What Are The Symptoms Of Interstitial Cystitis
These are the most common symptoms of interstitial cystitis :
Urgency with urination
Pain during sex
In women, symptoms may worsen around their period
Stress may also make symptoms worse, but stress does not cause symptoms.
The symptoms of IC may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
Differentiating Interstitial Cystitis And Overactive Bladder
A diagnostic algorithm may be useful for differentiating IC from OAB in patients who present with urinary symptoms or in OAB patients who are refractory to treatment . Interstitial cystitis should be considered in any patient who fails to respond to therapy for OAB. It also is possible that the 2 conditions may exist concurrently. In 2 separate studies 14% to 15% of patients with IC also had detrusor overactivity.27,28 Other conditions that could potentially be responsible for a patients symptoms, such as neurologic disorders, gynecologic conditions, or infections, must also be ruled out during initial evaluations.
Proposed diagnostic framework for differentiating interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder. IC, interstitial cystitis C& S, culture and sensitivity OAB, overactive bladder PST, potassium sensitivity test.
The Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency and OLeary-Sant questionnaires are useful symptom screeners for IC.13,31 The PUF is an 8-question scale that measures both the severity of symptoms and the degree to which patients are troubled by them.13 Higher PUF scores have been shown to have a direct correlation with a greater likelihood of a positive PST.13 The OLS Symptom and Problem Indices each contain 4 questions that measure symptom severity and how problematic the symptoms are for patients.31
Hunners ulcer on cystoscopy. Photograph courtesy of Robert M. Moldwin, MD.
What Does Bladder Pressure Feel Like
The most noticeable symptom of IC is pain and pressure in the bladder. The pain you experience may range from mild to severe. For some, the pressure can come and go. For others, the feeling doesnt let up.
These symptoms may lead you to think that you have a bladder infection, but IC isnt an infection at all. Its a chronic condition, which means that there isnt cure.
Other symptoms of IC include:
- pain while bladder is full and relief when its emptied
- pain during sex
Signs and symptoms vary. Some people may need to urinate up to 60 times each day. You may also experience periods of time when you have no symptoms.
Although IC isnt a UTI, getting an infection can make your symptoms worse.
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Causes Of Overactive Bladder In Men
About two-thirds of overactive bladder cases in men are due to benign prostatic hyperplasia , also called an enlarged prostate. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, which is the tube that urine passes through from the bladder out of the body.
Although an enlarged prostate does not account for all cases of OAB in men, many who are treated for the symptoms are assumed to have an obstruction in the bladder caused by an enlarged prostate.
Age increases a mans risk of getting OAB. Age also increases a mans risk for BPH, which can lead to OAB.
An infection in the bladder, bladder stones and bladder cancer can cause symptoms that lead to OAB. Neurological conditions, such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease, cause nerve damage that results in sending the incorrect signals to the bladder that causes OAB. Temporary factors, such as drinking a lot of caffeinated or alcoholic fluids, taking medications that increase urine output or having constipation, might increase the need to urinate.
Overactive Bladder At Night
If you find that you wake up to urinate more than one time per night, you may have a condition called nocturia, or overactive bladder at night. Nocturia isnt the same as overactive bladder. In fact, some people who experience no OAB symptoms during the day can still have nocturia.
Nocturia is more common in people over age 60, but one in three adults over 30 need two or more trips to the bathroom each night. Most adults can sleep six to eight hours without waking up. Others may only need to wake up once.
If you require more bathrooms breaks during your slumber, you may be experiencing overactive bladder at night.
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Overactive Bladder Causes Symptoms And Treatments
Think you may have an overactive bladder? Use this guide to understand the causes of an overactive bladder, common symptoms, and get treatment options.
Do you feel the urge to urinate more than 6 to 8 times a day? Do you often feel like youâre having âpee emergenciesâ that send you running to the bathroom, unsure if youâll make it in time? You may have an overactive bladder. Use this guide to understand the main causes of an overactive bladder, learn about common symptoms and get treatment options.
Bipoc And Overactive Bladder
The frequency and presentation of overactive bladder differs across different racial and ethnic groups, according to two recent studies.
One study, published in February 2020 in the journal Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery, looked at the severity of OAB symptoms in women of different races and ethnicities.
In the study group, Black women were more likely to experience urinary urgency and frequency, while Hispanic women were more likely to have mixed urinary symptoms.
Compared with white women, Black women were 3.4 times as likely to have bladder muscle overactivity. Hispanic women tended to have significantly less urine volume than white women at the sensation of a strong desire to urinate.
Another study, published in September 2020 in the Journal of Urology, looked at OAB and urgency incontinence in men age 60 to 98 through an incontinence self-reported survey.
