Friday, April 19, 2024

Can Bladder Tumors Be Benign

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Bladder Tumor Removal with TURBT – Urology Care Foundation

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  • ASCO Answers Fact Sheet:Read a 1-page fact sheet that offers an introduction to bladder cancer. This free fact sheet is available as a PDF, so it is easy to print.

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How Do Healthcare Providers Diagnose Bladder Cancer

Healthcare providers do a series of tests to diagnose bladder cancer, including:

  • Urinalysis: Providers use a variety of tests to analyze your pee. In this case, they may do urinalysis to rule out infection.
  • Cytology: Providers examine cells under a microscope for signs of cancer.
  • Cystoscopy: This is the primary test to identify and diagnose bladder cancer. For this test, providers use a pencil-sized lighted tube called a cystoscope to view the inside of your bladder and urethra. They may use a fluorescent dye and a special blue light that makes it easier to see cancer in your bladder. Providers may also take tissue samples while doing cystoscopies.

If urinalysis, cytology and cystoscopy results show you have bladder cancer, healthcare providers then do tests to learn more about the cancer, including:

Healthcare providers then use what they learn about the cancer to stage the disease. Staging cancer helps providers plan treatment and develop a potential prognosis or expected outcome.

Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .

The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of your bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but hasnt invaded the main muscle wall of your bladder.

Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:

A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:

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What Are Bladder Tumors

Bladder tumors are abnormal growths that occur in the bladder. If the tumor is benign, its noncancerous and wont spread to other parts of your body. This is in contrast to a tumor thats malignant, which means its cancerous.

There are several types of benign tumors that can develop within the bladder.

Types Of Benign Bladder Tumors Include:

Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Bladder Tumor in a Patient with Wolf ...
  • Fibromas: originate in the connective tissue of the bladder wall
  • Hemangiomas: comprised of a mass or lump of blood vessels of the bladder wall
  • Inverted papillomas: develop on the lining of the bladder and have a smooth surface
  • Leiomyomas: originate in the muscle layer of the bladder wall
  • Lipomas: originate in the cells in the fat layer that surrounds the bladder
  • Neurofibromas: originate in the nerve tissue of the bladder
  • Papillomas: originate in the urothelial cells, which make up the lining of the bladder and urinary tract

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Changes In Bladder Habits Or Symptoms Of Irritation

Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as:

  • Having to urinate more often than usual
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full
  • Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream
  • Having to get up to urinate many times during the night

These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection , bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate . Still, its important to have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Is Bladder Cancer A Fatal Illness

Left untreated, bladder cancer may spread to other parts of your body. Cancer thats metastasized, or spread, may affect how long youll live with bladder cancer. Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment increase the chance of living longer with bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, 96% of people who received treatment for early-stage cancer were alive five years after diagnosis. Overall, 77% of people with bladder cancer were alive five years after diagnosis.

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Bladder Cancer: Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Bladder cancer cases are reviewed by a multi-disciplinary tumor board at Saint Johns Cancer Institute and Health Center to personalize effective treatment plans.

What Is Bladder Cancer

Bladder Tumor | Dr. Alakesh Burman (English)

Bladder cancer starts when cells that make up the urinary bladder start to grow out of control. As more cancer cells develop, they can form a tumor and, with time, spread to other parts of the body.

The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower pelvis. It has flexible, muscular walls that can stretch to hold urine and squeeze to send it out of the body. The bladder’s main job is to store urine. Urine is liquid waste made by the 2 kidneys and then carried to the bladder through 2 tubes called ureters. When you urinate, the muscles in the bladder contract, and urine is forced out of the bladder through a tube called the urethra.

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What Are Less Common Forms Of Bladder Cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a type of bladder cancer that is very rare in the United States.1-3 The cancer cells look different under a microscope than the type of cancer cells involved in urothelial bladder cancer. Squamous cell carcinomas in the bladder tend to be the invasive type of cancer. This type affects less than 5% of people diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States.

An even more rare type of bladder cancer is called adenocarcinoma of the bladder, which affects around 1%-2% of people diagnosed with bladder cancer in the United States.1-3 It also tends to be invasive.

Bladder sarcomas are the rarest type, which occur in less than 1% of people with bladder cancer in the United States.1-3 Unlike most other types of bladder cancer, which start in the bladder lining, the cancer cells in sarcomas start growing in the muscle of the bladder.

What Are The Different Kinds Of Bladder Tumors

Benign bladder tumors are pretty rare overall, said Sam S. Chang, MD, chief surgical officer at the Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center in Nashville, Tennessee.

