Wednesday, April 17, 2024

What Is The Most Common Treatment For Bladder Cancer

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Is Bladder Cancer A Fatal Illness

UROWebinar: New insights in treatment of bladder cancer From localized to metastatic diseases

Left untreated, bladder cancer may spread to other parts of your body. Cancer thats metastasized, or spread, may affect how long youll live with bladder cancer. Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment increase the chance of living longer with bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, 96% of people who received treatment for early-stage cancer were alive five years after diagnosis. Overall, 77% of people with bladder cancer were alive five years after diagnosis.

Does Microscopic Blood In Urine Mean Cancer

Asked by: Braulio Veum

Blood in the urine doesnt always mean you have bladder cancer. More often its caused by other things like an infection, benign tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, its important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found.

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Histological And Immunohistochemical Methods

Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides and slides stained with various combinations of the following special stains and immunohistochemical stains were retrieved and reviewed : myeloperoxidase, nonspecific esterase, chloroacetate esterase, reticulin, Congo red, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase, S100 protein, smooth muscle actin, desmin, synaptophysin, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, -fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, CDX2, ALK-1, HHV-8, TdT, cyclin D1, MIB-1, CD3, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD21, CD23, CD30, CD43, CD45, CD45ro, CD68, CD79a, CD138, kappa, and lambda light chains. In certain cases, additional immunostains were performed to clarify the tumor immunophenotype. Review of morphology and immunoprofile permitted re-classification of older cases into currently accepted diagnostic categories.

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Side Effects Of Treatment For Bladder Cancer

All cancer treatments can have side effects. Your treatment team will discuss these with you before you start treatment. Talk to your doctor or nurse about any side effects you are experiencing. Some side effects can be upsetting and difficult, but there is help if you need it.

or email to speak with a caring cancer nurse for support.

Your Treatment Team And What You Should Know

The Days, Weeks, and Months Surrounding a Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

Lung cancer can cause a great deal of uncertainty, but there is a team of highly trained professionals whose job it is to help you with these difficult times.

The number of people you meet and the information you receive about therapy can be overwhelming and confusing. The following information will introduce you to potential members of your cancer care team.

These are based on working with one or more parts of the body. Some examples are:Massage: The soft tissues of the body are kneaded, rubbed, tapped, and stroked.Chiropractic therapy: A type of manipulation of the spine, joints, and skeletal system.Reflexology: Using pressure points in the hands or feet to affect other parts of the body.

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Choosing To Stop Treatment Or Choosing No Treatment At All

For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling the cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments. Whether or not you continue treatment, there are still things you can do to help maintain or improve your quality of life.

Some people, especially if the cancer is advanced, might not want to be treated at all. There are many reasons you might decide not to get cancer treatment, but its important to talk to your doctors and you make that decision. Remember that even if you choose not to treat the cancer, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms.

Other Types Of Bladder Cancer

Approximately 2% of bladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. Nonurothelial primary bladder tumors are extremely rare and may include small cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, primary lymphoma, and sarcoma . Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder accounts for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. High-grade urothelial carcinomas can also show divergent histologic differentiation, such as squamous, glandular, neuroendocrine, and sarcomatous features.

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Talk To Your Doctor If Youre Experiencing Urgency To Urinate

Let your healthcare provider know if you experience the urgent need to urinate even if your bladder is not full. Although it usually not a symptom of bladder cancer, it is important to find out the underlying cause. It is especially important to let your healthcare provider know if you experience this symptom and you have noticed blood in your urine. If the symptom is being caused by bladder cancer, diagnosing it at an early stage tends to make treatment more effective.

Heres How The Other Fda

New treatment offered for patients with bladder cancer
  • Pembrolizumab can be given for locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer that resists standard chemotherapy drugs.
  • Pembrolizumab or atezolizumab can be given to people too sick to receive chemotherapy.
  • Atezolizumab can be given to people who have metastatic bladder cancer with high levels of PD-L1 that has not been previously treated and who also cannot receive cisplatin chemotherapy.

Researchers are also gaining a better understanding of who is likely to respond to these drugs and how to make them work better in combinations.

The emergence of checkpoint inhibitors has been a revolution for some people who have highly aggressive, life-threatening bladder cancer, Dr. Rosenberg says. But immunotherapy still doesnt work in enough patients. We have to find better ways to improve response rates and survival. Even if checkpoint inhibitors and antibody-drug conjugates dont represent a cure for bladder cancer, anything that could help people live longer or delay progression of the disease in some cases, allowing them to avoid bladder removal or chemotherapy after surgery will improve their quality of life.

  • New drug types are being used to treat bladder cancer, especially metastatic bladder cancer.
  • Antibody-drug conjugates carry anti-cancer drugs directly to tumor cells.
  • Checkpoint inhibitors enable the immune system to attack cancer.
  • These drugs, especially when combined, show promise for treating bladder cancer at various stages.

