How Do Bladder Cancer Mutations Occur
Some of these acquired gene mutations result from exposure to cancer-causing chemicals or radiation. For example, chemicals in tobacco smoke can be absorbed into the blood, filtered by the kidneys, and end up in urine, where they can affect bladder cells. Other chemicals may reach the bladder the same way. But sometimes, gene changes may just be random events that sometimes happen inside a cell, without having an outside cause.
Family History Of Bladder Cancer
You may be twice as likely to develop bladder cancer if you have a close relative who has had the disease. A close relative includes a parent, sibling, or child. This possibility may be related to genetic factors that make it harder for the body to remove dangerous chemicals after exposure. In addition, an inherited disease linked to colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome also increases the risk of bladder cancer.
What Are The Chances Of Dying From Bladder Cancer
· Aminobiphenyl, the chemical that exist in the cigarette compound which contribute highly as one of defining aspect on gaining bladder cancer. Benzidine, the common industrial chemicals that exist in the long HM List Of Chemicals Banned In Production as well as a very restricted substance in various areas such as paint, rubber, agriculture, dye production, and the
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Other Types Of Bladder Cancer
Approximately 2% of bladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. Nonurothelial primary bladder tumors are extremely rare and may include small cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, primary lymphoma, and sarcoma . Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder accounts for only 0.3-0.7% of all bladder tumors. High-grade urothelial carcinomas can also show divergent histologic differentiation, such as squamous, glandular, neuroendocrine, and sarcomatous features.
Why Is There Concern That Hair Dyes May Cause Cancer
Many people in the United States and Europe use hair dyes. It is estimated that more than one-third of women over age 18 and about 10% of men over age 40 use some type of hair dye .
Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent , semipermanent, and temporary. Permanent hair dyes, which make up about 80% of currently marketed products, consist of colorless dye intermediates and dye couplers. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the intermediates and couplers react with one another to form pigment molecules. Darker colors are formed by using higher concentrations of intermediates. Semipermanent and temporary hair dyes are nonoxidative and include colored compounds that stain hair directly.
Over 5,000 different chemicals are used in hair dye products, some of which are reported to be carcinogenic in animals . Because so many people use hair dyes, scientists have tried to determine whether exposure to the chemicals in hair coloring products is associated with an increased risk of cancer in people.
Early hair dye formulations contained chemicals, including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals . It is not known whether some of the chemicals still used in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, even a small increase in risk may have a considerable public health impact .
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How Is Bladder Cancer Linked To Metformin
FDA agency tests revealed that samples of metformin contained NDMA amounts significantly higher than the recommended daily limit. NDMA can be produced both naturally and artificially and was formerly used to make rocket fuel and plastics. It is not currently produced or commercially used in the US, except for in laboratory research. In fact, its main use today is to induce tumor growth in experimental animals, and it has been known as a cancer risk for decades. An article from the 1970s stated that NDMA has caused cancer in nearly every laboratory animal tested so far.
NDMA can be found in pharmaceuticals for a number of reasons. The FDA has found in the past that NDMA formation has occurred due to the manufacturing, packaging, and storage conditions of the drug, as well as the chemical structure of the drug itself. Some research has even found that NDMA can be formed in the human body after ingestion.
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Arsenic In Drinking Water
Arsenic in drinking water has been linked with a higher risk of bladder cancer in some parts of the world. The chance of being exposed to arsenic depends on where you live and whether you get your water from a well or from a public water system that meets the standards for low arsenic content. For most Americans, drinking water isn’t a major source of arsenic.
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What Caused My Bladder Cancer
While not all of the risk factors for bladder cancer are understood, doctors know that certain behaviors and environmental exposures can increase someones risk for getting bladder cancer. Some are impossible to avoid, while you have control over others. Smoking is often a leading cause of bladder cancer, as it introduces toxins into the bladder, while exposure to certain chemicals at work is another potential cause. Heredity, age, gender and race may also play a role in your risk for bladder cancer, and it is important to rule out what is causing your symptoms to determine if bladder cancer is the cause. Common bladder cancer risks include:
Does Firefighting Cause Cancer
It has been difficult to determine whether firefighting causes cancer. This is largely because research studies have had to include fire fighters who might have different backgrounds and exposures, such as:
- The number of years on the job
- Varying work schedules
- The amount of time and the types of exposures at fires
- The types of protective equipment worn at fires
- Each persons unique genetic susceptibility
- Other lifestyle choices that might affect a persons cancer risk, such as whether they smoke
An added layer of complexity is the potential impact of heat, air temperature, and chemical mixtures on exposure doses at fires. Finally, cancers take years to decades to develop, and it can be hard to know the most important window of exposure in people who develop cancer, as well as whether cumulative lifetime exposure is important.
