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How Aggressive Is Bladder Cancer In Dogs

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The Cadet Braf Test For Determining Risk

Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Dogs (TCC)

The CADET Braf test helps vets to detect the presence of a specific gene mutation that is linked to bladder cancers in dogs. This test can be helpful in detecting bladder cancer before symptoms become evident.

The CADET Braf test is also helpful in determining the extent of the disease, what the best form of treatment may be, and how a dog is responding to chemotherapy treatment.

Ask your vet about the CADET Braf test if your dog is a breed with a higher than average risk of bladder cancer.

Note:The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet’s condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Other Cellular And Molecular Features

In addition to similarities in the pathologic findings between dogs and humans with invasive TCC, there is evidence for similarities in other cellular and molecular features studied to date . Genomic, cytogenetic, proteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic analyses are ongoing with initial findings published . The expectation is -omics analyses will subsequently lead to new strategies to improve detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, intervene earlier in the course of disease, predict individual patient outcome, and more effectively manage the cancer overall. For example, understanding changes on the surface of epithelial cells that occur in the transition from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma in situ could allow the development of better assays to detect early changes in the cancer process. -Omics analyses are also expected to lead to the identification of new targets for therapy that have not yet been exploited in bladder cancer. Evidence for this comes from a recent report on an integrated genomic analysis that included whole-exome sequencing of 130 human TCC samples and matched normal samples . The investigators reported that the analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumors and included targets that had not previously attracted attention in TCC treatment approaches.

Are Other Tests Necessary

Complete staging is required. Testing includes thoracic radiographs to rule out the spread of cancer to the lungs, lymph node aspirate/biopsy if any lymph nodes are noted to be enlarged, CBC, chemistry panel, and free-catch urinalysis to determine general health, and ultrasound of the bladder and entire abdomen . A free-catch or catheterized urine sample is preferred over a sample obtained by cystocentesis as seeding of the tumor cells can occur with this needle method.

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Causes Of Canine Bladder Cancer

Although the exact causes of cancer manifestation remain unknown, the disease may be attributed to a variety of environmental and genetic factors. From an environmental standpoint, exposure to second-hand smoke has been linked to bladder cancer dogs. In addition, there are a number of carcinogenic chemicals that may increase your dogs risk of bladder cancer, including certain types of flea dips, pesticides and insecticides.

Furthermore, there are certain dog breeds who have a higher incidence of bladder cancer, including Beagles, Scottish Terriers, West Highland White Terriers, Shetland Sheepdogs, and Wirehair Fox Terriers, as well as obese dogs. In addition, middle-aged and elderly female dogs are most commonly affected by the disease.

While pet owners cannot exercise preventative measures when it comes to genetics or breed, you can practice certain safety precautions to protect your four-legged friends, including using natural insecticides in your yard, avoiding over-the-counter flea dips and shampoos, and not smoking in your home.

Vets Reveal The Top Signs Of Cancer In Dogs

5 Bladder Problems in Dogs with Pictures: Causes, Signs and Treatment

The statistics arent encouraging. With 65 million dogs in the US, each year there are about 6 million new dog cancer cases. And half of dogs over 10 die from cancer. Its every dog owners worst fear. So you want to be sure you dont miss the signs your dog might have cancer.

First, lets look at what types of cancers dogs get and which breeds are most susceptible.

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Happy Tails From Clients

  • “Yesterdays visit was not one I wanted to make my cat had a rapidly deteriorating heart and kidney condition and I had to have him put down. I appreciate the kindness and compassion I received from the staff, so important in a situation like this and I could not have asked for better.”- Tracey G.

What Is A Urinary Tract Tumor

A urinary tract tumor is a type of cancer that develops from the disorganized uncontrolled growth of cells that make up the urinary system. A tumor of the urinary tract could involve the kidneys, ureters , urinary bladder, prostate gland , and urethra .

Bladder tumors are by far the most common type of urinary tract tumor. Of these, transitional cell carcinoma is the most common. This type of tumor originates from the cells that line the bladder. Bladder tumors need to be distinguished from benign conditions such as inflammatory masses or polyps and noncancerous diseases that cause thickening of the bladder wall.

Primary kidney tumors are relatively rare in both cats and dogs and are almost always malignant. About 50% of these tumors arise from the cells that line the kidney tubules . These are called renal carcinomas. While renal carcinoma is the most common kidney cancer in dogs, renal lymphoma is the most common kidney cancer in cats.

Primary tumors of the urethra or ureter are also rare in cats and dogs. These types of tumors develop from the cells that line the ureter and urethra.

Tumors can also develop in the prostate gland in male dogs.

