Take Charge Of Your Health With Cxbladder
Cxbladder is a cutting-edge genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer. The test works at a molecular level, measuring five biomarker genes to detect the presence or absence of bladder cancer.
If you’re recovering from bladder cancer and are being checked regularly for recurrence, ask your doctor about Cxbladder Monitor as a non-invasive surveillance alternative. Compared to invasive and often uncomfortable procedures like cystoscopy, Cxbladder provides accurate results with an easy-to-collect urine sample.
Where Do These Numbers Come From
The American Cancer Society relies on information from the SEER* database, maintained by the National Cancer Institute , to provide survival statistics for different types of cancer.
The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for bladder cancer in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. The SEER database, however, does not group cancers by AJCC TNM stages . Instead, it groups cancers into localized, regional, and distant stages:
- Localized: There is no sign that the cancer has spread outside of the bladder.
- Regional: The cancer has spread from the bladder to nearby structures or lymph nodes.
- Distant: The cancer has spread to distant parts of the body such as the lungs, liver or bones.
Systemic Therapy Prior To Cystectomy
Following a radical cystectomy, local recurrence of cancer is uncommon because the cancer and bladder are removed. Some patients however will still develop distant recurrences because undetected cancer cells called micrometastases spread to other locations in the body before the bladder was removed. Treatment with a systemic therapy such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy may reduce or eliminate these micrometastases reducing the risk of cancer recurrence and avoid cystectomy.
Neoadjuvant therapy refers to systemic therapy that is given before surgery. The rationale behind neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer is twofold. First, pre-operative treatment can shrink some bladder cancers and therefore, may allow more complete surgical removal of the cancer. Second, because systemic therapy kills undetectable cancer cells in the body, it may help prevent the spread of cancer when used initially rather than waiting for patient recovery following the surgical procedure.
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received chemotherapy prior to cystectomy had better survival than patients treated with cystectomy alone.1
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Who Can Use Bcg
BCG is a treatment for early-stage bladder cancer that has not yet invaded the muscle of the bladder wall. Called non-muscle invasive bladder cancers or in situ bladder cancers, these account for about half of all bladder cancers.
For 2021, it was estimated that about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer would be diagnosed in the United States, and about 17,200 American bladder cancer patients would die from the disease.
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Will I Be On A Special Diet After Surgery
Specific diet recommendations will be given at the time of discharge. Most patients will be able to eat a regular diet at the time of discharge. However, it is common for the intestines to slow down after this type of surgery, so we recommend eating smaller, more frequent meals, and drinking plenty of liquids until your initialfollow-up appointment.
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If The Cancer Comes Back
If the cancer does recur at some point, your treatment options will depend on where the cancer is located, what treatments youve had before, and your health. For more information on how recurrent bladder cancer is treated, see Treatment of Bladder Cancer, by Stage.
For more general information on recurrence, you may also want to see Understanding Recurrence.
Treatment Of Bladder Cancer By Stage
Most of the time, treatment of bladder cancer is based on the tumors clinical stage when it’s first diagnosed. This includes how deep it’s thought to have grown into the bladder wall and whether it has spread beyond the bladder. Other factors, such as the size of the tumor, how fast the cancer cells are growing , and a persons overall health and preferences, also affect treatment options.
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Management Of Ta T1 And Tis Bladder Cancer
Superficial bladder cancer is typically managed with complete transurethral resection of intravesical disease. Careful pathologic examination of the resected tissue is required to exclude invasion of the muscularis propria. Given the high likelihood of disease recurrence or the development of new tumors, patients should undergo urinary cytologic and cystoscopic examinations every 4 to 6 months for 5 years after resection. Persistently abnormal findings on urine cytology after normal findings on cystoscopy should prompt evaluation of the prostatic urethra in men and the upper urinary tract in men and women.81-83 Risk factors for tumor recurrence after transurethral resection include high histologic grade, involvement of the lamina propria , multifocal disease, and the presence of CIS.84 About 15% of noninvasive cases eventually progress to involve the muscularis propria, and most of these are poorly differentiated, sessile, T1 tumors with diffuse CIS.29
Radical cystectomy should be considered for patients with extensive recurrent Ta, T1, or Tis disease that is refractory to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin those with risk factors for progression to muscle invasion and those with severe, irreversible impairment of bladder function due to recurrent disease or prior treatment.
Intravesical Immunotherapy or Chemotherapy
Basir Tareen MD, Samir S. Taneja MD, in, 2010
What Is Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.