In general, the American Cancer Society does not determine if something causes cancer . We look to other respected organizations, such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer for help with this. However, the research we do contributes to the body of evidence used by these organizations.
In its latest review of the scientific evidence , IARC has classified occupational exposure as a fire fighter as carcinogenic to humans . This is based on:
Sufficient evidence for cancer in humans for:
Limited evidence for cancer in humans for:
- Melanoma of the skin
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
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Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
Certain things may raise your chances of developing bladder cancer. These are called risk factors. Its important to know the risk factors so you can avoid them if possible. On the other hand, some people may have several risk factors, but never develop this cancer.
Following are 13 risk factors for bladder cancer.
What Are The Two Greatest Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
Risk factors you can changeSmoking. Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer. Workplace exposures. Certain industrial chemicals have been linked with bladder cancer. Certain medicines or herbal supplements. Arsenic in drinking water. Not drinking enough fluids. Race and ethnicity. Age. Gender.More items
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What To Do If You Are Worried About Your Risk Of Bladder Cancer
If you believe youve been exposed to occupational carcinogens over an extended period, you can also personally take action to help manage your risk. This might be particularly pertinent to you if you no longer work in a high-risk industry, but have identified that you may have had previous possible workplace exposure to risk factors.
Genetics And Family History
People who have family members with bladder cancer have a higher risk of getting it themselves. Sometimes this may be because the family members are exposed to the same cancer-causing chemicals . They may also share changes in some genes that make it hard for their bodies to break down certain toxins, which can make them more likely to get bladder cancer.
A small number of people inherit a gene syndrome that increases their risk for bladder cancer. For example:
- A mutation of the retinoblastoma gene can cause cancer of the eye in infants, and also increases the risk of bladder cancer.
- Cowden disease, caused by mutations in the PTEN gene, is linked mainly to cancers of the breast and thyroid. People with this disease also have a higher risk of bladder cancer.
- Lynch syndrome is linked mainly to colon and endometrial cancer. People with this syndrome might also have an increased risk of bladder cancer .
For information on testing for inherited gene changes that increase cancer risk, see Understanding Genetic Testing for Cancer.
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What Is The Evidence That Personal Hair Dye Use Is Associated With Risk Of Leukemia
Studies of the association between personal hair dye use and the risk of leukemia have had conflicting results. For example, one case-control study examined hair dye use among 769 patients with adult acute leukemia and 623 people without leukemia in the United States and Canada . It found that the risks of acute leukemia were higher among users of earlier formulations of both permanent and nonpermanent dyes than among those who had not used dyes, although the increases were not statistically significant. No risk increases were seen among users of more recent dye formulations. Risk was greatest among those who had used permanent dyes for longer durations .
However, a case-control study in Italy found no association between use of permanent hair dye overall and risk of leukemia, although users of black permanent dyes, but not of other color dyes, did have an increased risk. This study, however, did not collect information on the timing or frequency of hair dye use .
Disability Benefits For Fire Fighters
In most states in the United States and provinces in Canada, fire fighters are eligible for disability benefits under laws that recognize certain diseases as likely to be occupationally-related . Some cancers are included in this list, but coverage and eligibility vary by state and province. You can read a summary of presumptive law coverage in your state or province on the International Association of Fire Fighters website.
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How Can You Prevent Bladder Cancer Naturally
Can Bladder Cancer Be Prevented?Dont smoke. Smoking is thought to cause about half of all bladder cancers. Limit exposure to certain chemicals in the workplace. Workers in industries that use certain organic chemicals have a higher risk of bladder cancer. Drink plenty of liquids. Eat lots of fruits and vegetables.
Occurrence In The United States
The American Cancer Society estimates that 81,180 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2022 and that 17,100 people will die of the disease. The incidence of bladder cancer increases with age, with the median age at diagnosis being 73 years bladder cancer is rarely diagnosed before age 40 years.
Bladder cancer is about 4 times more common in men than in women. The male predominance in bladder cancer in the United States reflects the prevalence of transitional cell carcinoma . With small cell carcinomain contrast to TCCthe male-to-female incidence ratio is 1:2.
