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Bladder Cancer In Young Adults

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Bladder Cancer Is A Disease In Which Malignant Cells Form In The Tissues Of The Bladder

2021 Ask the Bladder Cancer Experts

The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it passes through the urethra and leaves the body.

There are three types of bladder cancer that begin in cells in the lining of the bladder. These cancers are named for the type of cells that become malignant :

  • Transitional cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in cells in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder. These cells are able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when it is emptied. Most bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells. Transitional cell carcinoma can be low-grade or high-grade:
  • Low-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment, but rarely spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder or to other parts of the body.
  • High-grade transitional cell carcinoma often recurs after treatment and often spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder, to other parts of the body, and to lymph nodes. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer are due to high-grade disease.

See the following PDQ summaries for more information:

Association Between Obesity Linked And Young Adult Cancers

Of the 13 cancers identified by the IARC as being associated with increased body fatness , most have their highest incidence rates in older adults. However, five of the 13 obesity associated cancers including breast, thyroid, uterus, ovary and stomach cancer have been identified by US SEER data as occurring in the top 20 cancers in 20â39 year old females and five of the 13, including colorectal, thyroid, kidney, stomach and liver cancer have been identified in the top 20 in 20â39 year old males . Of the 13 IARC obesity associated malignancies, all but gallbladder cancer have been well documented to occur in significant numbers in the under 50 year old age group and four of these malignancies, colorectal, breast, thyroid, and possibly pancreatic cancer in women are reported to be increasing in the young adult population. Moreover, five premalignant precursors including CRA for CRC, BE for EAC, NAFLD for HCC, DCIS for breast cancer, and MGUS for MM are reported to be increasing in the young adult population in association with obesity. In addition, excess body weight and/or weight gain has been noted to precede presentation of these malignancies by long latent periods in some cases by multiple decades.

Living With Advanced Cancer

Advanced cancer usually means cancer that is unlikely to be cured. Some people can live for many months or years with advanced cancer. During this time palliative care services can help.

Most people continue to have treatment for advanced cancer as part of palliative care, as it helps manage the cancer and improve their day-to-day lives. Many people think that palliative care is for people who are dying but palliative care is for any stage of advanced cancer. There are doctors, nurses and other people who specialise in palliative care.

Treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy or another type of treatment. It can help in these ways:

  • slow down how fast the cancer is growing
  • shrink the cancer
  • help you to live more comfortably by managing symptoms, like pain.

Treatment depends on:

  • how far it has spread
  • your general health

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Bladder Cancer Incidence By Sex And Uk Country

Bladder cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 3% of all new cancer cases .

In females in the UK, bladder cancer is the 16th most common cancer . In males in the UK, it is the 8th most common cancer .

27% of bladder cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 73% are in males.

Bladder cancer incidence rates rate ) for persons are significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.

For bladder cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

Bladder Cancer , Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018

Always See A Doctor If You Notice Blood In Your Urine

The Fear of Bladder Cancer Recurrence

Anyone who sees blood in their urine should notify a doctor or urologist immediately. Doctors typically investigate hematuria first with a urinalysis and urine culture. In women, tests can also distinguish if the bleeding is due to postmenopausal uterine bleeding. If there is no evidence of infection or postmenopausal bleeding, the next step is a CT scan that focuses on the entire urinary tract, known as a CT urogram.

Blood in the urine can come from either the bladder or upper urinary tract , and a CT urogram will evaluate the entire urinary system, Dr. Feld says.

Along with a CT urogram, doctors may perform a cystoscopy. This is a direct visualization of the bladder with a lighted camera, called a cystoscope. Usually done in the office, it takes only a few minutes and does not require anesthesia. In addition, doctors can order a test called a urine cytology to check for cancer cells in the urine.

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Smoking Can Affect The Risk Of Bladder Cancer

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer.