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Grade Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancers are classified more elaborately depending on how cancer cells appear under microscope. This is known as tumor grade and your doctor can identify the bladder cancer as low or high-grade.

  • Low-grade bladder tumor. This type of tumor has cells close to the normal cells by means of appearance and organization . Low-grade tumors generally develop in a slower way and they have less possibility to invade the muscle layer of wall of bladder comparing to high-grade tumors.
  • High-grade bladder tumor. This type of tumor has cells which appear abnormal and have disparate appearance from the normal tissues . High grade tumor tends to grow in a more aggressive manner comparing to low-grade tumor and it might have a higher possibility to spread to muscle layer of wall of bladder and other tissues and organs.

How Is Bladder Cancer Treated In Men

Bladder cancer may be treated by a single method or a combination of methods, depending on the type of cancer present and the extent to which it has progressed. Therefore, understanding the type of bladder cancer is an important consideration in selecting an appropriate treatment. Bladder cancer may be classified according to where it is located relative to the bladder:

In situ
Cancer is confined to the surface layer of the bladder Cancer has not spread outside of the bladder Cancer has spread to nearby structures or lymph nodes Cancer has spread to different parts of the body, such as the bones, lungs, liver

Bladder cancer is also commonly described based on its location within the bladder wall: cancer that remains in the superficial layers of the bladder wall is termed non-muscle-invasive, whereas cancer that has spread into the muscle layer deeper within the bladder wall is termed muscle-invasive.

The treatments for bladder cancer can depend on whether it has spread to the muscle wall and might include the therapeutic options as summarized below: ,

Potential treatment option

a A treatment that uses the bodys immune system to fight disease. b Chemotherapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is usually delivered directly into the bladder.

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Treatment Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, the team of professionals from different specialties including Pathologists, Radiologists, Surgical Oncologists, Uro-Oncologists, Medical Oncologists, Radiation Oncologists, Nuclear Physicians, etc., are part of the cancer care team.

The treatment for bladder cancer usually consists of a combination of different therapies.

  • One that acts on the cancer cells locally, such as surgery, radiotherapy, local chemotherapy, or local immunotherapy
  • One that acts on cancer cells all over the body using systemic chemotherapy or immunotherapy. The exact treatment, however, will depend on the stage of cancer, the characteristics of the tumor and the risk factors of the patient

Whats Usually The First Symptom Of Bladder Cancer

The Days, Weeks, and Months Surrounding a Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

Blood in your pee is the most common bladder cancer symptom. That said, simply having blood in your pee isnt a sure sign of bladder cancer. Other conditions cause this issue, too. But you should contact a healthcare provider whenever you spot blood in your pee. Other bladder cancer symptoms include:

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Diagnosis Of Bladder Cancer

Usually, bladder ultrasonography or CT scan imaging can identify an intraluminal mass in the urinary bladder, but the final diagnosis is based on cystoscopic examination of the bladder . If any of these tests suggest that you have bladder cancer, the next step to confirm the diagnosis is a histological evaluation of the tissue obtained either by biopsy or transurethral resection of the bladder tumor . Other additional imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans and PET-CT scans are used to stage the Urinary bladder cancers.

Once diagnosed, the management of bladder cancer is based on the pathological findings of the biopsy, with attention to histology, grade, and depth of invasion.

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Treating Stage Ii Bladder Cancer

These cancers have invaded the muscle layer of the bladder wall , but no farther. Transurethral resection is typically the first treatment for these cancers, but it’s done to help determine the extent of the cancer rather than to try to cure it.

When the cancer has invaded the muscle, radical cystectomy is the standard treatment. Lymph nodes near the bladder are often removed as well. If cancer is in only one part of the bladder, a partial cystectomy may be done instead. But this is possible in only a small number of patients.

Radical cystectomy may be the only treatment for people who are not well enough to get chemo. But most doctors prefer to give chemo before surgery because it’s been shown to help patients live longer than surgery alone. When chemo is given first, surgery is delayed. This is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the bladder cancer, but it might be harmful if the tumor continues to grow during chemo.

If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.

For people who have had surgery, but the features of the tumor show it is at high risk of coming back, the immunotherapy drug, nivolumab, might be offered. When given after surgery, nivolumab is given for up to one year.

For patients who cant have surgery because of other serious health problems, TURBT, radiation, chemotherapy, or some combination of these may be options.