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men in the United States, after prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer, but it is not among the top 10 cancers in women. Accordingly, more men than women are expected to die of bladder cancer in 2022, with 12,120 deaths in men versus 4980 in women. Nevertheless, women generally have a worse prognosis than men.
The incidence of bladder cancer is twice as high in White men as in Black men in the United States. However, Blacks have a worse prognosis than Whites.
Limited data indicate that small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder probably has the same epidemiologic characteristics as urothelial carcinoma. Patients are more likely to be male and older than 50 years.
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As A Common External Factor That Can Lead To The Development Of Cancer Patients Must Always Be On Guard For Drugs That May Contain Carcinogens
Cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the body start replicating at a rate beyond the bodys control. The medical complication can occur in any part of the body where cell division takes place. After some time, the problem spreads to other areas. Some people are more prone to cancer than others. Some of the risk factors include genetics and external environmental factors.
The consequences of dangerous drug injuries can be devastating. One of the common external factors that may lead to cancer is prescription drugs. Scientists are still researching to establish how drugs cause cancer. Drugs that cause cancer are divided into three major categories:
- Immunosuppressive therapy
Occupational Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
Evidence has linked several different types of industrial chemicals to higher risks of developing bladder cancer. These include complex hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals commonly used in manufacturing and other industrial processes, as well as various solvents, mineral oils, and other chemicals3.
Aromatic amines are a broad group of organic compounds which have a type of molecular structure called an aromatic ring. This structure helps them bind to and damage DNA, and they are thought to be a major cause of occupational bladder cancer. Unfortunately these chemicals are in widespread use in industrial and manufacturing processes, including metal, plastic, rubber, and textile manufacturing, and are also used in fungicides and pesticides, commercial hair dyes, vehicle exhaust, and cigarette smoke1,4.
Its important to note that exposure to these chemicals does not necessarily mean bladder cancer will develop. High exposure for prolonged periods of time is often necessary and, even then, the majority of those working with carcinogens may not develop the disease. However if you do work closely with chemicals on a day-to-day basis, its important to understand the risks, and look for ways to reduce your exposure.
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Does Smoking Cause Bladder Cancer
Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for developing bladder cancer. This risk increases with the amount and length of time smoking. Cancer-causing chemicals inhaled from burning tobacco enter the bloodstream. The body filters them from the blood through the kidneys and transfers them to the bladder to be removed from the body.
Does Eating Vegetables Help With Bladder Cancer
As of 2019, there is limited high level evidence to suggest that eating vegetable and fruits decreases the risk of bladder cancer. A 2008 study concluded that specific fruit and vegetables may act to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Fruit and yellow-orange vegetables, particularly carrots and those containing selenium, are probably associated with a moderately reduced risk of bladder cancer. Citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables were also identified as having a possibly protective effect. However an analysis of 47,909 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study showed little relation between cancer reduction and high consumption of fruits and vegetables overall, or yellow or green leafy vegetables specifically, compared to the reduction seen among those men who consumed large amounts of cruciferous vegetables. An inverse relation between in-takes of flavonols and lignans and aggressive bladder cancer has also been described.
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Chemicals In Tap Water Linked To Bladder Cancer
Exposure to chemicals found in drinking water after it has been disinfected with chlorine could be responsible for up to 1 in 20 cases of bladder cancer across the European Union. The number rises to as high as 1 in 5 in some countries, asserts an international team of researchers.
Trihalomethanes are one of the most common disinfection by-products found in drinking water after chlorination.
They have been associated in particular with an increased risk for bladder cancer one meta-analysis suggests that exposure to THMs could increase the risk for the disease by more than 50%, the authors state.
Total THM concentrations, defined as the sum of levels of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, are the only DBPs in drinking water that are regulated by the European Union. The maximum is set at 100 µg/L.
Although “major efforts” have been made to reduce THM levels in several countries, “current levels in certain countries could still lead to considerable bladder cancer burden,” said coauthor Manolis Kogevinas, PhD, a senior researcher in cancer and water pollution at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health , Barcelona, Spain.
This “could be prevented by optimizing water treatment, disinfection, and distribution practices and other measures,” he said in a statement
She pointed out that “research on the causes of bladder cancer has shown that the most important cause is smoking, which is linked to about half of all cases.”
What Causes Bladder Cancer
Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer.
Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA, but DNA affects more than just how we look.
Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:
- Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
- Genes that normally help control cell division, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.
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