These tumors cause symptoms similar to their malignant counterparts, so it is not possible to distinguish between the two based on clinical signs alone, noted Dr. Chang.

The types of benign bladder tumors are distinguished by where they grow and include:

  • Papilloma: arises from the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder

  • Leiomyoma: arises from the smooth muscle of the bladder wall

  • Hemangioma: occurs due to a buildup of blood vessels in the bladder wall

  • Neurofibroma: develops in the nerve tissue of the bladder wall

  • Fibroma: arises from the fibrous connective tissue of the bladder wall

  • Lipoma: arises from the fat tissue surrounding the bladder

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Whats Usually The First Symptom Of Bladder Cancer

Blood in your pee is the most common bladder cancer symptom. That said, simply having blood in your pee isnt a sure sign of bladder cancer. Other conditions cause this issue, too. But you should contact a healthcare provider whenever you spot blood in your pee. Other bladder cancer symptoms include:

About The Bladder Renal Pelvis Ureter And Urethra

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The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body during urination. This function makes the bladder an important part of the urinary tract. The urinary tract is also made up of the kidneys, ureters, and urethra. The renal pelvis is a funnel-like part of the kidney that collects urine and sends it into the ureter. The ureter is a tube that runs from each kidney into the bladder. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body. The prostate gland is also part of the urinary tract.

The bladder, like other parts of the urinary tract, is lined with a layer of cells called the urothelium. This layer of cells is separated from the bladder wall muscles, called the muscularis propria, by a thin, fibrous band called the lamina propria.

Bladder cancer begins when healthy cells in the bladder liningmost commonly urothelial cellschange and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. Urothelial cells also line the renal pelvis and ureters and urethra. Cancer that develops in the renal pelvis and ureters is also considered a type of urothelial cancer and is often called upper tract urothelial cancer. In most cases, it is treated in much the same way as bladder cancer and is described in this guide. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread. Benign bladder tumors are very rare.

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Causes Of Bladder Cancer

Most cases of bladder cancer appear to be caused by exposure to harmful substances, which lead to abnormal changes in the bladder’s cells over many years.

Tobacco smoke is a common cause and it’s estimated that more than 1 in 3 cases of bladder cancer are caused by smoking.

Contact with certain chemicals previously used in manufacturing is also known to cause bladder cancer. However, these substances have since been banned.

Read more about the causes of bladder cancer.

What Does A Mass On The Bladder Mean

A mass that is found on the bladder the muscular sac in the pelvic region that stores urine can sometimes be indicative of bladder cancer. In other cases, a bladder mass could be a benign polyp, which is a small, cauliflower-like growth that can potentially turn into bladder cancer in the future. Many people with bladder polyps do not develop cancer, but some may experience bothersome symptoms like frequent or painful urination that require medical attention.

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Evaluating A Bladder Mass

To assess a bladder mass, urologists perform a physical examination, and blood and urine tests to evaluate for the presence of blood in the urine. You may also have a bladder wash to obtain cells from your bladder for a pathologist to analyze. But ultimately, the urologist needs to look inside your bladder via a procedure called cystoscopy.

Cystoscopy involves passing a cystoscope through the urethra and into the bladder, allowing the urologist to see what is there.

If your cystoscopy or imaging scans reveal a suspicious mass or any irregularity, such as a lesion, we will obtain a biopsy or tissue sample through an incisionless surgical procedure called Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor . During a TURBT, the surgeon inserts a tool called a resectoscope through the urethra to reach the inside of your bladder and remove a piece of tumor tissue or the entire tumor from your bladder.

A pathologist will then examine the tissue to determine whether it is benign or cancerous.

At Roswell Park, our pathologists are fully trained for all disease sites, but also specialize in diagnosing tumors of specific sites, such as the urinary tract, says Dr. Guru. As a high-volume cancer center, Roswell Park has pathologists who examine bladder mass tissue samples every day.

When Should I Seek Medical Care For A Benign Tumor

Ultrasound Video showing a Tumor in Urinary Bladder.

You should seek medical attention for any unusual growth or symptoms that could indicate a tumor.

If youve been diagnosed with a benign neoplasm and it doesnt need to be treated right away, you should be aware of any changes. Call your healthcare provider if you notice any differences in the way it looks or feels or if you have increasing pain or other symptoms.

