Noninvasive Vs Invasive Bladder Cancer
Doctors often use the terms noninvasive or invasive to describe whether cancer has spread into the bladder wall. Noninvasive means the cancer is in the inner cell layers. Invasive cancers are deeper in the layers of the bladder wall. If a doctor says the cancer is superficial or non-muscle invasive, that means it isnt in the bladders main muscle layerthough it may still be invasive or noninvasive and have the potential to spread to the muscle.
Different types of bladder cancer grow in different ways, so doctors may discuss a tumor in terms of the direction its growing. Papillary carcinomas grow from the bladders lining toward the hollow center, while flat carcinomas stay flush against the bladder wall.
The Effect Of Treatment With Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis To Liver
Regardless of age at diagnosis, surgery alone was the optimal treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver, followed by surgery combined with chemotherapy , chemotherapy alone and no treatment . And the median survival time of patients with surgery alone was approximately 3.54 years. .
Kalpan Meier survival curve showing the effect of treatment with pancreatic cancer metastasis to liver.
What Is The Prognosis For Stage 4 Bladder Cancer
As with other stage 4 cancers, the prognosis is not the most encouraging. Stage 4 bladder cancer is commonly divided into stage 4A and stage 4B. Stage 4A is considered regional spread and sees a 5-year survival rate of roughly 35%. As the disease progresses to 4B, which is known as distant disease, the 5-year survival rate falls to as low as 5%.
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Stage Iv Bladder Cancer
Stage IV cancer is the most advanced form of bladder cancer. It is called metastatic. This means the cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes or organs. Cancers that have spread beyond the bladder into the wall of the abdomen or pelvis are also considered Stage IV. Stage IV cancer is usually treated with chemotherapy and, more recently, with immunotherapy as well.
People with bladder cancer of all stages may be able to participate in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies that test new treatments to see how well they work.
Low Grade And High Grade Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer starts in the lining of the bladder in about 90 percent of people diagnosed with this cancer. Bladder cancer is called low grade or high grade.
- Low-grade bladder cancer means the cancer has not invaded the muscles around the bladder . People rarely die from this type of bladder cancer, it often recurs after treatment.
- High-grade bladder cancer also often recurs and has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer result this type so it is treated more aggressively.
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Case : Metastatic Bladder Cancer To Adrenal Gland/liver/lung
A 56-year-old man with bladder cancer was initially treated with radical cystectomy followed by chemotherapy. Follow-up scan including a PET-CT showed an isolated area with high uptake in his left adrenal gland consistent with recurrent metastatic bladder cancer. He was also having side effects from systemic chemotherapy and needed a break. He was referred for consideration of SBRT to his isolated recurrence after surgery and chemotherapy. He was simulated in the supine position in an immobilization device. PET-CT images were co-registered with simulation CT images. Target delineation was performed by the radiation oncologist and the nuclear medicine radiologist. Tumor motion data from 4D-CT dataset were used to plan PTV. SBRT with daily image-guidance approach was taken whereby the metastatic tumor was prescribed 30 Gy in 5 fractions . Rapid fall off was achieved with the treatment plan to for conformal avoidance of small bowels and kidney . Follow-up imaging showed decrease in the adrenal mass.
Ho Kyung Seo, … Sung Han Kim, in, 2018
Where Does Metastatic Bladder Cancer Spread To
Bladder cancer spreads when cancerous cells reproduce and invade surrounding healthy tissues. This is known as metastasis. Usually, metastatic bladder cancer refers to cancer that has spread to distant organs, but metastasis can occur locally in the muscles and connective tissues that are directly adjacent to the bladder as well.
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What Is A 5
A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of bladder cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
How Can I Prevent Bladder Cancer
You may not be able to prevent bladder cancer, but it may be helpful to know the risk factors that may increase the chance youll develop bladder cancer. Bladder cancer risk factors may include:
- Smoking cigarettes: Cigarette smoking more than doubles the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars or being exposed to second-hand smoke also increases that risk.
- Cancer treatments: Radiation therapy is the second-most common risk factor. People who have certain chemotherapy drugs may also develop an increased risk of bladder cancer.
