Monday, January 30, 2023

Prostate And Bladder Cancer Survival Rate

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Stage 3 Prostate Cancer

Current Mortality Rates on Prostate Cancer Patients

In stage 3, cancer has now spread beyond the prostate and may have potentially spread into the nearby seminal vesicles.

  • Stage IIIA The tumor may involve both lobes of the prostate or less than that . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . The PSA level is below or equal to 20 ng/ml. The Grade Group is 1-4.
  • Stage IIIB The tumor extended through the prostatic capsule to the seminal vesicles or the adjacent structures, such as the bladder, muscles or the pelvic floor . There is no regional lymph node metastasis and no distant metastasis. . There can be any PSA level. The Grade Group is 1-4.
  • Stage IIIC The tumor may or may not be extended through the prostatic capsule but has not spread to the regional lymph nodes or to other distant areas . There can be any PSA level. The Grade Group is 5.

Bladder Cancer Survival Trends Over Time

Bladder cancer survival trends are difficult to interpret because of changes to classification and coding practices affecting the definition of invasive carcinoma of the bladder.The decrease in bladder cancer survival since the 1990s is likely to be due to an increasing proportion of bladder tumours now being coded as in situ or uncertain.

One-year age-standardised net survival for bladder cancer in men has increased from 63% during 1971-1972 to 80% during 1990-1991 and then decreased to 77% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales. In women, one-year survival has increased from 53% to 70% and then decreased to 62% over the same time periods.

Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised One-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011

Five-year age-standardised net survival for bladder cancer in men has increased from 41% during 1971-1972 to 63% during 1990-1991 and then decreased to a predicted survival of 57% during 2010-2011 in England and Wales. In women, five-year survival has increased from 35% to 55% and then decreased to 46% over the same time periods.

Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised Five-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011

Five-year survival for 2010-2011 is predicted using an excess hazard statistical model

Bladder Cancer , Age-Standardised Ten-Year Net Survival, Adults , England and Wales, 1971-2011

Ten-year survival for 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 is predicted using an excess hazard statistical model

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Can Bladder Cancer Be Cured

When detected at an early stage, bladder cancer can usually be treated successfully whereas later-stage cancers may present greater challenges for the patient and their healthcare team. As discussed later, people who have had bladder cancer are at risk for recurrence for the best chance of successfully treating recurrent cancer, early detection is again important.

What Is The Prognosis For Bladder Cancer

Kidney And Bladder Cancer Survival Rate

The most important factors that affect the prognosis of bladder cancer are the stage and grade of the tumor. The lower the stage and grade, the better the outlook. Other factors such as number, size, pattern of recurrence , response to initial treatment like BCG, coexistent carcinoma in situ, and certain genetic mutations also play a role. The table below is based on the National Cancer Institute’s database:

Stage
IV 15%

For low-risk superficial bladder cancer , the chances of recurrence are about 50% in five years after the initial diagnosis. This necessitates regular follow-up, even in these low-risk tumors. However, unlike the more aggressive variants of bladder cancer, the chances of progression are minimal. Typically, these tumors, even when they recur, do so in the same stage and grade as the original tumor and do not compromise the life expectancy of the patient.

High-risk superficial tumors are those that are high-grade, T1 tumors and are associated with extensive areas of carcinoma in situ. Multiple tumors, large tumors, and those that recur despite BCG treatment are also at an increased risk for recurrence and progression. These tumors have a recurrence rate in the range of 50%-70% at one and five years, respectively. They are also much likely to invade into the deeper layers. Doctors need to manage these tumors more aggressively since they have a potential to invade and spread to other parts of the body thereby shortening the life expectancy of the patient.

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Staging Spread And Survival Rates

As with all cancers, doctors use the term stage to describe the characteristics of the primary tumor itself, such as its size and how far prostate cancer has spread when it is found.

Staging systems are complicated. The staging system for most cancers, including prostate cancer, uses three different aspects of tumor growth and spread. It’s called the TNM system, for tumor, nodes, and metastasis:

  • T, for tumor describes the size of the main area of prostate cancer.
  • N, for nodes, describes whether prostate cancer has spread to any lymph nodes, and how many and in what locations.
  • M, for metastasis, means distant spread of prostate cancer, for example, to the bones or liver.

Using the TNM system, each man’s prostate cancer can be described in detail and compared to other men’s prostate cancer. Doctors use this information for studies and to decide on treatments.

As far as survival rates for prostate cancer go, however, the staging system is pretty simple. As we’ve mentioned, in terms of survival rates, men with prostate cancer can be divided into two groups:

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How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed

Doctors describe the growth and spread of prostate cancer in stages. Doctors use these stages as guides when choosing treatment options or offering prognoses to their patients.