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Neoplastic Behavior And Classification

In general, TCC is an aggressive, highly invasive tumor with a predisposition for a trigonal location in dogs . Most canine lower urinary tract TCCs are reported as high grade, papillary, infiltrative tumors . In a study of 102 dogs with urinary bladder TCC , TCC also involved the urethra in 56% of dogs and the prostate in 29% of male dogs . Local disease, with frequent trigonal location and urethral involvement, can result in clinical signs associated with lower urinary tract disease and obstruction of the urinary tract . A guideline for staging of canine bladder neoplasia has been recommended in accordance with the World Health Organization in order to guide therapy and provide information on prognosis . Importantly, the bladder tumor grade and TNM stage in accordance with this WHO classification system has been demonstrated to correlate with outcome in these patients . According to this criteria, 78% of dogs that are diagnosed with TCC have been reported to have T2 stage disease , and 20% of dogs with TCC have been reported to have T3 stage disease . An updated classification scheme for canine TCC was suggested in 2006 .

The Human Bladder Cancer Problem And Need For Animal Models

Dog Bladder Cancer Treatment Options: Vlog 111

Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from this cancer in the United States . Worldwide more than 350,000 cases are expected to occur yearly . Transition cell carcinoma , also referred to as urothelial carcinoma, comprises the vast majority of bladder cancer. It occurs in two broad forms, low-grade, superficial disease and high-grade, invasive cancer. In humans, more than two-thirds of bladder tumors at diagnosis are superficial low-grade TCCs confined to the bladder mucosa . These tumors generally respond well to transurethral resection and intravesical therapy, although recurrence is common, quality of life is negatively affected, and progression to invasive TCC is a risk. Approximately 20% of human bladder cancers are higher-grade invasive TCC at the time of diagnosis. The standard treatment for human invasive TCC is cystectomy to address the primary tumor and chemotherapy for metastases. Radiation therapy is used in bladder-sparing procedures and for regional metastases. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes, lungs, and other organs occurs in approximately 50% of people with invasive TCC . Most bladder cancer deaths are due to metastases. There is clearly a great need to improve the outlook for people with TCC, and research involving animal models of TCC is essential.

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Available Treatments For Bladder Cancer In Dogs

If your dog is diagnosed with bladder cancer your vet may recommend surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a combination of these treatments.

Typically, a full surgical removal of the tumor is not possible due to its location, although in some cases it may be possible to remove a significant portion of the tumor in order to temporarily relieve the dog’s symptoms. Nonetheless, it’s important for pet parents to note that the tumor will regrow after a time.

When To Euthanize A Dog With Cancer

Our canine companions are a member of our family, making a cancer diagnosis extremely devastating.

Not only is it difficult to hear the words, but many owners struggle with understanding the process of their disease and when its actually time to let them go.

In this article we will help you understand the diagnosis of cancer in dogs.

The signs that your dog may be struggling in their disease and when its time to consider letting your furry friend go.

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What Causes Bladder Cancer In Dogs

Causes of Bladder Cancer in Dogs The exact cause of bladder cancer in dogs has not yet been established, however there appears to be a link between a genetic predisposition and chronic exposure to common lawn care chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides.

Hi, I’m Nelson. I’ve been a professional dog trainer for over 20 years, making my living teaching people how to train their dogs and helping them overcome their struggles with unwanted behaviors like pulling on the leash or not coming when called. I’ve owned several successful dog training businesses and have trained dogs for movies and TV shows. I’ve also been on local television and in a variety of magazines.

Prostatic Carcinoma In Cats

Bladder Cancer in DogsâTypes, Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Prostate neoplasia is considered very rare in cats and literature is subsequently lacking. Several case reports exist, with the majority of reported feline prostate tumors being adenocarcinomas in older castrated male cats . Because of the limited data, no standard-of-care treatment or prognostic information exists in cats with prostate carcinoma . Metastasis is commonly reported in the few cases of cats with prostate carcinoma, and reported sites of metastasis include lungs, lymph nodes, and pancreas. . Most of the reported cats did not survive beyond 3 months of diagnosis of prostate carcinoma . However, one case report documented long-term survival with no evidence of local or metastatic disease two years post-operatively in a cat with low-grade prostatic sarcomatoid carcinoma that underwent prostatectomy another case report documented a 10 month survival time in a cat that underwent prostatectomy and chemotherapy for treatment of prostate carcinoma. . Further studies are needed to gain more information on prostatic carcinoma in cats and guide treatment recommendations.

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When To Euthanize A Dog With Bladder Cancer

Regardless of treatment, if the tumor completely blocks the passage of urine, an unpleasant, painful death is imminent within one to two days.

If your dog is struggling to pass urine, humane euthanasia should be considered to alleviate current pain and prevent future suffering.

Other symptoms that can tell you that its time to euthanize your pet include poor appetite, disinterest in drinking, difficulty defecating, withdrawal from family life and a lack of interest in activities that used to bring your dog joy.

Keeping a quality of life diary for dogs with bladder cancer is very helpful.

Every day, rate your dogs ability to eat, drink, urinate and defecate on a scale of one to five. Also give an overall rating for pain control, anxiety, activity and interest family life.

When you notice a sustained, downward trend in one or more of these criteria, have a conversation with your veterinarian to determine if more treatment is available or if its time to consider euthanasia.

© 2011 Home to Heaven, P.C. Content may not be reproduced without written consent from Home to Heaven, P.C. Content updated by Jennifer Coates, DVM 5/2019

Dr. Jennifer Coates

What Is The Prognosis For Bladder Cancer In Dogs

As with any disease, the prognosis is dependent on the extent of the disease, its location and the treatment chosen.