- Exposure to certain chemicals: People who work with chemicals, such as aromatic amines , are at an increased risk. Extensive exposure to rubber, leather, some textiles, paint and hairdressing supplies, typically related to occupational exposure, also appears to increase the risk.
- Infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract diseases may have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
- Past bladder cancer: People with a previous bladder cancer are at increased risk to form new or recurrent bladder tumors.
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What Is The Five Year Survival Rate For Bladder Cancer
A five-year survival rate is the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive five years after they were diagnosed with or started treatment for a disease such as bladder cancer. Their disease may or may not have recurred during that time.
The American Cancer Society periodically reports on the five-year survival rate for bladder cancer. The most recently period studied was from 2010 to 2016 and that rate was 77%. This means that from the time of diagnosis, 77 out of 100 people diagnosed with bladder cancer were alive in five years. From 1987 1989 , the five-year survival rate was 79% and from 1975 1977, it was 72%. The survival rates are not the same for everyone, however.
What Is The Prognosis For Liver Metastases
Prognosis is a clinical term describes how a disease condition develops, the signs and symptoms of the disease, how soon an affected individual is expected to recover, and how will be the quality of life of the affected individual over a period of time post treatment like ability to carry out activities of daily living the chances of any complications and other health concerns, and the chances of overall survival in cases of rare or incurable disease. In short, prognosis is referred to as the expected length of the disease, course of the disease, chances of any expected or unforeseen adverse events.
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Understanding Prostate Cancers Progression
To determine the appropriate treatment, doctors need to know how far the cancer has progressed, or its stage. A pathologist, the doctor trained in analyzing cells taken during a prostate biopsy, will provide two starting pointsthe cancers grade and Gleason score.
- Cancer grade: When the pathologist looks at prostate cancer cells, the most common type of cells will get a grade of 3 to 5. The area of cancer cells in the prostate will also be graded. The higher the grade, the more abnormal the cells.
- Gleason score: The two grades will be added together to get a Gleason score. This score tells doctors how likely the cancer is to grow and spread.
After a biopsy confirms prostate cancer, the patient may undergo additional tests to see whether it has spread through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. These tests are usually imaging studies and may include a bone scan, positron emission tomography scan or computed tomography scan.
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Bladder Reconstructions And Stomas
If you have had your bladder removed, the way you pass urine will change. There are several options that your treatment team will talk to you about:
- Urostomy is where doctors create a new hole in your abdomen called a stoma. Urine drains from the stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.
- Neobladder is where a new bladder made from your small bowel forms a pouch inside your body to store urine. You will pass urine by squeezing your abdominal muscles. You will also pass a small tube into the neobladder each day to help drain the urine.
- Continent urinary diversion is a pouch made from your small bowel inside your body to store urine. The urine empties through a hole called a stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.
A bladder reconstruction is a big change in your life. You can speak with a continence or stomal therapy nurse for help, support and information. You can also call Cancer Council . You may be able to speak with a trained Cancer Council volunteer who has had cancer for tips and support.
If you find it difficult to adjust after your bladder reconstruction, it may help to be referred to a psychologist or counsellor.
Note: If you have a stoma, you can join a stoma association for support and free supplies. For more information about stoma associations, visit the Australian Council of Stoma Associations.
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Stage 4 Bladder Cancer
Its time to notice the early warning signs of bladder cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine, pain, trouble urinating or the feeling you always need to go
When we talk about cancer, there are several sites/types that come to mind lung, breast, prostate, and skin to name just a few. But there are some parts of our bodies that are just as susceptible, but we dont think about as prone to cancer. Namely our bladder. Sure, we think about it every few hours when nature calls, but its not a part of our bodies that we typically worry about. Lets take some time today to talk about late stage bladder cancer, its symptoms, outlook, and treatment options.
Life Expectancy Of Stage 4 Kidney Disease Patients
Without treatment in the form of kidney dialysis, stage 4 kidney disease patients will be subjected to several negative symptoms that will not only cause pain, but also an overall decrease in quality of life. It is expected that stage 4 patients will not survive more than a year without dialysis treatment.
