Monday, January 30, 2023

Drugs Used To Treat Overactive Bladder

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Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation

Overview of Myrbetriq a Prescription Medication Used to Treat Overactive Bladder

Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a minimally invasive procedure used to alleviate urinary urgency, urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. In 2010, the FDA formally included OAB as an indication for treatment.

PTNS is a form of nerve stimulation. An electrical needle is inserted into the ankle to deliver low-level impulses to the tibial nerve that runs to the knee joint and connects to the larger sciatic nerve.

Although the exact mechanism of action remains unclear, PTNS has proven to be safe and as effective as OAB medications in people with severe OAB. PTNS is performed once weekly on an outpatient basis and involves a total of twelve 30-minute sessions. People tend to experience an improvement of urinary function within six weeks.

In 2019, an implantable PTNS device was released, which early studies have shown may reduce severe urinary urgency by 94% and severe incontinence by 71%.

Use Of Myrbetriq And Important Safety Information

Do not take MYRBETRIQ® if you are allergic to mirabegron or any ingredients in MYRBETRIQ. MYRBETRIQ may cause your blood pressure to increase or make your blood pressure worse if you have a history of high blood pressure. You and your doctor should check your blood pressure while you are taking MYRBETRIQ.

Other Options For Overactive Bladder

If medications arent working for you, talk to your doctor or a urologist about other approaches. They range from injections to implants, and each approach has pros and cons. Here are three of the most common alternatives:

1. Onabotulinum toxinA

Botox® is well-known for smoothing wrinkles, but onabotulinum toxinA injections can also benefit your bladder.

Injecting the drug directly into bladder muscles helps to calm the bladder and prevent urinary urgency and related leakage, says Dr. Slopnick.

The big advantages are that injections are done in the office and are usually only required two or three times a year. Side effects like dry mouth and constipation arent an issue. However, there are other possible side effects, Dr. Slopnick points out. About 6% of patients have a hard time urinating and require intermittent self-catheterization until the Botox starts to wear off. Also, about 20% develop urinary tract infections.

2. Sacral neuromodulation

This treatment uses a device that works like a pacemaker for your bladder. The device is placed in two stages, so you can test drive it first to see if it works for you. The first stage is either done in the office with local anesthesia or under sedation. Your doctor will insert a thin wire lead into your back to stimulate your bladder nerve roots.

You do a two-week test stimulation with a temporary battery, explains Dr. Slopnick. And if you have 50% improvement in your symptoms then you go on to full implantation.

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Rationale For Anticholinergic Use

Detrusor muscle contractions are essential for normal micturition, but involuntary contractions produce the symptoms of overactive bladder. Contractions depend on the activation of muscarinic receptors in the bladder by acetylcholine. The M3 muscarinic receptor-subtype is thought to be the most important in regulating detrusor contractions.

Anticholinergic drugs block muscarinic receptor activation and inhibit the spontaneous detrusor contractions found in overactive bladder. Drug efficacy is dose-dependent, but effectiveness is often limited by unwanted antimuscarinic effects in distant organs where other acetylcholine receptor-subtypes predominate . These adverse effects are also dose-dependent. They commonly include dry mouth, dry eyes, confusion, constipation, somnolence, blurred vision and increased heart rate.

There are no currently available drugs with pure selectivity for the muscarinic receptors in the detrusor. To try to improve the benefit:harm ratio a number of anticholinergics have been developed with greater selectivity for the detrusor or the M3 receptor, or with extended release properties.

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Pathophysiology Of The Oab Syndrome

Various factors may be involved in OAB and the major cause may vary from individual to individual. The etiology of OAB is still under investigation and is not well understood. However, 4 theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of OAB:

  • The neurogenic theory: reduction in the inhibitory neural impulses and increase in the afferent impulses from the bladder trigger the voiding reflex .

  • The myogenic theory: the detrusor muscle becomes more sensitive to cholinergic stimulation leading to increased spontaneous activity .

  • The autonomous bladder theory: alteration or exacerbation of phasic activity is generated by muscarinic stimulation .

  • The afferent signaling theory: spontaneous bladder contractions during filling result in increased afferent output and hence the awareness of bladder filling .

