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Can Leukemia Cause Bladder Problems

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What Are The Symptoms Of Leukemia

Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Risk Factors and Prevention

The exact symptoms of leukemia can vary depending on which type a person has. According to the Mayo Clinic, some of the more common leukemia symptoms in adults may include:

  • Chronic fatigue and weakness
  • Pain or tenderness in the bones
  • Petechiae

With that said, you may not experience all symptoms of leukemia, and those you do notice can often be easily blamed on something else. That’s especially true when it comes to chronic leukemia, which is the slow, less aggressive form of the disease, Jeffrey Schriber, MD, director of Hematologic Malignancies at Cancer Treatment Centers of America in Phoenix, tells Health.

“Some people will go for a wellness check or something like knee surgery, and when they have bloodwork done their white count is ridiculously high,” says Dr. Schriber. “When someone who feels well presents like that and ends up having leukemia , it’s likely going to be chronic leukemia. It kind of rumbles along.” Such a person wouldn’t even know that they had leukemia had it not been for that routine blood test.

Acute leukemia symptoms, on the other hand, tend to be more recognizable . That’s because this type of leukemia can come on suddenly, sometimes within days or weeks, according to the University of California San Francisco Health. The abrupt changes can act as a red flag that something’s wrong.

How Are Utis Treated

UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics. To help avoid the recurrence of a UTI, it is important to ensure that the full antibiotic course is completed.

Can UTI symptoms linger after antibiotic treatment?

If antibiotic treatment has been effective, UTI symptoms should be fully resolved. When symptoms persist at completion of the prescribed antibiotic course, further tests and treatment will be necessary. This may involve culturing a urine sample to determine which antibiotic types are effective against the infecting bacteria, and the use of diagnostic imaging to check the urinary tract.

How long can a UTI go untreated?

If you ever see blood in your urine or are concerned about other UTI signs and symptoms, contact your doctor. Seeking treatment promptly not only decreases the chance of UTI-related complications, but also helps to avoid extended periods of misdiagnosis if your symptoms are not being caused by a UTI.

If symptoms such as back pain, fever, and nausea/vomiting are present always seek urgent treatment, because of the risk of permanent kidney damage and/or life-threatening complications.

What Are The Early Signs Of Leukemia In Adults

Now that weve answered what are the early signs of childhood cancer, lets talk about what are the early signs of leukemia in adults.

Many of the symptoms that children experience are also experienced by adults, and symptoms vary based on the type of leukemia, how fast it grows, and at what stage the leukemia is diagnosed. Leukemia symptoms in adults may resemble the flu. Keep in mind that with the flu, the symptoms will typically subside as you get better while leukemia symptoms will typically last longer than two weeks. In general, heres what to look for.

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Immune Disfunction Starts Long Before Diagnosis

Niemann said that patients with CLL are more likely to be prescribed macro lights, antibiotics, and/or antivirals as much as 20 years before diagnosis. This indicates that the immune dysfunction, at least, happens decades prior to diagnosis of CLL, he added.

Going beyond the patients CLL and looking at their entire medical history, Niemann said physicians can see the burden of comorbidity in this population. Almost all types of comorbidities for patients with CLL will increase the overall mortality and also for most of these comorbidities, will increase the CLL-related mortality, he said.

That said, it appears both treatment and CLL itself play a role in incidence of infection. Niemann noted that lower respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections are common for the 6 months of treatment with ibrutinib . This may indicate that we have an improvement in immune function and lower degree of infections after the first half year on targeted therapy.

Niemann pointed out that, outside of clinical trials, close to 50% of patients discontinue ibrutinib by 30 months, many due to infections. Physicians must consider that infections might also affect the continuous treatment of patients, he added.

Cumulative mean number of infections are lower in patients whose immune globulin levels increase during ibrutinib treatment. However, Niemann said there is no clear correlation between immunoglobulin deficiency and the risk for infections.

References

Symptoms By Type Of Leukemia

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While the symptoms above may be found with nearly any type of leukemia, there are some symptoms that are more common with different types of the disease.

Acute leukemias are characterized by immature white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to a more visible array of symptoms. With chronic leukemias, the cells may function to a degree and, as such, may have less obvious symptoms.

Symptoms related to the different subtypes of leukemia include:

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What Are The Early Signs Of Childhood Leukemia

Childhood leukemia is often found as a result of symptoms. These signs become a cause for concern and eventually lead to a doctors visit. Thats why its a good idea to stay informed and know what to look for.

If youre wondering what are the early signs of childhood leukemia, first know that many of these symptoms can have other causes as well. Because leukemia begins in the bone marrow, symptoms of leukemia are typically caused by problems in the bone marrow. When leukemia builds up in the bone marrow, it can crowd out normal cells, and result in a lack of normal red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets. The spread of leukemia cells may prevent bone marrow from creating healthy blood cells. Symptoms might also be caused by leukemia cells invading other areas of the body.

What Causes Leukemia Cutis

Leukemia cutis is a sign of leukemia. It wont develop if the body isnt already dealing with this type of blood cancer.

But leukemia isnt just one disease. There are multiple types of leukemia, each one classified by the kind of cell affected by the disease.