Risk factors for bladder cancer include the following:

  • Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes.
  • Having a family history of bladder cancer.
  • Having certain changes in the genes that are linked to bladder cancer.
  • Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace.
  • Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide.
  • Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.
  • Drinking water from a well that has high levels of arsenic.
  • Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine.
  • Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.
  • Using urinarycatheters for a long time.

Older age is a risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

Permission To Use This Summary

PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used freely as text. It cannot be identified as an NCI PDQ cancer information summary unless the whole summary is shown and it is updated regularly. However, a user would be allowed to write a sentence such as NCIs PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: .

The best way to cite this PDQ summary is:

PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Bladder Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .

Images in this summary are used with permission of the author, artist, and/or publisher for use in the PDQ summaries only. If you want to use an image from a PDQ summary and you are not using the whole summary, you must get permission from the owner. It cannot be given by the National Cancer Institute. Information about using the images in this summary, along with many other images related to cancer can be found in Visuals Online. Visuals Online is a collection of more than 3,000 scientific images.

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What Is Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer begins when abnormal cells in the bladders inner lining grow and divide in an uncontrolled way.

There are different types of bladder cancer:

  • urothelial carcinoma, formally known as transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common form of bladder cancer and starts in the urothelial cells in the bladder wall’s innermost layer
  • squamous cell carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the bladder
  • adenocarcinoma is a rare form which starts in mucus-producing cells in the bladder and is likely to be invasive.

It is estimated that there will be 3066 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed in Australia in 2021.

The chances of surviving bladder cancer for five years is 54%.

Occupational Exposure Family History Make Tempting Hypotheses

2022 Ask the Bladder Cancer Experts

byKate Kneisel, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today December 28, 2020

A 27-year-old Hispanic man presents to an emergency department in New Jersey in August 2014 after seeing blood in his urine earlier that day. He tells clinicians that although he has no trouble urinating, he has had vague abdominal pain for the past 4 months.

When answering questions about his medical history, the patient notes that he was born in Peru and that his father had colon cancer. The patient is not a smoker, drinks alcohol only occasionally at social events, and has been working at UPS for the past few years his job involves loading trucks, but he is not aware of any chemical exposure.

A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis without contrast identifies a partially calcified mass at the dome of the urinary bladder, with infiltration of the adjacent lower abdominal mesentery.

Clinicians follow up with a multiphasic post-contrast CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis which also reveals a coarsely calcified mass at the urinary bladder dome, with reticulation of the mesenteric fat with nodular mesenteric implants indicating peritoneal carcinomatosis.

After arriving at this probable diagnosis, the medical team performs a cystoscopy with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, places a right ureteral stent, and takes a biopsy of the bladder tissue. The tumor is found to be too extensive to be resected completely.



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Unexpected Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma In A Young Adult


Background: Bladder cancer is the third most common malignancy in adults, accounting for 2.1% of all cancer-related deaths. Its highest incidence is in the 6th decade of life. Urothelial bladder cancer is rare in children and adolescents, presenting in only 0.003% of the population under 20 years of age. The aim of the paper is to report a rare case of bladder urothelial carcinoma in a young girl aged 27 years.Case Presentation: We report the case of a 27-year-old girl who presented with painless gross hematuria. She had a history of heavy smoking and recurrent cystitis. CT-KUB revealed polypoidal tumor in right lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed for complete removal of the tumor. Follow-up revealed no recurrence for two years. Urothelial bladder carcinoma should be excluded in children and young adults when they present with painless hematuria. Although this presentation is rare, its prognosis is good.


Urothelial carcinoma, bladder, adolescent, children


Case Presentation

Figure 1: CT-KUB showed right postero-lateral wall polypoidal tumor in the urinary bladder.



Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4:


  • Arshad Z, Zaidi SZ Urothelial carcinoma in children, case report with review of literature. Pak Med Assoc 69: 720-721.
  • Antonio M Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in children. Long term follow-up. Austin J Urol 3: 1-3.
  • Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

    When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.

    Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

    If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.