  • Pelvic Floor Muscle Training

    Two sessions of PFMT were applied to the patients in the treatment group for 12 weeks. Patients received 24 sessions in total. The patients could exercise comfortably in this exercise program. Patients with a PFM strength of 3 out of 5 or more were enrolled in the study. The PFM strength by digital palpation was done in the lithotomy position and graded , as on Oxford scale. A trial session was conducted before the first session to feel the pelvic floor muscles, to get used to the exercise, and to see the contraction. The therapy program duration was 40 min in total. Following the protocol of Ozlu at al. , the patients received a total of 80 treatment cycles with 10 s of contraction and 20 s of relaxation in each session. During the session, the contraction and relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles of the patients were displayed on the monitor to receive visual biofeedback. The contraction of the pelvic floor muscles was demonstrated with graphics or figures in front of the computer screen , and after verbal explanations, correct exercises were taught in the company of a pelvic physiotherapist. All patients in the study were trained by the same physiotherapist.

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    Personalized Support For The Gemtesa Treatment Journey

    The Urovant Sciences Patient Connect Support Program is committed to improving patient access to treatment by

    Providing tools that improve access to the overactive bladder treatment GEMTESA

    Providing resources that identify payor coverage among patients with OAB in your practice

    Providing insights for the office to help those who have a more challenging pathway to coverage

    Identifying and addressing the barriers patients experience with regard to obtaining their prescribed medication, overcoming financial challenges, and getting startedand staying ontherapy

    Take a look at other resources that may help with patient access
    Prior Authorizations and Medical Exceptions Information

    Learn how to navigate potential barriers to GEMTESA treatment.

    Are Claims For Newer Drugs For Overactive Bladder Warranted

    Medications For Overactive Bladder

    Two previous Therapeutics Letters on drugs for overactive bladder concluded that the antimuscarinic drugs had limited short-term potential symptomatic benefit and significant risk of adverse effects .1, 2 This Letter compares drugs to one another, including newer drugs introduced since 2007, when our most recent Letter on this topic was published.2

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    Medications For Unspecified Oab

    If your doctor cant find a cause for your OAB, dont worry. Drugs can still help ease your symptoms. Some of these drugs work by relaxing your bladder. They stop involuntary contractions that bring on the urge to urinate. Other drugs help strengthen the tissues around your bladder that may have become weak. The stronger tissue can help improve your bladder control.

    A Mechanism Of Action And Pharmacological Properties:

    Detrusor contractions are triggered mainly by acetylcholine -induced stimulation of muscarinic receptors on bladder smooth muscle :375-400.). ACh antagonists which bind to these receptors inhibit normal and involuntary detrusor contractions. Muscarinic receptors are also present in bladder urothelium and suburothelium, and there is a suggestion that Ach release by the urothelium and by suburothelial cholinergic fibers may influence detrusor function .

    Of the five muscarinic receptor subtypes that have been identified in humans, the M2 is the predominant subtype, but M3 receptors mediate most bladder smooth muscle contraction :375-400., 2222. Giglio D, Tobin G. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in the lower urinary tract. Pharmacology. 2009 83:259-69.).

    Antimuscarinic agents differ in molecular size, charge and lipophilicity. They are categorized as tertiary or quaternary amines. Tertiary agents have higher lipophilicity and less molecular charge, both of which along with small molecular size increase the passage through the blood-brain barrier . They include atropine, darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, propiverine, solifenacin, and tolterodine. Quaternary agents such as propantheline and trospium have greater molecular charge and less lipophilicity with limited passage into the central nervous system and lower risk of CNS side effects .

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    What Is The Role Of Alpha

    Alpha-blockers have a potential effect of improvement of symptoms related to overactive bladder. However, there is currently no scientific information that supports its clinical use4646. Chang SJ, Chiang IN, Yu HJ. The effectiveness of tamsulosin in treating women with voiding difficulty. Int J Urol 2008 15:981-5..

    How We Made Our Recommendation

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    Our evaluation is primarily based on an independent scientific review of the evidence on the effectiveness, safety, and side effects of overactive bladder medications. A team of physicians and researchers at the Pacific Northwest Evidence-Based Practice Center conducted the analysis.

    A synopsis of that forms the basis for this report. A consultant to Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs is also a member of the Pacific Northwest EPC research team, which has no financial interest in any pharmaceutical company or product. The full Pacific Northwest EPC review of overactive bladder drugs is available here. . We also relied on research conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Cochrane Collaboration.