In the U.S., bladder cancer is the third most common cancer in men. Each year, there are more than 83,000 new cases diagnosed in men and women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC. Bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older. It is found most often in the age group of 75-84. Caucasians are more likely to get bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African-Americans who do not survive the disease.
What is Cancer?
Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control. When this happens, the body cannot work the way it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. Not all lumps are cancers. Cancerous lumps are sometimes called malignant tumors.
What is Bladder Cancer?
When cells of the bladder grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in his/her bladder.
How Does Bladder Cancer Develop and Spread?
The bladder wall has many layers, made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium or transitional epithelium. This is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.
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Transurethral Resection Of Bladder Tumor
A transurethral resection of bladder tumor or a transurethral resection is often used to find out if someone has bladder cancer and, if so, whether the cancer has spread into the muscle layer of the bladder wall.
TURBT is also the most common treatment for early-stage or superficial bladder cancers. Most patients have superficial cancer when they’re first diagnosed, so this is usually their first treatment. Sometimes, a second, more extensive TURBT is done to better ensure that all the cancer has been removed. The goal is to take out the cancer cells and nearby tissues down to the muscle layer of the bladder wall.
Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials
Major drug companies continually research and develop new medications and treatments for bladder cancer that must be shown to be safe and effective before doctors can prescribe them to patients. Through clinical trials, researchers test the effects of new drugs on a group of volunteers who have bladder cancer. Following a strict protocol and using carefully controlled conditions, researchers evaluate the investigational drugs under development and measure the ability of the new drug to treat bladder cancer, its safety, and any possible side effects.
Some patients are reluctant to take part in clinical trials for fear of getting no treatment at all. But patients who participate in clinical trials receive the most effective therapy currently available for the condition, or they may receive treatments that are being evaluated for future use. These bladder cancer drugs may be even more effective than current treatment. Comparing them in a clinical trial is the only way to find out.
Hereâs where to find information about whether a bladder cancer clinical trial is right for you.
This website lists industry-sponsored clinical trials that are actively recruiting patients.
American Cancer Society: âBladder Cancer Treatment,â âBladder Cancer Surgery,â âRadiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer,â âChemotherapy for bladder cancer,â âFDA Approves New Immunotherapy Drug for Bladder Cancer,â âImmunotherapy for bladder cancer.â
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Type Of Studies And Quality Of The Evidence
For the analysis of the predictors of recurrence, 313 studies were retrospective, 14 were prospective and 27 were randomized clinical trials . Sample size ranged between 33 and 9064 patients. Most series involved multiple surgeons. For the analysis of recurrence rate, 29 studies were retrospective, 3 were prospective and 16 were RCTs. Sample size ranged between 110 and 9064 patients. Risk of bias evaluation is summarized in Supplementary Table 1.
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Can Cystectomy Be Avoided In Muscle
The answer is yes for many patients. Radical cystectomy is a major operation and requires diversion of the urinary stream, which has life-altering implications. Identification of patients that can have their cancer eradicated with transurethral resection plus systemic therapy alone and avoid cystectomy is a priority. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor plus systemic therapy has been known for decades to achieve durable bladder-intact survival in a subset of patients. Research presented at the 2021 America Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting defined an approach using Gemzar , cisplatin chemotherapy combined with Opdivo immunotherapy designed to preserve the bladder in as many patients as possible.
Researchers initially treated patients with with 4 cycles of Gemzar, cisplatin, plus Opdivo immunotherapy followed by clinical re-staging to determine next steps. Re-staging was comprehensive and included urine cytology, MRI/CT of the bladder, cystoscopy, and bladder/prostatic urethral biopsies. Patients achieving a clinical complete response were eligible to proceed without cystectomy and receive Opdivo every 2 weeks and close surveillance otherwise, patients underwent cystectomy. If local recurrence occurred patients proceeded to cystectomy. This approach allowed a majority of patients with MIBC to avoid cystectomy.10
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For Patients With A Urostomy
If you had a radical cystectomy and now have a urostomy, you might worry even about everyday activities at first. You might have to alter some of your daily routines because of changes in how you urinate. Other issues such as having sex might also cause concerns .
Its normal to have worries and concerns when adjusting to such a major change. But its important to know there are health care professionals who are specially trained to help people with their urostomies. They can teach you to take care of your urostomy and help you cope with the changes it brings. You can also ask the American Cancer Society about programs offering information and support in your area. For more information, see our Urostomy Guide.