Prostate cancer staging is based on a number of different factors, including prostate cancer screening tests such as a digital rectal exam or prostate-specific antigen test and imaging studies like bones scans, MRIs, CT scans, and trans-rectal ultrasounds.

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What Are The Layers Of The Bladder

The bladder consists of three layers of tissue. The innermost layer of the bladder, which comes in contact with the urine stored inside the bladder, is called the “mucosa” and consists of several layers of specialized cells called “transitional cells,” which are almost exclusively found in the urinary system of the body. These same cells also form the inner lining of the ureters, kidneys, and a part of the urethra. These cells form a waterproof lining within these organs to prevent the urine from going into the deeper tissue layers. These cells are also termed urothelial cells, and the mucosa is termed the urothelium.

The middle layer is a thin lining known as the “lamina propria” and forms the boundary between the inner “mucosa” and the outer muscular layer. This layer has a network of blood vessels and nerves and is an important landmark in terms of the staging of bladder cancer .

The outer layer of the bladder comprises of the “detrusor” muscle. This is the thickest layer of the bladder wall. Its main function is to relax slowly as the bladder fills up to provide low-pressure urine storage and then to contract to compress the bladder and expel the urine out during the act of passing urine. Outside these three layers is a variable amount of fat that lines and protects the bladder like a soft cushion and separates it from the surrounding organs such as the rectum and the muscles and bones of the pelvis.

Prostate Cancer Is Common With Aging

Prostate Cancer

After skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. About 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. And these are just the men who are diagnosed. Among very elderly men dying of other causes, a surprising two-thirds may have prostate cancer that was never diagnosed.

Only 1 in 36 men, though, actually dies from prostate cancer. That’s because most prostate cancers are diagnosed in older men in whom the disease is more likely to be slow-growing and non-aggressive. The majority of these men eventually pass away from heart disease, stroke, or other causes — not their prostate cancer.

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How Do Health Care Professionals Determine Bladder Cancer Staging

Bladder cancer is staged using the tumor node metastases system developed by the International Union Against Cancer in 1997 and updated and used by the American Joint Committee on Cancer . In addition, the American Urologic Association has a similar staging system that varies slightly from that used by the AJCC. The combination of both staging systems appears below. This staging gives your physician a complete picture of the extent of the person’s bladder cancer.

The T stage refers to the depth of penetration of the tumor from the innermost lining to the deeper layers of the bladder. The T stages are as follows:

  • Ta – Noninvasive papillary carcinoma
  • Tis – Carcinoma in situ
  • T1 – Tumor invades connective tissue under the epithelium
  • T2 – Tumor invades muscle of the bladder
  • T2a – Superficial muscle affected
  • T2b – Deep muscle affected
  • T3 – Tumor invades perivesical fatty tissue
  • T3a – Microscopically
  • T3b – Macroscopically
  • T4 – Tumor spreads beyond fatty tissue and invades any of the following: prostate, uterus, vagina, pelvic wall, or abdominal wall
  • The presence and extent of involvement of the lymph nodes in the pelvic region of the body near the urinary bladder determines the N stage. The N stages are as follows:

    The metastases or the M stage signifies the presence or absence of the spread of bladder cancer to other organs of the body.

    • Mx – Distant metastasis cannot be evaluated
    • M0 – No distant metastasis

    A health care professional then assigns a stage:

    Prostate Cancer Is One Of The Most Common Types Of Cancer Diagnosed In Men

    Although the percentage of cases in men is much lower than in women, male breast cancer accounts for a por. Your doctor will want to discuss treatment options as well as the prognosis for bladder cancer. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Of course, your specialist is the main person whose advice you should follow but it doesn’t do anyone harm. Getting a diagnosis of bladder cancer can be a difficult time. Do women have a prostate gland? But women don’t actually have a prostate gland. Prostate cancer is a common type of cancer in men, according to the mayo clinic. These include your blood pressure, heart rate and metab. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early enough stage, it’s treatable. It may grow slowly and it’s typically treatable. The hormones that your thyroid gland produces help regulate several of your bodily functions. Although it is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in american women, breast cancer can impact people of all genders.

    Here are 10 more facts about prostate cancer. It may grow slowly and it’s typically treatable. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on your overall health, progression of the c. Getting a diagnosis of bladder cancer can be a difficult time. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in men.

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    Understanding The Statistics: Cancer Survival

    It is important to remember that all cancer survival numbers are based on averages across huge numbers of people. These numbers cannot predict what will happen in your individual case.

    Survival rates will not tell you how long you will live after you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. But, these numbers can give you an idea of how likely your treatment will be successful. Also, survival rates take into account your age at diagnosis but not whether you have other health conditions too.