    Read Also: How Do They Inject Botox Into The Bladder

    What If I Forget To Take It

    If you forget to take your medicine, take it as soon as you remember unless the next dose is due in less than 6 hours. In this case skip the missed dose and take your next one at the usual time.

    Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed dose.

    If you forget doses often, it may help to set an alarm to remind you. You could also ask your pharmacist for advice on other ways to help you remember to take your medicine.

    What Can Physicians Expect From Treatment For Their Patients

    Mathematical modelling has been used by Darekar et al33 to predict outcomes from treatment using data from 12week fesoterodine studies. Unsurprisingly, the greatest response to treatment was predicted for patients who completed treatment and the lowest for those who withdrew because of AEs. The major problem with the model used here was the need to know the treatment response at four weeks a priori, and the complexity of the equation used in the study. Another method used pooled data from six fixeddose, 12week RCTs of fesoterodine 4, 8 mg, or placebo.34 Overall, 7080% of patients treated with fesoterodine experienced a 50% improvement in UUI at Week 12 and more than 50% of patients became dry with fesoterodine 8 mg. Some patients achieved 100% resolution in urgency episodes and more than half of fesoterodinetreated patients normalised their daytime frequency at Week 12.

    With respect to AEs, Wagg et al35 analysed data from 6689 patients included in fesoterodine studies and found that resolution of urinary urgency by either 50% or 100% at Week 12 was associated with a reduction in the number of reported treatmentemergent AEs. This unexpected finding was observed for discontinuation rate, dry mouth, constipation, central nervous system or cognitive adverse effects. Although not explained by the method it may be that patients may be less likely to express and to report AEs when the degree of benefit from treatment is either higher or reaches their expectations.

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    Other Treatments To Try

    In rare cases when all OAB treatment fails and overactive bladder is severe, doctors may recommend one of several types of surgery.

    A procedure called bladder augmentation uses part of the bowel to increase bladder capacity. Or, urinary diversion, an alternate route for bladder drainage for severe, complicated OAB patients.

    Sacral nerve stimulation. Another procedure implants a small device, similar to a pacemaker, under the skin. The device is connected to a wire, which sends small electrical pulses to nerves around the pelvic floor that control the bladder and muscles surrounding it. This helps build bladder control. Itâs often called a bladder pacemaker. The main limitation with this treatment is that it keeps you from having a spinal MRI.

    Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation. The doctor places a needle on nerves near your ankle that affect bladder control. Youâll have one session a week for 12 weeks and then maintenance treatments as needed. This procedure is done in the office.

    An overactive bladder doesnât have to get in the way of your daily life. With a little time, patience, and the right treatment, you can regain control — and peace of mind. Whatever treatment for overactive bladder you and your doctor decide upon, it’s important that you stick with it. If you do, chances are your condition will improve in time.

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    Why Is This Medication Prescribed

    Overactive Bladder, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Oxybutynin is used to treat overactive bladder in certain adults and children. Oxybutynin is also used as an extended-release tablet to control bladder muscles in adults and children 6 years of age and older with spina bifida , or other nervous system conditions that affect the bladder muscles. Oxybutynin is in a class of medications called anticholinergics/antimuscarinics. It works by relaxing the bladder muscles.

    Recommended Reading: Can Bladder Cancer Be Seen On Ultrasound

    What To Do For An Overactive Bladder

    Parents usually put quite a bit of effort into toilet training their toddlers, and it doesnt usually take too long for their little ones to get the understanding of what needs to happen when its time to go. A measure of control over those bodily functions comes along with this too, and thats an equally good thing. In most instances if a person is going to develop an overactive bladder it will be later in life, and its quite common in men who have BPH . Its not the worst health scenario for someone, but losing that control youve had for most of your life is troubling. So what to do for an overactive bladder?

    Youll need to speak to a medical professional if the problem is so severe that you have fears of having an embarrassing incident where you cant get to a washroom quickly enough. This is urinary incontinence, and it can be a situation where if a persons OAB isnt treated then they progress into being incontinent. Sudden onset urinary urges are the biggest problem for most people with OAB syndrome, and it actually affects women more often than men. The first piece of advice around what to do for an overactive bladder is to have that medical professional get you started on a medication like Sanctura.

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