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How Do You Check For Bladder Cancer

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Warning Signs Of Bladder Cancer

Diagnosing and Treating Bladder Cancer

The most common warning sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine , which may or may not be visible. Other symptoms may include: change in bladder habits, including having to urinate more often, an urgent need to urinate, or burning when you urinate needing to urinate but not being able to difficulty initiating or stopping urine flow weak, interrupted, or painful urine flow abdominal pain loss of weight or appetite persistent lower back, upper thigh, or pelvic pain.

Is A Cystoscopy Painful

You may feel discomfort when the cystoscope goes into the urethra and bladder. Youâll probably feel a strong need to pee when your bladder gets full. You may feel a slight pinch if the doctor takes a biopsy.

After the procedure, your urethra may be sore and it might burn when you pee for a day or two.

What Are The Signs Of Bladder Cancer

The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, called hematuria. Gross hematuria is blood that can be seen in the urine. Your urine can be pink, red, or dark red. In some cases, urine can only be seen with a microscope, called microscopic hematuria. Other signs of bladder cancer include increased frequency of urination, a feeling of urgency to urinate, nocturia , pain with urination, and feeling like your bladder is not empty. These can all be caused by irritation of the bladder wall by the tumor, but can also be signs of infection or other bladder problems.

In advanced cases of bladder cancer, the tumor can stop urine from entering the bladder, or from exiting the bladder. This may cause severe flank pain, infection, and damage to the kidneys. Other signs of advanced bladder cancer are loss of appetite, weight loss, feeling tired, bone pain, and swelling in the feet.

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Hyaluronic Acid And Hyaluronidase

Hyaluronic acid is a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan found in normal tissue and tissue fluids. When present in tumor tissues, it promotes metastasis and may interfere with immune surveillance.67 At a cutoff value of 100 ng/mL, urine HA had 92% sensitivity and 93% specificity for detecting bladder cancer.68

Hyaluronidase , an endoglycosidase, degrades HA into small fragments that promote angiogenesis.69 Hyaluronidase secretion by bladder tumor cells correlates with invasive potential. Pham and coworkers70 analyzed 139 urine specimens and detected a 5- to 8-fold elevation of hyaluronidase in the urine of patients with grade 2 or 3 bladder cancer. However, its widespread applicability may be somewhat limited the accuracy of this test for detecting low-grade tumor is poor and may even be less than that of routine voided urine cytology. Further refinement in the assay technique and evaluation in larger clinical trials would help to define the clinical applicability of this marker.

Treatments For Bladder Cancer

Tackling the topic of mens reproductive cancers

Bladder cancer treatment depends on the type and stage of the disease, your overall health and other factors. We may recommend testing to look for genetic changes and other features when cancer has spread. This testing can help your care team decide:

  • If immunotherapy might help.
  • If you are eligible to try a promising therapy in a clinical trial.

Team-based care: At OHSU, your care team may include a range of providers, including expert urologic oncologists and urologists. These specialists are highly trained in the urinary system and cancer care. Your urologic oncologist may be the lead provider in caring for early-stage bladder cancer that has not spread to muscle.

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Screening Tests Have Risks

Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying fromcancer.

The Difference In Cancer Detection

Early detection saves lives and is a crucial factor when it comes to the treatment of bladder cancer. Cxbladder is a clinically proven cutting-edge genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer in patients presenting with blood in the urine and those being monitored for recurrence.

If youre worried about bladder cancer, a Cxbladder test can provide accurate results that will allow your Doctor to make informed decisions about your care. Ask your Doctor about Cxbladder today, or contact us for more information.

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Urine Cytology Tests To Detect Cancer Cells

In a urine cytology test, a sample of the patients urine is analyzed under a microscope.1,2 This test can reveal the presence of cancer cells or cells that are pre-cancerous, meaning that they are more likely to become cancer cells later. However, this test is not enough to provide a definite diagnosis on its ownit is possible for cancer cells to be present in the bladder even if no cancer cells are detected in the urine sample.

Ultrasound Scan Of Your Tummy

Bladder Cancer Tests, Diagnosis and Recurrence

Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to create a picture of a part of the body. You might have an ultrasound scan of your tummy . The scan looks at your urinary system .

The ultrasound scan can show if there are any signs of cancer in your bladder. It can also show any blockages in the tubes that move urine between your kidneys and bladder .