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Moffitt Cancer Centers Approach To Bladder Cancer

At Moffitt Cancer Center, the highly acclaimed multispecialty team of experts in our Genitourinary Oncology Program assesses every patient on a case-by-case basis at a collaborative tumor board discussion. This individualized approach to diagnosing and treating bladder cancer puts each patient center stage, where he or she receives the most comprehensive evaluations and treatment recommendations. Its just one of the many ways in which Moffitt has distinguished itself as one of the best bladder cancer hospitals. At Moffitts Genitourinary Oncology Clinic:

  • Each patient receives treatment plans that are precisely focused on the unique characteristics of his or her bladder canceran approach which results in more effective treatment, higher survival rates and improved quality of life.
  • We use state-of-the-art technology in our surgical treatments, with the assistance of robotics and advanced laparoscopies, in order to keep procedures as minimally invasive as possible.
  • We are constantly developing new therapies for bladder cancer and other urologic cancers, and are always striving to achieve the highest standard of cancer treatment excellence.

Contact Moffitt Cancer Center at or by completing a new patient registration form.

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How Is Bladder Cancer Diagnosed

What Causes Bladder Cancer And What Treatments Are Available?

Tests and procedures used to establish diagnosis of bladder cancer include:

  • Cystoscopy During a cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube through your urethra. Cystoscope is equipped with a lens that allows your doctor see your urethra and bladder and look for signs of a disease.

Your doctor may advance a special device through the cystoscope to obtain a cell sample for testing during cystoscopy. This procedure is sometimes called transurethral resection of bladder tumor . TURBT may also be performed to cure the bladder cancer.

Urine cytology: Urine cytology involves examining your urine specimen under microscope to look for cancer cells.

Imaging tests. Imaging tests, such as Computerized Tomography , urogram or retrograde pyelography, allow your physician to examine structures of your urinary system.

During CT urography, a contrast agent is injected through a vein in your hand and ultimately, it flows to your kidneys, ureters and bladder. Roentgenograms acquired during the test provide detailed images of your urinary tract and helps your doctor determine the areas that may be cancerous in nature.

Retrograde pyelography is an X ray imaging modality used for viewing upper urinary tracts in detail. During this test, your doctor inserts a narrow tube into your bladder through your urinary tract to inject a contrast agent into your ureter. The contrast agent flows into your kidney while X-ray images are acquired.

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What Is The Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that affect hundreds of thousands of adults every year. Bladder cancer is more common in men than in women and it may occur at any age, but it mostly affects older adults.

Bladder cancer originates from the cells that line the lumen of your urinary bladder a hollow, muscular organ located in the lower abdomen and stores the urine. While it occurs very commonly in the urinary bladder, it can also develop in other parts of the urinary system.

Approximately 7 of 10 documented bladder cancers are detected in the early stage when the cancer is highly treatable. However, even the early stage bladder cancer can relapse. Therefore, people with bladder cancer require follow up tests for many years after treatment regarding recurrence or progression of the bladder cancer.

How Do I Take Care Of Myself

About half of all people with bladder cancer have early-stage cancer thats relatively easy to treat. But bladder cancer often comes back . People whove had bladder cancer will need regular checkups after treatment. Being vigilant about follow-up care is one thing you can do to take care of yourself. Here are some other suggestions from the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network include:

  • Follow a heart-healthy diet: Plan menus that include skinless poultry and fish, low-fat dairy products, nuts and legumes, and a variety of fruits and vegetables.
  • Focus on high-fiber foods: Bladder cancer treatment may cause digestive issues and a fiber-rich diet may help.
  • Get some exercise: Gentle exercise may help manage stress.
  • Connect with others: Bladder cancer often comes back. Its not easy to have a rare disease thats likely to return. Connecting with people who understand what youre going through may help.

Urinary diversion

Some people with bladder cancer need surgery that removes their bladder and their bodies natural reservoir for pee. There are three types of urinary diversion surgeries. All three types involve surgically converting part of your intestine to become a passage tube for pee or a reservoir for storing pee.

Urinary diversion may be a challenging lifestyle change. If youll need urinary diversion surgery, ask your healthcare provider to explain each surgery types advantages and disadvantages. That way, youll know what to expect and how to take care of yourself.

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What Causes Bladder Cancer

Healthcare providers and researchers dont know exactly why certain bladder cells mutate and become cancerous cells. Theyve identified many different risk factors that may increase your chance of developing bladder cancer, including:

  • Cigarette smoke: Smoking cigarettes more than doubles your risk of developing bladder cancer. Smoking pipes and cigars and being exposed to second-hand smoke may also increase your risk.
  • Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to treat cancer may increase your risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Chemotherapy: Certain chemotherapy drugs may increase your risk.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals: Studies show that people who work with certain chemicals used in dyes, rubber, leather, paint, some textiles and hairdressing supplies may have an increased risk.
  • Frequent bladder infections: People who have frequent bladder infections, bladder stones or other urinary tract infections may be at an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Chronic catheter use: People who have a chronic need for a catheter in their bladder may be at risk for squamous cell carcinoma.

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