    What Is Chemotherapy For Bladder Cancer

    Causes Of Bladder Cancer Survival Rate

    Patients who are diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer are usually treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy may also be used in cases of “locally advanced” bladder cancer in an attempt to decrease the chances of the cancer coming back after radical cystectomy. This is “adjuvant chemotherapy.” Another strategy entails administering “neoadjuvant chemotherapy” by giving these medications before radical cystectomy in an attempt to improve the results of surgery and decrease the size of the tumor before the operation.

    Chemotherapy has the potential to control metastatic bladder cancer and increase the chances of cure when used in a neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting along with surgery. However, chemotherapy has its own set of side effects that some individuals find intolerable.

    The time-honored chemotherapy regimen for bladder cancer is the MVAC. It is a combination of four medications given in cyclical form.

    • C: Cisplatin

    Oncologists currently prescribe MVAC in a “dose dense” fashion. This means the patient takes the drugs more frequently than was previously done in the accepted treatment schedule, as well as taking growth factors to help the blood counts to recover faster from the effects of the chemotherapy drugs. The older schedule for MVAC therapy is no longer recommended according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

    Some patients with heart disease may not be in a condition to receive Adriamycin and may receive CMV instead

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    Survival Rates For Prostate Cancer

    Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time after they were diagnosed. These rates cant tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful.

    Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they cant predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.

    Prostate Cancer Survival Rates

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. A mans individual survival depends on the stage of cancer. Most prostate cancers are identified at an early stage when they are organ-confined. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for men with local or regional prostate cancer is nearly 100%. The relative 10-year survival rate is 98% and the 15-year relative survival rate is 91%.

    However, if the cancer is stage IVB and has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver, or bones there is only a 30% relative 5-year survival rate.

    Things to consider when understanding the statistics:

    • These numbers/rates apply only for the first-diagnosed cancer
    • There are many more factors that can influence the survival rate of an individual
    • These rates are calculated over a 5-year period. Treatments improve over time and the survival rates may positively change.

    Early detection makes this deadly disease curable. Do not ignore any prostate cancer signs or symptoms and get screened as early as possible, especially if you are at high risk of developing prostate cancer, based on your family history, race or age. Talk to your doctor about your Gleason Score, Grade Group and Stage and decide upon the best treatment option for prostate cancer.

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    There Are 2 Types Of Staging For Prostate Cancer:

  • The Clinical StageThe clinical stage is based on the results of tests that can be done prior to the surgery. They include the DRE, biopsy, X-rays, CT and/or MRI scans and bone scans. X-rays, bone scans, CT scans and MRI scans may not always be needed. They are recommended based on the PSA level, the size of the cancer, which is determined by its grade and volume and the clinical stage of the cancer.
  • The Pathologic StageThe pathologic stage is based on information found during surgery, plus the laboratory results referred to as pathology, of the prostate tissue removed during surgery. The surgery often includes the removal of the entire prostate and some lymph nodes.One important part of the staging process is determining the grade of the cancer. The grading system is based on the microanalysis of the prostatic tissue. While the stage of the cancer is determined based on the macro appearance of the tumor, in connection with the nearby organs and tissues, the grade of cancer is usually determined after a biopsy, when the cells are analyzed under a microscope.
  • Learn More About Prostate Cancer Care At Rcca

    Bladder Cancer

    If youve been diagnosed with prostate cancer or are concerned about potential symptoms, contact RCCA today. Our team of cancer care specialists will assess the stage of your cancer using the latest diagnostic methods and work with you to design a fully individualized care plan that includes advanced treatment options, the potential for clinical trials, and support that addresses physical and emotional well-being. To speak with a representative right away, please call .

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    Risk Factors Of Prostate Cancer

    • Age

    Age is the most significant risk factor for prostate cancer. Your risk increases as you get older. Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer are over 50 years of age. If you are over the age of 50, talk to your GP about the PSA blood test which can indicate if your prostate is healthy or not.

    • A family history of cancer

    A family history means that you have someone in your family who has cancer. Generally, if you have a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer, you are 2 to 3 times more likely to get prostate cancer yourself, compared to the average man.

    The risk is much higher for men with several affected relatives, particularly if their relatives were young when the cancer was found. It is always worth knowing about your family history.

    • Genes

    Several inherited gene changes seem to raise prostate cancer risk, but they probably account for only a small percentage of cases overall. For example, inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes raise the risk of breast and ovarian cancers in some families. Mutations in these genes may also increase prostate cancer risk in some men.

    • Ethnicity

    Prostate cancer is more common in black Caribbean and black African men than in white or Asian men. Asian men have half the risk of white men.

    • A previous cancer

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