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Risk Of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer occurs mainly in older people. About 9 out of 10 people with this cancer are over the age of 55. The average age of people when they are diagnosed is 73.
Overall, the chance men will develop this cancer during their life is about 1 in 27. For women, the chance is about 1 in 89.
Whites are more likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer than African Americans or Hispanic Americans.
What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk
Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.
Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.
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I Was Told To Take Rennies For Heartburn
While cancer is obviously pretty scary, the takeaway from this should be that you can reduce your risk of developing many of these by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Smoking and drinking excessively are risk factors in the majority of these cancers, as is being overweight – and they’re all things you can do something about.
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Genetic Factors In Pathogenesis
Divergent, yet interconnected and overlapping, molecular pathways are likely responsible for the development of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumors. Somatic mutations in fibroblast growth receptor3 and tumor protein p53 in tumor cells appear to be important early molecular events in the noninvasive and invasive pathways, respectively.
FGFR-3, Ras, and PIK3CA mutations occur with high frequency in noninvasive tumors, leading to upregulation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase . Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9 is among the most frequent genetic alterations in bladder tumors and is considered an early event.
Large numbers of genomic changes have been detected using karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis in urothelial carcinoma. Numerically common are losses of 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 18q, and Y. Gains of 1q, 5p, 8q, and 17q are frequently present, and high-level amplifications can be found however, the target genes in the regions of amplifications have not been conclusively identified.
Alterations in the TP53 gene are noted in approximately 60% of invasive bladder cancers. Progression-free survival is significantly shorter in patients with TP53 mutations and is an independent predictor of death among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
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Bladder Reconstructions And Stomas
If you have had your bladder removed, the way you pass urine will change. There are several options that your treatment team will talk to you about:
- Urostomy is where doctors create a new hole in your abdomen called a stoma. Urine drains from the stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.
- Neobladder is where a new bladder made from your small bowel forms a pouch inside your body to store urine. You will pass urine by squeezing your abdominal muscles. You will also pass a small tube into the neobladder each day to help drain the urine.
- Continent urinary diversion is a pouch made from your small bowel inside your body to store urine. The urine empties through a hole called a stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.
A bladder reconstruction is a big change in your life. You can speak with a continence or stomal therapy nurse for help, support and information. You can also call Cancer Council . You may be able to speak with a trained Cancer Council volunteer who has had cancer for tips and support.
If you find it difficult to adjust after your bladder reconstruction, it may help to be referred to a psychologist or counsellor.
Note: If you have a stoma, you can join a stoma association for support and free supplies. For more information about stoma associations, visit the Australian Council of Stoma Associations.
Treatment Of Stage I Bladder Cancer
For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include the following:
- Transurethral resection with fulguration. This may be followed by one of the following:
- Intravesicalchemotherapy given right after surgery.
- Intravesical chemotherapy given right after surgery and then regular treatments with intravesical BCG or intravesical chemotherapy.
Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.
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Surgery For Bladder Cancer
Surgery is done for most bladder cancers. The type you have depends on the stage of the cancer.
Removing the tumor from the inside bladder is the most common surgery for early bladder cancer. This can be done during a cystoscopy. A a cystoscope with a looped wire on the end is used to remove the tumor.
When the cancer is more invasive, the cancer is removed along with part of the bladder or the entire bladder.
If only part of the bladder is removed, you’ll still be able to hold and release urine as normal, though in smaller amounts. If the entire bladder is removed, you’ll need another way to store and pass urine. Your doctor can explain the options for this.
Side effects of surgery
Any type of surgery can have some risks and side effects. For instance, removing the bladder not only changes how your body passes urine, but it can also cause sexual side effects. If you have these or any other problems, let your doctors know. There are ways to help deal with many side effects.
Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
There are some things that can make you more likely to develop bladder cancer. These are called risk factors and they include:
- smoking chemicals in cigarettes can cause bladder cancer, so if you smoke, your risk is up to 3 times that of a non-smoker
- age most people with bladder cancer are over 60 years of age
- being male men are around 3 times more likely than women to develop bladder cancer
- chemicals being in contact with certain chemicals for a long period of time, like aromatic amines, benzene products and aniline dyes, which have been linked to bladder cancer
- chronic infections frequent infections of the bladder over a long period of time
- previous cancer treatments some types of radiation therapy around the pelvis, and the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide
- family history a first degree relative with bladder cancer increases risk up to nearly 2 times higher than the general population.
Having these risk factors doesnt mean you will develop bladder cancer. Often there is no clear reason for getting bladder cancer. If you are worried about your risk factors, ask your doctor for advice.
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What Are The Signs Of Bladder Cancer
The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine, called hematuria. Gross hematuria is blood that can be seen in the urine. Your urine can be pink, red, or dark red. In some cases, urine can only be seen with a microscope, called microscopic hematuria. Other signs of bladder cancer include increased frequency of urination, a feeling of urgency to urinate, nocturia , pain with urination, and feeling like your bladder is not empty. These can all be caused by irritation of the bladder wall by the tumor, but can also be signs of infection or other bladder problems.
In advanced cases of bladder cancer, the tumor can stop urine from entering the bladder, or from exiting the bladder. This may cause severe flank pain, infection, and damage to the kidneys. Other signs of advanced bladder cancer are loss of appetite, weight loss, feeling tired, bone pain, and swelling in the feet.
What Is Stage 4 Bladder Cancer
Being diagnosed with bladder cancer can be overwhelming, especially if its stage 4.
Stage 4 bladder cancer is the most advanced stage and carries the worst prognosis. Many cancer treatments will be both difficult and challenging.
However, treatment can reduce or even eliminate your symptoms and help you live a longer, more comfortable life.
Its important to consider the pros and cons of treating stage 4 bladder cancer because treatments come with side effects and risks.
Symptoms of bladder cancer can include:
- blood or blood clots in your urine
- pain or burning during urination
- frequent urination
- needing to urinate at night
- needing to urinate but not being able to
- lower back pain on one side of the body
These symptoms commonly lead to a diagnosis, but they arent unique to stage 4 bladder cancer.
Stage 4 bladder cancer is also called metastatic bladder cancer. This means the cancer has spread outside of the bladder into other parts of the body.
People with metastatic cancer may experience symptoms relating to where the cancer has spread. For example, if a persons bladder cancer has spread to their lungs, they may experience chest pain or increased coughing.
Metastatic bladder cancer is difficult to cure because it has already traveled to other parts of the body. The later youre diagnosed and the farther the cancer has traveled, the less chance that your cancer will be cured.
The 5-year survival rate is the rate of surviving for 5 years after a cancer diagnosis.
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Relative And Absolute Rates
- Five-year absolute survival rates describe the percentage of patients alive five years after the disease is diagnosed.
- Five-year relative survival rates describe the percentage of patients with a disease alive five years after the disease is diagnosed, divided by the percentage of the general population of corresponding sex and age alive after five years. Typically, cancer five-year relative survival rates are well below 100%, reflecting excess mortality among cancer patients compared to the general population. In contrast to five-year absolute survival rates, five-year relative survival rates may also equal or even exceed 100% if cancer patients have the same or even higher survival rates than the general population. The pattern may occur if cancer patients can generally be cured, or patients diagnosed with cancer have greater socioeconomic wealth or access to medical care than the general population.
Intravesical Taxane And Mycobacterial Cell Wall Extract
Docetaxel is a cytotoxic chemotherapy agent that has shown potential in BCG failure in a phase I trial . This trial enrolled 18 patients whose condition had failed to respond to two courses of BCG or BCG plus INF. Fifty-six percent of patients had no evidence of disease at post-treatment cystoscopy and biopsy with minimal toxicity. Barlow and colleagues reported their experience of intravesical docetaxel after BCG failure . With a median follow up of 39 months, 32 of 54 patients had a complete response after induction therapy with 25% recurrence-free survival at 3 years. Fifty-four percent of these patients had a history of CIS and 83% had a history of high-grade disease.