For example, if you have a benign skin tumor, call your healthcare provider if it changes:

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Do Benign Tumors Need To Be Removed

It depends, says Dr. Guru. Benign bladder masses usually grow very slowly and will not spread to other tissues or organs in the body. In some cases, we will just monitor patients on a regular basis. However, some benign masses can bleed or grow very large and cause problems by taking up too much space in your bladder or pressing on other organs in your body. In that case, we usually remove or treat benign masses, using a TURBT procedure.

If you are ever unsure about your bladder symptoms or your bladder tumor diagnosis, we recommend an appointment with our multidisciplinary cancer care experts at Roswell Park.

Other Ways Of Describing Bladder Cancer

In addition to its cell type, bladder cancer may be described as noninvasive, non-muscle-invasive, or muscle-invasive.

  • Noninvasive. Noninvasive bladder cancer includes noninvasive papillary carcinoma and carcinoma in situ . Noninvasive papillary carcinoma is a growth found on a small section of tissue that is easily removed. This is called stage Ta. CIS is cancer that is found only on or near the surface of the bladder, which is called stage Tis. See Stages and Grades for more information.

  • Non-muscle-invasive. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer typically has only grown into the lamina propria and not into muscle, also called stage I. Non-muscle-invasive cancer may also be called superficial cancer, although this term is being used less often because it may incorrectly suggest that the cancer is not serious.

  • Muscle-invasive. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer has grown into the muscle of the bladder wall and sometimes into the fatty layers or surrounding tissues or organs outside the bladder.

It is important to note that non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer has the potential of spreading into the bladder muscle or to other parts of the body. Additionally, all cell types of bladder cancer can spread beyond the bladder to other areas of the body through a process known as metastasis.

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Benign And Malignant Bladder Lesions

The urinary bladder is composed of the following four layers:

  • Lamina propria: Vascular layer of connective tissue deep to the urothelium

  • 4.

    Adventitia: Connective tissue

The bladder is an extraperitoneal organ with a serosal covering present only over the dome. The remainder of the bladder is surrounded by perivesical fat.

This chapter reviews the benign and malignant processes that can affect the urinary bladder. With a nonspecific clinical presentation, most bladder tumors have a broad differential diagnosis that includes both benign and malignant entities. Definitive diagnosis is usually established by histologic examination. Paraganglioma is the only bladder lesion with symptoms and biochemical findings that permit a specific clinical diagnosis.

The differential diagnosis is broad when imaging findings are nonspecific and includes both benign and malignant entities. Other benign lesions to consider that also may manifest as single or multiple focal masses include blood clot, endometriosis, nephrogenic adenoma, eosinophilic cystitis, malakoplakia, and infections such as tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, and fungal infections. Primary bladder carcinomas, lymphoma, and metastatic disease from adjacent or distant organs should be considered among the differential diagnoses for malignant bladder tumors. Clinical presentation, accompanying secondary imaging findings, and histologic analysis allow for more accurate differentiation from the primary benign tumors of the bladder.

Behavior Of The Tumor

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Bladder tumors are usually malaignant with only 3% of tumors being benign. Malignant tumors: transitional cell carcinoma is most commonly diagnosed, however other reported tumor types include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma, botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma. Benign tumors: fibromas, leiomyomas, and papillomas. Noncancerous growths: pyogranulomatous or polypoid cystitis. Most malignant bladder tumors invade the entire thickness of the bladder and diffusely involve the bladder at the time of diagnosis. At the time of initial presentation, about 50% of the patients have evidence of spread of the tumor to regional lymph nodes, pelvic and lumbar vertebrae and lungs less commonly they spread to the liver and lymph nodes in the chest and abdomen . At the time of autopsy, 75% of the patients have evidence of metastasis of bladder tumors.

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Diagnosis Of Benign Tumors

Doctors use a variety of techniques to diagnose benign tumors. The key in diagnosis is determining if a tumor is benign or malignant. Only lab tests can determine this with certainty.

Your doctor may begin by performing a physical exam and collecting your medical history. Theyll also ask you about your symptoms.

If you dont already have a primary care doctor, you can browse doctors in your area through the Healthline FindCare tool.

Many internal benign tumors are found and located by imaging tests, including:

Benign tumors often have a visual border of a protective sac that helps doctors diagnose them as benign. Your doctor may also order blood tests to check for the presence of cancer markers.

In other cases, doctors will take a biopsy of the tumor to determine whether its benign or malignant. The biopsy will be more or less invasive depending on the tumors location. Skin tumors are easy to remove and only require a local anesthetic, while colon polyps would require a colonoscopy, for example, and a stomach tumor may require an endoscopy.

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