The study found that non-Hispanic Black men had the highest prevalence of urgency incontinence at 13 percent. Hispanic men came in at 11.3 percent, with non-Hispanic white men at 6.8 percent and men of Chinese ethnicity at 2.9 percent.
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Is Bladder Pressure The Same Thing As A Spasm
Do you have pressure in your bladder that just wont go away? This type of chronic bladder pain is different from the spasms you may get with a condition such as overactive bladder or a urinary tract infection .
Bladder pressure feels more like constant ache rather than a muscle contraction. Doctors typically attribute bladder pressure to interstitial cystitis . IC is also known as bladder pain syndrome.
Heres more about this syndrome, its causes, and how to get relief from the pressure.
Do Daily Pelvic Floor Exercises
The pelvic floor muscles are responsible for supporting the bladder, and they help control the flow of urine through the urethra. When they become weakened or damaged, it can cause stress incontinence.
Performing pelvic floor exercises including Kegels, squats, and the bridge can help strengthen the muscles around and within the bladder to prevent urinary incontinence.
According to the results of two clinical trials , women who participate in pelvic floor muscle training are twice as likely to see an improvement in their urinary incontinence than those receiving symptomatic care alone. They are also five times more likely to have their symptoms completely resolve.
Those who have had recent surgery, have given birth recently, or have other health concerns should talk with a doctor before beginning any exercise regimen.
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The Link Between Weak Bladder And Oab
When the smooth muscle within the bladder becomes overactive, it can lead to improper contraction and relaxation of the muscle. Problems in the nerves that stimulate the bladder, as well as some neurological conditions, may lead to OAB.
According to the Urology Care Foundation, as many as 30% of men and 40% of women in the United States have OAB symptoms.
The muscles in the lower abdomen that support the bladder and urethra are known as the pelvic muscles. For women, these muscles often stretch and weaken during pregnancy and childbirth, which can cause organs in the abdomen to shift.
A lack of muscle support around the bladder can cause sagging, which can lead to leakage. This can lead to stress incontinence, which often results from a mix of OAB and urge incontinence.
If a person is experiencing frequent urination or having urine leakage after a sudden urge to urinate, it may be time to talk with a doctor about treatment options to help with OAB.
However, there are also several lifestyle changes that a person can make to help to calm the bladder muscle, which may help improve OAB symptoms. Read on to learn more.
The sections below provide suggestions for ways to help manage a weak bladder, which may also improve OAB symptoms.
Consult Your Doctor About Herbs Botanical Medicines
While there are also some herbs and botanical medicines and combination of herbs from traditional Chinese medicine that have been used traditionally or have been explored to help reduce OAB symptoms, research is limited and variable in quality and conclusions. Before starting an herbal remedy, especially if planning to take longer term, its best to speak to your urologist, primary care provider, or an integrative medicine physician.
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Bladder Has Two Distinct Roles
Main Causes Of Bladder Pain
he exact causes of Painful Bladder Syndrome are unknown, with a number of theories being put forward. One such theory suggests an event may act as a trigger to bring on the pain.
Some of these triggers may be:
- Bacterial infection
- Bladder overextension due to long periods without going to the bathroom
- An injury to the nerves in or surrounding the bladder or spinal cord
- Problem due to a surgical procedure or physical injury
Others theorise the symptoms of PBS may arise from several different abnormalities in the bladder itself specifically: the bladder surface, the blood supply to the bladder or to microorganisms present in the bladder.
> And yet more suggest bladder pain bladder may result from autoimmunity , or from the release of histamine from elevated numbers of mast cells in the bladder.
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Nonsurgical And Surgical Procedures
If medication isn’t effective at treating your overactive bladder, you may be a candidate for certain procedures.
Nerve stimulation, also known as neuromodulation therapy, sends electrical impulses to nerves that connect the bladder and the brain to help them communicate more effectively.
There are two main types of nerve stimulation: percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral neuromodulation . The first involves a series of in-office treatments, while the second involves surgically implanting a bladder pacemaker.
In very rare and serious cases, surgery may be considered to enlarge the bladder or change the flow of urine.
All About Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer typically begins in the lining of your bladder, the balloon-shaped organ in your pelvic area that stores urine. Some bladder cancer remains confined to the lining, while other cases may invade other areas.
Most people who develop bladder cancer are older adults more than 90 percent of cases occur in people older than 55, and 50 percent of cases occur in people older than 73.
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What To Expect From Your Doctor
In terms of an assessment, your nurse or doctor will ask you about your general health and in particular, about your OAB problem. You may be examined orally and internally, and you might be asked to give a urine sample to see if you have any obvious problems.
As part of your treatment programme, you may be asked to keep a bladder diary for roughly 3 days, which typically involves making a record of the time of each time you pass urine and how much urine was passed.
You may also be asked to take a flow test, and in some cases a post-flow ultrasound test. This involves using a special machine which checks whether you completely empty your bladder and also measures how strong your flow is.