You can also have an acute or a chronic form of leukemia. Acute means it comes on suddenly and usually with more severe symptoms. Chronic leukemia develops more slowly and often with milder symptoms.

The types of leukemia that trigger leukemia cutis are AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia .

Scientists arent sure why cancerous leukocytes migrate to skin tissue in some people with leukemia. It may be that the skin is an optimal environment for healthy leukocytes to transform into cancerous cells.

One possible risk factor that has emerged is an abnormality in chromosome 8, which has

Treating leukemia cutis usually includes treatment for leukemia as the underlying condition.

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Can Chemotherapy Treatment Cause Bladder Cancer

Some chemotherapy drugs can cause bladder cancer. The long-term side effects of Cytoxan and Ifosfamide which irritate the bladder lining and are associated with damage to the bladder and the bone marrow. Bladder cancer is a well-known risk and continues to arise at least 10-15 years after the drug was given.6

You Have A Weird Rash

Leukemia: What are the symptoms? | Norton Cancer Institute

Skin leukemia symptoms are usually more obvious than other signs of the disease, but they also tend to be less common. Some people with leukemia develop what’s known as a “leukemia rash.” It most often crops up on sun-exposed parts of the body and can feature small purple, red, or brown spots. No one knows exactly why it happens, but once you treat the cancer the rash goes away, says Dr. Samaniego.

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Symptoms In Young Children

Symptoms of leukemia can be difficult to detect in younger children who may only able to communicate by crying. The only other signs may be as a lack of appetite, the refusal to eat, or the appearance of a limp due to a bone or joint pain.

Some of the symptoms are easier to understand in the context of the effect leukemia has on specific blood cells produced by the bone marrow, since many of the signs are related to either an excess or deficiency of these cells.

Leukemia affects white blood cells, but also frequently affects other cells produced by the bone marrow by interfering with their production or crowding out the bone marrow. Cells manufactured by the bone marrow include:

  • Red blood cells : Red blood cells carry oxygen to the tissues of the body. A low red blood cell count is referred to as anemia.
  • White blood cells : WBCs fight off infections due to organisms such as bacteria and viruses. A low WBC count is referred to as leukopenia. One type of WBC, neutrophils, are particularly important in fighting off the bacteria that cause infections such as pneumonia. A deficiency of neutrophils is referred to as neutropenia.
  • Platelets: Platelets or thrombocytes are the cells produced by the bone marrow that are responsible for blood clotting. A low platelet count is referred to as thrombocytopenia.

You’re Having Trouble Breathing

If you can’t breathe, no matter the cause, call 911. While shortness of breath can be caused by many things , it’s also a potential leukemia symptom because cancer cells may cluster in the middle of the chest near the thymus gland that makes white blood cells, per the UPMC. That can make it harder or painful to breathe. You might also wheeze or cough more than usual.

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Symptoms From Low White Blood Cell Counts

Infections can occur because of a shortage of normal white blood cells , specifically a shortage of infection-fighting white blood cells called neutrophils . People with AML can get infections that dont seem to go away or may get one infection after another. Fever often goes along with the infection.

Although people with AML can have high white blood cell counts due to excess numbers of leukemia cells, these cells dont protect against infection the way normal white blood cells do.

Early Warning Signs Of Leukemia

symptoms

Leukemia symptoms often vary depending on the type of leukemia diagnosed. Some symptoms, like night sweats, fever, fatigue and achiness, resemble flu-like symptoms. Unlike symptoms of the flu, which generally subside as you get better, leukemia symptoms generally last longer than two weeks, and may include sudden weight loss, bone and joint pain and easy bleeding or bruising. Other early warning signs of leukemia include:

  • Fever, chills
  • Petechiae
  • Unintended weight loss

Chronic myelogenous leukemia may not cause noticeable symptoms. However, when it does cause symptoms, they may include:

  • Unintended weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Fever Pain or fullness below the left ribs

Because some conditions occur as side effects of the disease, the following may be signs of leukemia:

Anemia: A low red blood cell count. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body. This condition may contribute to weakness, fatigue or shortness of breath.

Leukopenia: A low white blood cell count. A decrease in the production of functional leukocytes weakens the body’s immune defense, which may make you more prone to infections.

Thrombocytopenia: A low blood platelet count. Platelets are the blood cells responsible for blood clotting. A shortage of blood platelets may lead to easy bruising or bleeding.

When leukemia results in thrombocytopenia, symptoms may include bleeding from the gums and nose. In women, thrombocytopenia can result in heavy or abnormally long menstruation.

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Hairy Cell Leukemia And Bladder Cancer In A Patient: Relation With Dye Exposure And Review Of The Literaure

Semra Paydas

1Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana 01330, Turkey

Academic Editor:

Abstract

Chemical exposure is important in the etiology of some cancers. Dye or solvent exposures are important both in bladder cancer and hairy cell leukemia . Here a case with BC and HCL has been presented and literature has been reviewed.

