Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer
Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.
What Causes Bladder Cancer
Healthcare providers and researchers dont know exactly why certain bladder cells mutate and become cancerous cells. Theyve identified many different risk factors that may increase your chance of developing bladder cancer, including:
- Cigarette smoke: Smoking cigarettes more than doubles your risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars and being exposed to second-hand smoke may also increase your risk.
- Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to treat cancer may increase your risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Chemotherapy: Certain chemotherapy drugs may increase your risk.
- Exposure to certain chemicals: Studies show that people who work with certain chemicals used in dyes, rubber, leather, paint, some textiles and hairdressing supplies may have an increased risk.
- Frequent bladder infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract infections may be at an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
- Chronic catheter use: People who have a chronic need for a catheter in their bladder may be at risk for squamous cell carcinoma.
Remission And The Chance Of Recurrence
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called having no evidence of disease or NED.
A remission may be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence.
If the cancer returns after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place , nearby , or in another place .
If a recurrence happens, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about it. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options.
People with recurrent cancer sometimes experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. You are encouraged to talk with your health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help you cope. Learn more about dealing with cancer recurrence.
Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a popular treatment method for bladder cancer. RT uses precise and focused high-energy beams that assist in eliminating cancer cells.
An oncologist can deliver radiation therapy in various forms. These forms can vary based on the cancer type, tumor location in the body, and how much it has spread.
You may receive Bladder cancer radiation therapy before, during, or even after the surgery.
How To Prevent Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer may not be preventable in many cases, but there are some ways to reduce the risks. Keep your dog healthy and at an ideal weight. Minimize your dogs exposure to chemicals like pesticides and lawn treatments. Be sure to bring your dog to the vet for wellness examinations as recommended your vet may be able to identify a health problem before symptoms develop.
Early screening is available in the form of gene testing. A genetic mutation called BRAF V595E is found in about 80% of dogs with bladder cancer. Some laboratories offer a PRC test for this mutation. A negative result will not guarantee your dog is safe from bladder cancer, but a positive result may help you take early action. Ask your vet about the availability of this test.
Mutsaers, Anthony J., et al. Canine Transitional Cell Carcinoma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 17, no. 2, 2003, p. 136.
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Small Cell Carcinoma Of The Bladder
This aggressive form of the disease begins in small nerve-like cells in the bladder called neuroendocrine cells. Small cell carcinoma makes up about 1 percent of bladder cancers. It is often detected at an advanced stage, after it has spread to other parts of the body. It usually requires a combination of treatments, including chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy.
What Are Less Common Forms Of Bladder Cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a type of bladder cancer that is very rare in the United States.1-3 The cancer cells look different under a microscope than the type of cancer cells involved in urothelial bladder cancer. Squamous cell carcinomas in the bladder tend to be the invasive type of cancer. This type affects less than 5% of people diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States.
An even more rare type of bladder cancer is called adenocarcinoma of the bladder, which affects around 1%-2% of people diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States.1-3 It also tends to be invasive.
Bladder sarcomas are the rarest type, which occur in less than 1% of people with bladder cancer in the United States.1-3 Unlike most other types of bladder cancer, which start in the bladder lining, the cancer cells in sarcomas start growing in the muscle of the bladder.
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Can Bladder Cancer Spread To Other Areas
If it is invasive, then the cancer cells have grown deeper into the bladder wall. Bladder cancer that is invasive is more likely to spread into the bladder muscle and on to other areas of the body. The shape of a bladder tumor can be either papillary or flat. Both papillary and flat tumors can be invasive or non-invasive,
What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Bladder Cancer Radiation Therapy
The general side effects of bladder cancer radiation therapy are based on the amount of dosage and the targeted treatment area. These side effects can worsen when chemo accompanies radiation therapy.
The side effects of radiation therapy for bladder cancer may include:
- The changes in the skin areas where radiation therapy is being used range from redness to peeling and blistering.
- Vomiting and Nausea.
- Bladder symptoms such as burning or pain during urination, continuous feeling of need to go, or blood coming out during urination.
- Blood in urine and stool.
- Low blood counts lead to tiredness, easy bleeding or bruising, or a risen risk of infection.
These symptoms that are caused by bladder cancer radiation therapy dont last for a long period, and you can feel relief soon after the treatment.
While this is true for most people, some individuals can face long-term problems from bladder cancer radiation therapy. For example:
- In a few people, radiation therapy for bladder cancer can cause problems such as incontinence laterwards.
- Radiation may harm the lining of the bladder. The problem is known as radiation cystitis and can cause long-term issues like painful urination and blood in the urine.
- Men may develop erection problems due to the nearby blood vessels and nerves being damaged by the bladder cancer radiation therapy.
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What Is Urothelial Carcinoma
What is a urothelial carcinoma? Around 90% of people who are diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States have the type called urothelial carcinoma. 2,3 It is called urothelial because the cancer cells start out by developing in the lining of the bladder walls, in a layer of cells called the urothelium.