With dialysis, however, patients are expected to increase survivability considerably, allowing them to extend their prognosis by an additional 25 years. By allowing a dialysis machine to perform the work normally done by the kidneys, your body can perform optimally again. However, it is important to note that every patient is different and may have additional circumstances that may affect survival.
Dialysis should only be considered as a temporary measure to help get rid of harmful toxins and wastes from the body. All efforts are geared toward promoting kidney treatment and recovery that help repair diseased cells and tissues so that eventually a patients kidney function is sufficient enough to do the job on its own. This will require the dedication and vigilance of the patient to adhere strict dietary plans and treatments prescribed by the doctor.
However, some cases of kidney disease are beyond what can be treated with modern medicine, with the only resort left being kidney transplantation.
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What Is Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer that starts in the lining of your bladder. Your bladder is a small hollow organ that holds your pee . Healthcare providers have many ways to treat bladder cancer, including surgery to remove bladder cancer. Bladder cancer may come back after treatment, so people with bladder cancer should be vigilant about following up with their healthcare providers.
Healthcare providers can treat early-stage bladder cancer cancer thats found and treated before it can spread but about 75% of early-stage bladder cancers come back.
How does this condition affect my body?
Your bladder is a triangle-shaped organ thats centered between your hip bones, above your urethra and below your kidneys. Pee from your kidneys drains into your bladder, which is lined with tissue called urothelium. Urothelium is made of cells that stretch when your bladder fills with pee and collapses when its empty.
Bladder cancer happens when certain cells in the tissue lining your bladder mutate or change, becoming abnormal cells that multiply and cause tumors in your bladder. Left untreated, bladder cancer may grow through your bladder walls to nearby lymph nodes and then other areas of your body, including your bones, lungs or liver.
What are bladder cancer types?
There are three types of bladder cancer. Each type is named for the cells that line the wall of your bladder where the cancer started. Bladder cancer types include:
How common is bladder cancer?
Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer
Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. They cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.
Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Your doctor is familiar with your situation ask how these numbers may apply to you.
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How Long Will You Live If You Have Bladder Cancer
The survival rate depends on the stage of cancer at diagnosis and other health issues.
Overall, 70 to 90 percent of people with localized bladder cancer will live for at least five years or more. The physician calculates this with the help of survival rates. Survival rates indicate the percentage of people who live with a certain type of cancer for a specific time. The physician often uses an overall five-year survival rate. Factors that may affect survival rate include
Table. Five-year survival rates of different stages of bladder cancer
|Bladder cancer SEER stages|
|All SEER stages combined||77|
The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results stages are taken from the SEER database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute. SEER database groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages.
- Localized: There is no indication that cancer has spread outside the bladder.
- Regional: Cancer has invaded the nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or bones.
Thus, bladder cancer, if detected in the early stage is treatable and has higher survival rates. However, if the cancer is detected in the advanced stages, treatment becomes difficult and the survival rate is low.
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Treating Stage Ii Bladder Cancer
These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall , but no farther. Transurethral resection is typically the first treatment for these cancers, but it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.
When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients.
Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.
If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.
For people who have had surgery, but the features of the tumor show it is at high risk of coming back, the immunotherapy drug, nivolumab, might be offered. When given after surgery, nivolumab is given for up to one year.
For patients who cant have surgery because of other serious health problems, TURBT, radiation, chemotherapy, or some combination of these may be options.
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What To Do Before And After Treatment
Talk with your doctors about whether you need to do anything to prepare for treatment and help your recovery. Some things they may suggest are to:
- Stop smoking if you smoke, aim to quit before starting treatment. If you keep smoking, you may not respond as well to treatment and you may have more treatment-related side effects. Continuing to smoke also increases your risk of cancer returning.
- Begin or continue an exercise program exercise will help build up your strength for treatment and recovery. It can also help you deal with side effects of treatment.
- Improve diet aim to eat a balanced diet with a variety of fruit, vegetables, wholegrains and protein. Eating well can improve your strength and you may respond better to treatment.
- See a physiotherapist they can teach you exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles, which help control how your bladder and bowel work. These exercises are useful if you have a neobladder, a partial cystectomy, or radiation therapy.