1. Case Report

A 53-year-old man referred to our unit due to severe pancytopenia and splenomegaly. He had the history of pain during urination and hematuria for the last 2 years. He admitted to a urologist and bladder malignancy had been thought with abdominopelvicultrasonographic examination. This US showed bladder wall thickness atthe right-lower portion and massive splenomegaly with space occupying lesionsin it, and it had been reported as BC and massive splenomegaly, probably spleenmetastasis due to BC. PET/CT had beendone and it showed thickening in bladder wall and splenomegaly with homogenous,low FDG uptake.

TUR had beenperformed due to BC by his urologist. After surgery, Mitomycin C instillationwas given weekly for 4 weeks and one injection in every six months forfour times is then given. After these he admitted to our unit with pancytopenia andsplenomegaly.

Physicalexamination showed pallor and splenomegaly 8cm below the left costal margin.

Bone marrow biopsy showed grade III fibrosis and lymphoid infiltration and these cells wereCD20 , TRAP .

2. Discussion

References

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What Is Bladder Cancer

The most common type of urinary bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma . This is a tumor of the cells that line the inside of the urinary bladder. Other less common types of tumors of the bladder may include leiomyosarcomas, fibrosarcomas and other soft tissue tumors. TCC can also appear in the kidney, ureters, urethra, prostate or vagina. It can spread to the lungs, lymph nodes, bones or other organs.

Approximately 20% of dogs with bladder cancer have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Bladder cancer is much more common in dogs than cats, but TCC only accounts for less than 1% of all reported cancers in dogs. TCC can occur in any breed but is most common in Shetland sheepdogs, Scottish terriers, wirehair fox terriers, West Highland terriers, and beagles. Middle-aged or elderly female dogs are most commonly affected. Some studies have suggested that chronic exposure to certain chemicals may increase the risk for a dog to develop bladder cancer.

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Molecular Examination Of Peripheral Blood And Flow Cytometry

The combination of the microscopic examination of the peripheral blood and analysis of the lymphocytes by flow cytometry to confirm clonality and marker molecule expression is needed to establish the diagnosis of CLL. Both are easily accomplished on a small amount of blood. A flow cytometer instrument can examine the expression of molecules on individual cells in fluids. This requires the use of specific antibodies to marker molecules, with fluorescent tags recognized by the instrument.

In CLL, the lymphocytes are all genetically identical since they are derived from the same B cell lineage, expressing common B-cell markers CD19 and CD20, with abnormal expression of surface markers CD5 and CD23. These B cells resemble normal lymphocytes under the microscope, although slightly smaller, and are fragile when smeared onto a glass slide, giving rise to many broken cells, which are called “smudge” or “smear” cells and can indicate the presence of the disease. Smudge cells are due to cancer cells lacking in vimentin, a type of cytoskeleton proteins which is a structural component in a cell which maintains the cell’s internal shape and mechanical resilience).:1899

Later Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer

LEUKEMIA, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

Other symptoms are much less common or may occur later during bladder cancer. Some of these symptoms may be due to the spread of a bladder cancer to other regions of the body, and include:

  • Inability to urinate
  • Blood clots in the urine
  • Low back or flank pain on one side
  • Perineal pain
  • An abdominal or pelvic mass
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin
  • Swelling in the feet or legs
  • Bone pain or fracture with minimal trauma
  • Nausea and vomiting, jaundice , abdominal pain, and itching
  • Shortness of breath or a chronic cough

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Symptoms From An Enlarged Thymus

The T-cell subtype of ALL often affects the thymus, which is a small organ in the middle of the chest behind the sternum and in front of the trachea . An enlarged thymus can press on the trachea, which can lead to coughing or trouble breathing.

The superior vena cava , a large vein that carries blood from the head and arms back to the heart, passes next to the thymus. If the thymus is enlarged, it may press on the SVC, causing the blood to back up in the veins. This is known as SVC syndrome. It can cause:

  • Swelling in the face, neck, arms, and upper chest
  • Headaches
  • Change in consciousness if it affects the brain

The SVC syndrome can be life-threatening, and needs to be treated right away.

How To Prevent Strokes When You Have Leukemia

Its a good idea to talk with your healthcare team if youre concerned about stroke. They can talk about the medications youre taking and help you understand your current risk of stroke.

Your healthcare team can also let you know important information that can play a big role in your stroke risks, such as your latest platelet and white blood cell count.

Talk with your doctor if youre uncomfortable about any medication youre taking because of the risk of stroke. They might be able to offer another option or provide additional treatments to reduce the increased risk of stroke from these medications.

For instance, your doctor might prescribe:

  • anticoagulants to help stop clotting
  • medication to keep your white blood cell count under a safe limit
  • anthracycline chemotherapy drugs as part of your treatment to reduce the risk of stroke

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Symptoms Caused By Low Numbers Of Blood Cells

Most signs and symptoms of ALL are the result of shortages of normal blood cells, which happen when the leukemia cells crowd out the normal blood-making cells in the bone marrow. These shortages show up on blood tests, but they can also cause symptoms, including:

  • Feeling tired
  • Infections that dont go away or keep coming back
  • Bruises on the skin
  • Bleeding, such as frequent or severe nosebleeds, bleeding gums, or heavy menstrual bleeding in women

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