have depends on the stage of the cancer.
Removing the tumor from the inside bladder is the most common surgery for early bladder cancer. This can be done during a cystoscopy. A a cystoscope with a looped wire on the end is used to remove the tumor.
When the cancer is more invasive, the cancer is removed along with part of the bladder or the entire bladder.
If only part of the bladder is removed, youll still be able to hold and release urine as normal, though in smaller amounts. If the entire bladder is removed, youll need another way to store and pass urine. Your doctor can explain the options for this.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have some risks and side effects. For instance, removing the bladder not only changes how your body passes urine, but it can also cause sexual side effects. If you have these or any other problems, let your doctors know. There are ways to help deal with many side effects.
Metastatic Disease Or An Early Stage Bladder Cancer A Difficult Question
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Aydin Ataturk State Hospital, Turkey
Correspondence: Ozge Keskin, MD, Aydin Ataturk State Hospital Medical Oncology Department, Aydin, Turkey,, Tel 9.05E+11, Fax 9.03E+11
Received: February 28, 2017 | Published: April 28, 2017
Citation: Keskin O, Oktay E Metastatic Disease or an Early Stage Bladder Cancer? A Difficult Question. J Cancer Prev Curr Res 8: 00261. DOI: 10.15406/jcpcr.2017.08.00261
Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival
It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.
Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.
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What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk
Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.
Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.
The Effect Of Treatment With Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis To Liver
Regardless of age at diagnosis, surgery alone was the optimal treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver, followed by surgery combined with chemotherapy , chemotherapy alone and no treatment . And the median survival time of patients with surgery alone was approximately 3.54 years. .
Kalpan Meier survival curve showing the effect of treatment with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver.
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How Is Bladder Cancer Treated
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on
- The stage of cancer.
- If cancer has spread beyond the lining of the bladder.
- The extent of cancer spread.
Treatment options based on tumor grade
- High-grade bladder cancer: High-grade cancers that are life-threatening and spread quickly need to be treated with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery.
- Low-grade cancers: Less aggressive cancers have a low chance of becoming high grade and do not require aggressive treatments, such as radiation or bladder removal.
Treatment options may vary depending on the tumor stage.
What Is Enhanced Cystoscopy
Many doctors now have enhanced cystoscopy tools to help doctors see a difference between healthy tissue and cancer. Theyre able to see bladder cancer tumors better at the time of bladder biopsy or TURBT . It can help doctors find easily missed tumors.
One method uses a special medicine your doctor places inside the bladder. Any cancer cells absorb the medicine. During cystoscopy, the urologist shines a special blue light on the bladder. With this blue light, the tumors that absorbed the medicine glow bright pink.
Bladder tumors tend to have an increased blood supply to feed them. The other enhanced cystoscopy method changes wavelengths of light from the cystoscope to find any areas with more blood vessels to better locate any tumors.
Ask your doctor if they will used enhanced cystoscopy the next time they are checking your bladder or doing a TURBT.
Learn more about bladder cancer by perusing our Glossary of Terms.
Os Analysis Classified By Specific Organ For Patients With One Site Metastasis After Psm
For patients with bone metastasis only, histology type, surgery, LNs removed and chemotherapy were associated with overall survival in univariate and multivariate Cox analysis . Patients with LNs removed had a better prognosis than those without LNs removed or surgery .
For patients with lung metastasis, univariable and multivariable Cox regression model analyses found that histology type, surgery, LNs removed and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors . Patients with LNs removed had a better prognosis than those without LNs removed or surgery .
For patients with liver metastasis, age, surgery, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. However, LNs removed in surgery was not an independent prognostic factor .
For patients with DL metastasis, neither surgery nor lymph node removal affected their prognosis, but histology types and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors .
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Intrahepatic Chemotherapy And Chemoembolisation
Intrahepatic chemotherapy and chemoembolisation involve giving chemotherapy directly into the liver. This is done through a thin tube, called a catheter, into the main blood supply to the liver.
Giving chemotherapy directly into the liver means a higher concentration of the drug can be delivered to the area of cancer.
In chemoembolisation, the chemotherapy is delivered along with an oily liquid or foam which blocks the blood supply to the cancer. The cancer is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, and the chemotherapy stays in the area for longer. The liver continues to be supplied with blood in the normal way.
These treatments may not be routinely available on the NHS but may be offered as part of a clinical trial.
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