With surgical intervention, an attempt is made to remove as much of the tumor as possible to increase survival time.

Chemotherapy, in addition to surgery, often further improves survival times. Chemotherapy alone may also have benefits.

Palliative treatments like laser ablation , radiation therapy, and urethral stenting can all help improve a pets quality of life.

With appropriate treatment, many dogs with bladder cancer will survive for 6-12 months after diagnosis.

It is important to recognize that with time, transitional cell carcinoma is almost invariably fatal.

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What Are The Treatments For This Type Of Tumor

The treatments for urinary tract tumors always depend on the type of tumor and degree of local invasion and metastasis. With bladder tumors, treatment is usually medical with or without chemotherapy and radiation therapy. As the area of the bladder most commonly affected is where the bladder connects to the urethra, surgery is not usually an option. It is only an option if the tumor is in another area of the bladder. With kidney tumors affecting only one kidney , surgical removal of the kidney is usually the treatment of choice. With bilateral kidney tumors , chemotherapy may be considered, especially with renal lymphoma. In all cases of urine flow obstruction, immediate veterinary care is needed, as it is a life-threatening emergency.

Contributors: Debbie Stoewen DVM, MSW, RSW, PhD Christopher Pinard, DVM

Types Of Dog Cancer And Their Severity

Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Dogs (TCC)

Cancer is unfortunately common in dogs. Like humans, there are a number of different types of cancer that affect dogs. Some are more serious and invasive than others, but all require veterinary attention.

Each type of cancer affects the body differently, though many of the signs of cancer can be similar at first. The earlier cancer can be detected, the better the chances of successful treatment. This is why it’s so important to bring your dog to the vet for routine wellness exams. It’s also important to bring your dog to the vet during the first signs of illness.

Some cancers can be treated by simply removing the cancerous tumor via surgery. Others require chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Treatment options depend on the type of cancer, its location in the body, and the stage of cancer .

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Does Bladder Cancer Hurt In Dogs

Dogs that are suffering from bladder cancer will be in pain and will exhibit signs of having difficulty urinating. Depending on the stage of the cancer, a blockage may have formed in the bladder causing all functions of the bladder to cease.

Hi, I’m Nelson. I’ve been a professional dog trainer for over 20 years, making my living teaching people how to train their dogs and helping them overcome their struggles with unwanted behaviors like pulling on the leash or not coming when called. I’ve owned several successful dog training businesses and have trained dogs for movies and TV shows. I’ve also been on local television and in a variety of magazines.

Mouth And Nose Cancers

These are common forms of cancer in dogs, especially in the mouth. Nasal tumors are locally aggressive. They often spread to surrounding tissues more than to other body parts. Symptoms of mouth cancer include mouth swelling, excessive drooling, bad breath or difficulty eating.

Breeds more prone to oral cancers include

  • Cocker Spaniel

Signs of nasal cancer in dogs are abnormal discharge, bleeding, snoring or trouble breathing. Long-nosed breeds and senior dogs are at higher risk.

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Stages Of Bladder Cancer In Dogs

For dogs diagnosed with bladder cancer, their prognosis is listed as being in stages 0 to 4. Stage 0-1 indicates a tumor just starting out theyre small and typically symptoms are not yet present to indicate a problem. Although it is obviously best to catch the cancer at this early stage, it is often difficult because there arent any visible signs.

In stages 2-3, the canine cancer has metastasized and is invading much of the bladder. It is at this phase when most dogs will experience difficulty in urination. Keeping this information in mind, its important to speak to your vet and determine the best treatment protocols for your beloved furry friend to ensure the highest quality of life.

In addition to medication and other forms of therapy, you may wish to discuss a dietary regiment, as well as possible natural dog supplements to support his immune system and overall health.

In stage 4 of canine bladder cancer, the tumor has begun to attack other vital organs and areas of the body. Unfortunately, it is most difficult to treat cancer at this phase, and euthanasia may be the most humane course of action. Once a dog has been diagnosed in the advances stages of bladder cancer, life expectancy is typically less than a year and his quality of life will greatly decline.

Symptoms Of The Early Stages

Bladder Cancerl

Early on, dogs with bladder cancer tend to avoid using the bathroom because it either hurts to urinate or they cannot urinate more than a small amount of at a time. This results in needing to use the bathroom quite frequently, while only going a little bit during each bathroom break.

It’s always essential to casually take a look at your dog’s urine every once in a while to make sure everything looks normal and healthy. Blood in the urine is indicative of bladder cancer, so checking your dog’s urine might clue you into the possibility that bladder cancer is the culprit behind your dog’s odd bathroom behavior.

Not only will your dog’s difficulty urinating be evident to you, but your dog will pick up on the fact that something is wrong, too. They’ll express discomfort by licking their private parts over and over again, so keep an eye out for constant grooming, also.

Over time, you might start to notice obvious irritation in the form of redness down there as well. Little to no appetite is common during the early stages, as is a decrease in thirst.

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