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Can A Urologist Take A Biopsy Of A Bladder Tumor

Occasionally, the urologist will take a biopsy during a transurethral resection of bladder tumor procedure, which will be scheduled for a future appointment. This is a minimally invasive procedure that does not involve making an incision in the body. The entire removal of a bladder-confined tumor can be accomplished through an operative scope, which passes through the urethra into the bladder.

How Long Can Someone Live With Untreated Mouth Cancer

Mouth cancer or oral cancer occur in any part of the oral cavity, like the lips, two-thirds of the tongue, the inner lining of the cheeks, gums, hard palate, soft palate, pharynx, and sinuses. This type of cancer is grouped into head and neck type cancers. Oral can be perilous if it is not diagnosed and treated at the early stages. When cancer cells spread to the necks lymph nodes, oral cancer is discovered.

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Is Bladder Cancer A Fatal Illness

Left untreated, bladder cancer may spread to other parts of your body. Cancer thats metastasized, or spread, may affect how long youll live with bladder cancer. Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment increase the chance of living longer with bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, 96% of people who received treatment for early-stage cancer were alive five years after diagnosis. Overall, 77% of people with bladder cancer were alive five years after diagnosis.

What Is Bladder Cancer

Common Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

Cancer can start any place in the body. Cancer that starts in the bladder is called bladder cancer. It starts when cells in the bladder grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should.

Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body. For instance, cancer cells in the bladder can travel to the bone and grow there. When cancer cells spread, its called metastasis.

Cancer is always named for the place where it starts. So when bladder cancer spreads to the bone , it’s still called bladder cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless it starts in the bone.

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What Will Happen After Treatment

You’ll be glad when treatment is over. But its hard not to worry about cancer coming back. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about this. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. Be sure to go to all of your follow-up visits. People who have had bladder cancer are at high risk of having a second bladder cancer.

If you have no signs of cancer, most experts advise seeing with your doctor every 3 to 6 months. These visits might include urine tests, blood work, and other tests. If you still have your bladder, you will need regular exams of your bladder, too. The time between doctor visits may be longer after a few years if no new cancers are seen.

Having cancer and dealing with treatment can be hard, but it can also be a time to look at your life in new ways. You might be thinking about how to improve your health. Call us or talk to your doctor to find out what you can do to feel better.

You cant change the fact that you have cancer. What you can change is how you live the rest of your life making healthy choices and feeling as well as you can.

Where Does Bladder Cancer Most Often Spread

Lymph nodes, bones, lung, liver, and peritoneum are the most common sites of metastasis from bladder cancer. Tumors in a more advanced T category and those with atypical histologic features metastasize earlier. Tumors with atypical histologic features also have a higher frequency of peritoneal metastasis.

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Diagnosis Of Bladder Cancer

Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. Diagnosing bladder cancer usually begins with a visit to your family doctor. Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms you have and may do a physical exam. Based on this information, your doctor may refer you to a specialist or order tests to check for bladder cancer or other health problems.

The process of diagnosis may seem long and frustrating. Its normal to worry, but try to remember that other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as bladder cancer. Its important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of bladder cancer.

The following tests are usually used to rule out or diagnose bladder cancer. Many of the same tests used to diagnose cancer are used to find out how far the cancer has spread . Your doctor may also order other tests to check your general health and to help plan your treatment.

Causes Of Bladder Cancer

Cystoscopy To Find Bladder Cancer

There are certain things that can affect the chances of developing bladder cancer. These are called risk factors.

The main risk factor is age. Bladder cancer is more common in people over the age of 60. It is rare in people under the age of 40. Another risk factor is smoking. Smoking may cause about 4 in 10 bladder cancers.

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What Are The Stages Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .

The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.

Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:

  • In Stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
  • In Stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
  • In Stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.

A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is known as TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:

  • Invasive bladder tumors can range from T2 all the way to T4 .
  • Lymph node involvement ranges from N0 to N3 .
  • M0 means that there is no metastasis outside of the pelvis. M1 means that it has metastasized outside of the pelvis.

How Can I Prevent Bladder Cancer

You may not be able to prevent bladder cancer, but it may be helpful to know the risk factors that may increase the chance youll develop bladder cancer. Bladder cancer risk factors may include:

  • Smoking cigarettes: Cigarette smoking more than doubles the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars or being exposed to second-hand smoke also increases that risk.
  • Cancer treatments: Radiation therapy is the second-most common risk factor. People who have certain chemotherapy drugs may also develop an increased risk of bladder cancer.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals: People who work with chemicals, such as aromatic amines , are at an increased risk. Extensive exposure to rubber, leather, some textiles, paint and hairdressing supplies, typically related to occupational exposure, also appears to increase the risk.
  • Infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract diseases may have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Past bladder cancer: People with a previous bladder cancer are at increased risk to form new or recurrent bladder tumors.