Does Targeted Therapy Slow Cancer Cell Growth
Some targeted therapies block growth signals from reaching cancer cells others reduce the blood supply to cancer cells and still others stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack the cancer cell. Depending on the specific target, targeted therapies may slow cancer cell growth or increase cancer cell death.
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Basic Skin Care With A Urostomy
- Be gentle when you remove the pouch.
- Change your pouch as often as your nurse tells you to. Doing it too often or not enough can cause skin problems.
- Donât use more tape than you need.
- Make sure your pouch fits your bodyâs shape.
- Measure your stoma carefully so you can cut your pouchâs skin barrier to fit closely.
Treating Stage Iii Bladder Cancer
These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs and/or lymph nodes . They have not spread to distant parts of the body.
Transurethral resection is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is then the standard treatment.Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers.
Chemotherapy before surgery can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier. Chemo can also kill any cancer cells that could already have spread to other areas of the body and help people live longer. It can be especially useful for T4 tumors, which have spread outside the bladder. When chemo is given first, surgery to remove the bladder is delayed. The delay is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the cancer, but it can be harmful if it continues to grow during chemo. Sometimes the chemo shrinks the tumor enough that intravesical therapy or chemo with radiation is possible instead of surgery.
Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far its not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.
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Laser En Bloc Resection May Result In Better Diagnoses Fewer Recurrences Says Cedars
Patients with earlier-stage bladder cancer have a new surgical option to remove tumors. The procedure may improve staging accuracy, lower the risk of recurrence and reduce the rate of complications, according to a leadingCedars-Sinaiurologic oncologist.
Laser en bloc resection, or total tumor resection, enables surgeons to remove thebladder tumor in one piece. This novel procedure provides intact tissue for a pathologist to stage the cancer and reduces the risk of cancer remaining in the bladder, saidMichael Ahdoot, MD, aCedars-Sinai Cancerurologic oncologist and surgeon.
Doctor Visits And Tests
Your schedule of exams and tests will depend on the stage and grade of the cancer, what treatments youve had, and other factors. Be sure to follow your doctors advice about follow-up tests.
Most experts recommend repeat exams every 3 to 6 months for people who have no signs of cancer after treatment. These are done to see if the cancer is growing back or if there’s a new cancer in the bladder or urinary system. Your follow-up plan might include urine tests, physical exams, imaging tests , and blood tests. These doctor visits and tests will be done less often as time goes by and no new cancers are found.
- If your bladder hasnt been removed, regular cystoscopy exams will also be done every 3 months for at least the first 2 years.
- If you have a urinary diversion, you will be checked for signs of infection and changes in the health of your kidneys. Urine tests, blood tests, and x-rays might be used to do this. Your vitamin B12 will be checked at least once a year because urinary diversions made with your intestine can affect B12 absorption. Your doctor will also talk to you about how well you’re able to control your urine. Tests will be done to look for signs of cancer in other parts of your urinary tract, too.
Some doctors recommend other lab tests as well, such as the urine tumor marker tests discussed in Can Bladder Cancer Be Found Early? Many of these tests can be used to help see if the cancer has come back, but so far none of these can take the place of cystoscopy.
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What Is A Neobladder
A type of internal reservoir for storing urine. Using a portion of small intestine, the urologist reconstructs the tubular shape of the intestine and creates a sphere. The surgeon then connects the pouch to the urethra, creating a neobladder, in which case the patient can void normally. By tensing the abdominal muscles and relaxing certain pelvic muscles, the patient is able to push the urine through the urethra.
Join A Cancer Support Group
Joining a support group can help you overcome feelings of loneliness and learn new coping skills. You’ll soon realize that many people are going through the same thing as you, and they understand how you feel. There are different types of support groups out there, from formal meetings that focus on learning about bladder cancer to informal gatherings that may include family or friends. You should also consider speaking with a counselor individually if you feel more comfortable with one-on-one interactions. Either way, there’s no need to cope with cancer alone.
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Keeping Health Insurance And Copies Of Your Medical Records
Even after treatment, its very important to keep health insurance. Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and even though no one wants to think of their cancer coming back, this could happen.
At some point after your cancer treatment, you might find yourself seeing a new doctor who doesnt know about your medical history. Its important to keep copies of your medical records to give your new doctor the details of your diagnosis and treatment. Learn more in Keeping Copies of Important Medical Records.