Signs And Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
Sometimes bladder cancer doesnt have many symptoms. Signs or symptoms can include:
- blood in your urine
- pain or burning when passing urine
- not being able to pass urine when you need to.
Not everyone with these symptoms has bladder cancer. If you have any of these symptoms or are worried, always see your doctor.
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Treating Stage Iii Bladder Cancer
These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs and/or lymph nodes . They have not spread to distant parts of the body.
Transurethral resection is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is then the standard treatment.Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers.
Chemotherapy before surgery can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier. Chemo can also kill any cancer cells that could already have spread to other areas of the body and help people live longer. It can be especially useful for T4 tumors, which have spread outside the bladder. When chemo is given first, surgery to remove the bladder is delayed. The delay is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the cancer, but it can be harmful if it continues to grow during chemo. Sometimes the chemo shrinks the tumor enough that intravesical therapy or chemo with radiation is possible instead of surgery.
Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far its not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasnt given before surgery.
What Is Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma
While the majority of bladder cancers arise in the bladder, the urothelial cells that line the bladder are found in other locations in the urinary system. Sometimes these urothelial cancers can occur in the lining of the kidney or in the ureter that connects the kidney to the bladder. This is known as upper tract urothelial cancer correspond to a subset of urothelial cancers that arise in the urothelial cells in the lining of the kidney or the ureter . Learn more about UTUC.
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Bladder Cancer By Ethnicity
White people are more likely to develop bladder cancer than Black or Hispanic people.
White men have double the risk compared to Black men. However, research has suggested that Black people with bladder cancer may have a worse prognosis. Experts are still trying to understand the different factors contributing to this disparity.
Patients May Want To Think About Taking Part In A Clinical Trial
For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.
Many of today’s standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.
Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.
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Start And Spread Of Bladder Cancer
The wall of the bladder has many several layers. Each layer is made up of different kinds of cells .
Most bladder cancers start in the innermost lining of the bladder, which is called the urothelium or transitional epithelium. As the cancer grows into or through the other layers in the bladder wall, it has a higher stage, becomes more advanced, and can be harder to treat.
Over time, the cancer might grow outside the bladder and into nearby structures. It might spread to nearby lymph nodes, or to other parts of the body.
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Cancerous Tumours Of The Bladder
A cancerous tumour of the bladder can grow into nearby tissue and destroy it. It can also spread to other parts of the body. Cancerous tumours are also called malignant tumours.
Bladder cancer is often divided into 3 groups based on how much it has grown into the bladder wall.
- Non-invasive bladder cancer is only in the inner lining of the bladder .
- Non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer has only grown into the connective tissue layer .
- Muscle-invasive bladder cancer has grown into the muscles deep within the bladder wall and sometimes into the fat that surrounds the bladder.
Side Effects Of Treatment For Bladder Cancer
All cancer treatments can have side effects. Your treatment team will discuss these with you before you start treatment. Talk to your doctor or nurse about any side effects you are experiencing. Some side effects can be upsetting and difficult, but there is help if you need it.
or email to speak with a caring cancer nurse for support.
How Many People Die From Bladder Cancer
There are three main types of bladder cancer, and another kind of cancer thats rarely but still sometimes seen in the bladder: Annually, about 56,000 men and 18,000 women get bladder cancer, and approximately 12,000 men and 5,000 women die from it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
What Are The Types Of Bladder Cancer Tumors That May Form
Three types of bladder cancer may form, and each type of tumor can be present in one or more areas of the bladder, and more than one type can be present at the same time:
- Papillary tumors stick out from the bladder lining on a stalk. They tend to grow into the bladder cavity, away from the bladder wall, instead of deeper into the layers of the bladder wall.
- Sessile tumors lie flat against the bladder lining. Sessile tumors are much more likely than papillary tumors to grow deeper into the layers of the bladder wall.
- Carcinoma in situ is a cancerous patch of bladder lining, often referred to as a flat tumor. The patch may look almost normal or may look red and inflamed. CIS is a type of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer that is of higher grade and increases the risk of recurrence and progression. At diagnosis, approximately 10% of patients with bladder cancer present with CIS.
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What Is A Urothelial Carcinoma
Around 90% of people who are diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States have the type called urothelial carcinoma.2,3 It is called urothelial because the cancer cells start out by developing in the lining of the bladder walls, in a layer of cells called the urothelium. Another name for this type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma.
The Following Stages Are Used For Bladder Cancer:
In stage 0, abnormalcells are found in tissue lining the inside of the bladder. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is divided into stages 0a and 0is, depending on the type of the tumor:
- Stage 0a is also called noninvasive papillary carcinoma, which may look like long, thin growths growing from the lining of the bladder.
- Stage 0is is also called carcinoma in situ, which is a flat tumor on the tissue lining the inside of the bladder.
Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB.
- cancer has spread from the bladder to the layer of fat surrounding the bladder and may have spread to the reproductive organs and cancer has not spread to lymph nodes or
- cancer has spread from the bladder to one lymph node in the pelvis that is not near the common iliac arteries .
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