Here is a short list of possible questions your doctor may ask and the tests they may ask you to complete:
- An overview of your medical history.
- A physical examination, which could include a rectal exam and a pelvic exam in women.
How Is Overactive Bladder Diagnosed
A healthcare provider can diagnose overactive bladder by reviewing your symptoms and conducting a physical examination of the organs around your pelvis and rectum. They may ask you questions such as:
- What are your symptoms?
- How long have you had these symptoms?
- Do you have a family history of overactive bladder?
- What over-the-counter and prescription drugs do you take?
- What kinds of fluids do you drink during the day?
- What time of day do you drink certain fluids?
- What do you eat during the day?
They may also refer you to a urologist. A urologist is a doctor who specializes in diseases and conditions that affect your urinary tract and reproductive system.
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Do Not Let Your Life Be Disturbed Stop Worrying About Overactive Bladder
6 minute read
Urinary abnormalities such as frequent urination and feeling a sudden urge to urinate might be frequently overlooked. In fact, these symptoms potentially indicate overactive bladder or OAB. Overactive bladder is a chronic medical condition which has tremendous impacts on the quality of life in both men and women. Overactive bladder affects performance of daily activities and social function such as work, traveling, physical exercise, sleep and sexual function. If this condition is left untreated, it leads to impaired quality of life accompanied by emotional distress and depression.
Complications Of Overactive Bladder
Overactive bladder can have a significant negative impact on your quality of life. It can interfere with work, sleep, exercise, your social life, and your sex life.
Many people with OAB are nervous about having access to a restroom outside their home and may shy away from certain social activities or even everyday errands. This, in turn, may result in feeling isolated and lonely.
If you need to get up several times during the night to urinate, it may be difficult to get restful sleep. This can leave you tired during the day and contribute to mood disorders, like depression and anxiety.
And if youre worried that sexual activity will cause discomfort, that youll be interrupted by the need to urinate, or that youll leak urine, you may be reluctant to engage in sex. This can take a toll on relationships, causing further emotional difficulty.
In addition, urine leakage can lead to skin problems or infections.
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What Is The Latest Research On Bladder Pain Syndrome Treatment
Researchers continue to search for new ways to treat bladder pain. Some current studies focus on:
- New medicines to treat bladder pain
- Meditation as a way to control bladder pain
- The role of genetics in bladder pain
- Acupuncture treatment
To learn more about current bladder pain treatment studies, visit ClinicalTrials.gov.
Pathophysiology Of The Oab Syndrome
Various factors may be involved in OAB and the major cause may vary from individual to individual. The etiology of OAB is still under investigation and is not well understood. However, 4 theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of OAB:
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Avoid Lifting Heavy Objects
Lifting heavy objects puts strain not only on the back and knees but also on the pelvic floor muscles. Without proper support from pelvic muscles, stress incontinence and OAB with or without urge incontinence can occur.
For this reason, people should avoid lifting heavy objects if they can. If they do need to lift something, they should practice their pelvic floor exercises before and during the lift to help support the muscles in and around their bladder.
Anticholinergic Drugs For Overactive Bowel
This particular class of medication is used to control the muscle spasms that lead to overactive bladder. Anticholinergic drugs focus on blocking the nerve signals that typically trigger inopportune bladder contractions, reduce the frequency, and the severity of your urge to urinate.
There are several anticholinergic drugs to choose from and they all require a doctors prescription. Most people have very favourable reactions to anticholinergics, though there are a few possible side effects which may include dry mouth, constipation, increased heartbeat and/or drowsiness.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Ic
People with interstitial cystitis have repeat discomfort, pressure, tenderness or pain in the bladder, lower abdomen, and pelvic area. Symptoms vary from person to person, may be mild or severe, and can even change in each person as time goes on.
Symptoms may include a combination of these symptoms:
What Questions Should I Ask A Healthcare Provider
- How do you know that I have an overactive bladder?
- Whats the cause of my overactive bladder?
- Whats a normal number of times to pee each day?
- How much should I drink each day?
- What fluids should I drink?
- What fluids should I avoid drinking?
- What foods should I eat?
- What foods should I avoid eating?
- What treatments do you recommend?
- Are there any side effects to your recommended treatment?
- What medications do you recommend?
- Are there any side effects to your recommended medications?
- Are there any other lifestyle changes I can make?
- Can you recommend a support group for people with overactive bladder?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Overactive bladder is a common condition that causes changes in your bathroom habits, which can be embarrassing. Many people struggle to talk to a healthcare provider about their symptoms. However, providers can help answer any of your questions without judgment. They can determine the cause of your overactive bladder and work with you to develop the best treatment plan. If you have symptoms of overactive bladder, talk to a healthcare provider so you can regain control of your bathroom habits and improve your quality of life.
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