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Smoking Can Affect The Risk Of Bladder Cancer

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for bladder cancer.

Risk factors for bladder cancer include the following:

  • Using tobacco, especially smoking cigarettes.
  • Having a family history of bladder cancer.
  • Having certain changes in the genes that are linked to bladder cancer.
  • Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace.
  • Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or ifosfamide.
  • Taking Aristolochia fangchi, a Chinese herb.
  • Drinking water from a well that has high levels of arsenic.
  • Drinking water that has been treated with chlorine.
  • Having a history of bladder infections, including bladder infections caused by Schistosoma haematobium.
  • Using urinarycatheters for a long time.

Older age is a risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

Urinalysis Testing For Blood In Urine

The Days, Weeks, and Months Surrounding a Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

Urinalysis can be used to test a patients urine sample for the presence of blood in the urine.1-3 The medical term for the symptom of blood in the urine is hematuria. Many patients diagnosed with bladder cancer have the symptom of blood in the urine that is easily visible, but in some patients the amount of blood is so small that it is not visible to the naked eye. Urinalysis can detect very small amounts of blood in the urine, which can sometimes help to diagnose bladder cancer at an earlier stage, if bladder cancer is present. Urinalysis can also be used to check the levels of other substances, such as sugar, protein, and white blood cells, in a patients urine.

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Looking Inside Your Bladder

Cystoscopy is a test to look at the inside of your bladder and check for signs of cancer. Your doctor can take samples of the bladder lining to check for cancer cells.

There are different types of cystoscopies including:

  • flexible cystoscopy
  • blue light cystoscopy or photodynamic diagnosis

Your doctor will discuss with you what type of cystoscopy you’re having.

You can have a cystoscopy when you are awake under a local anaesthetic. Or under a general anaesthetic which means you are asleep.

What To Expect During Cystoscopy

The procedure generally takes about 15 to 20 minutes.

  • Youâll need to pee first. The test is done with an empty bladder.
  • Youâll lie down. The position depends on the type of scope your doctor uses:
  • Standard rigid cystoscope. Youâll lie on your back with your knees up and apart. Your feet will probably be in stirrups.
  • Flexible cystoscope. No special position is needed. The doctor will help you find a comfortable position.
  • Youâll get medicine. You might get a drug to make you sleepy. The doctor will call this a sedative. Or you could get a general anesthetic to help you sleep through the entire procedure.
  • Your doctor inserts the scope. Theyâll clean your urethra and numb the area. The scope goes through the urethra and into your bladder. Theyâll use the smallest scope possible. They might need to use a bigger one to take samples or bring surgical tools into your bladder.
  • The doctor examines your urethra and bladder. The cystoscope has a lens on the end that works like a telescope. It makes it easier for the doctor to see inside your body. They might put a video camera over the lens to project images onto a screen.
  • The doctor fills your bladder. They put water or saline in through the cystoscope. When your bladder is full of water, it stretches. This lets the doctor see your entire bladder wall. Theyâll ask you how it feels when itâs full.
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    Flexible Cystoscopy And Biopsy

    During a flexible cystoscopy, the doctor applies a local anesthetic and then inserts a cystoscope, a small flexible tube containing a tiny, lighted video camera on the end, into the urethra. He or she guides the cystoscope into the bladder to view the organs inner lining.

    If the doctor sees unusual tissue or growths, a biopsy may be performed. During a biopsy, tissue is removed for examination under a microscope, so that the doctor can determine whether cancer is present. Cystoscopy can cause minor irritation of the bladder, which may result in some bleeding shortly afterward.

    NYU Langone is a leader in using blue light cystoscopy, an advanced imaging procedure that helps to better detect and treat noninvasive bladder cancer tumors. Our surgeons perform this procedure using a light-sensitive contrast solution that is injected into the bladder through a catheter, or hollow tube, placed in the urethra.

    After this solution accumulates in bladder cancer cells, our doctors place a cystoscope with a special blue light on the end into the bladder. The contrast solution makes the cancer cells glow brightly under the blue lightenabled cystoscope. This allows surgeons to ensure more complete tumor removal, reducing the chances of a recurrence or the need for repeat surgeries.

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