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    Smoking Behavior And Other Covariate Data

    All participants were given the opportunity to undergo a medical examination every two years since 1992. The smoking history data were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Cigarette smoking history was coded from 1 to 5. The smoking variables in this study were divided into five groups as follows: 1=non-smokers, 2=ex-smokers, 3=19 cigarettes per day, 4=1019 cigarettes per day, and 5=more than 20 cigarettes per day. This analysis was performed assuming an interval variable. These surveys on smoking amount were conducted every two years from 1992 to 2005. Height, weight, alcohol intake, and exercise habit of all participants were recorded to describe the characteristics of the participants. Height, weight and alcohol intake were recorded by professionally trained investigator. Information on exercise was obtained by asking Do you exercise regularly? . If participants answered Yes, they were asked to indicate the frequency of exercise per week on continuous scale. In this study, we merely used dichotomous variable.

    Bladder cancer follow-up

    The occurrence of bladder cancer was tracked from 2006 to 2016. Bladder cancer was confirmed through the National Cancer Registry of the Korean National Cancer Center.

    Facts And Stats On Bladder Cancer

    What is bladder cancer?
    • Men have a higher incidence of bladder cancer than women.

    • Older adults are particularly affected as the risk for bladder cancer increases with age. Nine out of ten people diagnosed are over the age of 55. The average age is 73.

    • Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any form of cancer.

    • Due to the incidence and recurrence, prevention, early detection and prompt treatment are imperative.

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    Side Effects Of Treatment For Bladder Cancer

    All cancer treatments can have side effects. Your treatment team will discuss these with you before you start treatment. Talk to your doctor or nurse about any side effects you are experiencing. Some side effects can be upsetting and difficult, but there is help if you need it.

    or email to speak with a caring cancer nurse for support.

    Environmental And Occupational Exposure

    The second greatest preventable risk factor for bladder cancer is occupational exposure to carcinogens, including aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons . These compounds are commonly found in the industrial production of dyes, paint, metal, rubber or petroleum products . Among those in the rubber industry, an increased mortality risk of 253× was reported for those in storage and shipment and an increased risk of 159× was reported for those with general work in the industry . Other industries implicated in a greater risk of bladder cancer include firefighters, hairdressers, and farmers who use fungicides. Overall, occupational exposures are estimated to be responsible for 18% of bladder cancer cases. While 2 years exposure seems to be sufficient to increase ones risk, the disease often does not develop until decades after exposure, much like with tobacco smoke .

    A large prospective observational study from Chile suggested that exposure to arsenic, a naturally occurring metalloid in air, soil, and water, also increased the risk of bladder cancer . Another study from Finland found that exposure to low concentration Arsenic and tobacco smoke had a synergistic effect in increasing the risk of bladder cancer . Other carcinogens in the water supply, such as disinfection byproducts or nitrates, along with metals in the diet such as selenium and zinc, could also modify the risk of developing bladder cancer .

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    Different Needs In The Aya Space

    Not to mention that many adolescents and young adults are not quite established in life. They may still be single, so dating is a concern. There are typically fertility issues to consider if the person wants a family. They likely do not have a lot saved up so they don’t have a financial reserve to fall back on. Childcare and other family issues are more prevalent and complicated with this age group. They also have different interests as well, which can be a barrier to connecting to others.

    Treatment Of Recurrent Bladder Cancer

    Understanding Immunotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

    Treatment of recurrentbladder cancer depends on previous treatmentand where the cancer has recurred. Treatment for recurrent bladder cancer mayinclude the following:

    Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

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    There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads In The Body

    Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

    • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
    • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
    • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

    Treatment For Bladder Cancer

    Treatment for bladder cancer depends on how quickly the cancer is growing. Treatment is different for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    You might feel confused or unsure about your treatment options and decisions. Its okay to ask your treatment team to explain the information to you more than once. Its often okay to take some time to think about your decisions.

    When deciding on treatment for bladder cancer, you may want to discuss your options with a urologist, radiation oncologist and medical oncologist. Ask your GP for referrals.

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