Paclitaxel is a taxane-type agent with potential neoplastic activity when bound to albumin. A phase I study in recurrent high-grade NMIBC after failure of at least one standard intravesical regimen showed that nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel had increased solubility and lower toxicity compared with docetaxel . A subsequent phase II trial showed a 35.7% complete response rate in a cohort of 28 patients with NMIBC and previous BCG failure .
Studies on intravesical taxanes and M. phlei extracts are limited with small treatment arms. Additional studies are necessary in the future to determine the ideal treatment schedule and efficacy.
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Urinary Bladder Cancer Research
Currently, more than 400,000 people in the United States have urinary bladder cancer. This disease detracts from quality of life and takes the lives of more than 16,000 people each year. Most deaths are due to the more aggressive form of bladder cancer, high grade, invasive transitional cell carcinoma . Fortunately, many people with bladder cancer have a less aggressive form of the disease that is usually not life threatening.
Urinary bladder cancer also affects pet dogs. Unfortunately, most dogs with bladder cancer have intermediate to high grade invasive TCC. Urinary obstruction and spread of the cancer has taken the lives of most dogs with TCC. As summarized below however, we are making progress against this disease. In the Purdue Comparative Oncology Program , a unique combination of epidemiological work, clinical studies in dogs, and complementary laboratory research is being used to tackle urinary bladder cancer. Studies have allowed us to learn some of the causes of TCC in dogs, and this can lead to strategies to prevent the disease. More effective ways to treat TCC in dogs have been identified. These new treatment approaches have extended survival and improved the quality of life for dogs with TCC, and these studies in pet dogs have resulted in clinical trials in humans with bladder cancer.
Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer:
Most men don’t have any signs in the early stages of prostate cancer, but as soon as you do notice a change in the way you pee, go to your GP.
Possible changes can include:
- difficulty starting to urinate or emptying your bladder
- a weak flow when you urinate
- a feeling that your bladder hasnât emptied properly
- dribbling urine after you finish urinating
- needing to urinate more often, especially at night
- a sudden urge to urinate â you may sometimes leak before you get to the toilet
In its advanced stage, symptoms include:
- back pain, hip pain or pelvic pain
- problems getting or keeping an erection
- blood in the urine or semen
- unexplained weight loss
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Why Is There No Cure
During most of the 20th century, the number of people killed by cancer every year relative to population size, or the cancer death rate rose steadily to its peak in 1991, according to the ACS’s most recentsummary of the state of cancer in the U.S. Since 1991, the cancer death rate has fallen by 31%, which is equivalent to 3.2 million fewer cancer deaths compared with the death rate in 1991.
The study authors attribute the decrease in cancer death rates to reductions in smoking, earlier detection and better treatments for some cancers. “We have made a lot of progress in the fight against cancer,” Siegel said.
Yet despite all that progress, a wholesale “cure for cancer” remains elusive for many reasons. The first issue is that cancer is not just one disease that could be eradicated with one cure. Instead, it’s hundreds of diseases, Siegel explained. “We would need hundreds of different types of cures to cure all cancer,” she said.
Another reason it’s hard to cure cancer is that the bar for cancer being cured is incredibly high. Cancer is cured if there are no traces of it in the body and it will never come back or is not expected to come back. But even when all traces of a cancer have disappeared, there’s no way of knowing with certainty that it won’t return.
What Is The Evidence That Personal Hair Dye Use Is Associated With Risk Of Nhl
A number of studies have investigated the relationship between the personal use of hair dyes and the risk of NHL, with conflicting results. Because the small size of some studies may have limited their ability to detect an association between hair dye use and cancer, a pooled analysis of four case-control studies was carried out . All four studies had obtained detailed information on hair dye use, including dates and duration of use, and on NHL subtype. The pooled analysis included 4,461 women with NHL and 5,799 women who did not have NHL. The results of the study showed that women who began using hair dye before 1980 had a slightly increased risk of NHL compared with women who had never used hair dye, whereas no such increase in risk was seen for women who began using hair dye after 1980.
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