Bladder Cancer Risk Factors
Anything that increases your chance of getting bladder cancer is a risk factor. These include:
Smoking tobacco: This is the greatest risk factor for bladder cancer that individuals can control. Smokers, including pipe and cigar smokers, are two- to three-times more likely than nonsmokers to get bladder cancer. Chemicals in tobacco smoke are absorbed into the blood, and then they pass through the kidneys and collect in the urine. These chemicals can damage the inside of the bladder and increase your chances of getting bladder cancer.
Age: The chance of developing bladder cancer increases with age. It is uncommon in people under 40. Most diagnoses are in people age 65 or older.
Race: Bladder cancer occurs twice as often in Caucasians as it does in African Americans and Hispanics. Asians have the lowest rate of developing the disease.
Gender: Men are up to four times as likely as women to get bladder cancer.
Personal history of bladder cancer: Bladder cancer has a 50% to 80% chance of returning after treatment, either as a recurrence of the first cancer or as a second individual disease.
Exposure to chemicals: Historical studies have shown that people who work around certain chemicals are more likely to get bladder cancer. These include:
- People who work in the rubber, chemical and leather industries
Localized/early Transitional Cell Carcinomas Of Bladder
Transitional cell carcinomas can be very difficult to treat. Treatment for localized stage transitional cell carcinomas is surgical resection of the tumor, but recurrence is common. Some patients are given into the bladder either as a one-off dose in the immediate post-operative period or a few weeks after the surgery as a six dose regimen.
Localized/early transitional cell carcinomas can also be treated with infusions of into the bladder. These are given weekly for either 6 weeks or 3 weeks . Side effects include a small chance of developing systemic or the patient becoming sensitized to BCG, causing severe intolerance and a possible reduction in bladder volume due to scarring.
In patients with evidence of early muscular invasion, radical curative surgery in the form of a cysto-prostatectomy usually with lymph node sampling can also be performed. In such patients, a bowel loop is often used to create either a “neo-bladder” or an “ileal conduit” which act as a place for the storage of urine before it is evacuated from the body either via the urethra or a urostomy respectively.
Contact Cxbladder To Learn More About Our Suite Of Non
So, can women get bladder cancer? The answer is yes, and youll want to catch it as early as possible. If you’ve been experiencing any of the symptoms above or suspect you may have bladder cancer, contact Cxbladder to learn more about our suite of non-invasive urine tests. Cxbladder urine-based lab tests detect and diagnose bladder cancer quickly and accurately so you can begin treatment early.
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Epidemiology Of Squamous Cell Bladder Carcinoma
In the United States, squamous cell carcinoma constitutes around 2%-5% of all urinary bladder carcinomas. Approximately 90%-95% of bladder tumors are urothelial carcinomas. The male-to-female incidence ratio is 1:2 this stands in contrast to urothelial carcinoma, which predominantly affects males.
Worldwide, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder varies. In certain parts of the African continent, the majority of bladder carcinomas are of the squamous cell type. The highest incidence has been seen in areas where schistosomiasis is endemic, notably Sudan and Egypt, where squamous cell carcinoma ranges from two thirds to three quarters of all malignant tumors of the bladder.
In relatively recent years, a few studies from Egypt have shown a reversal of this trend due to improved control of schistosomiasis in the region, whereas in other parts of Africa the association is unchanged. An increase in the prevalence of smoking in Egypt is also believed to have contributed to the shift toward urothelial carcinoma, as that tumor type has a stronger association with smoking.
What Is Squamous Cell Skin Cancer
Cutaneous SCC is a cancer that develops in the squamous cells of your skin. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, about 1.8 million people in the United States are diagnosed with cSCC each year. Its the second most common type of skin cancer.
Although cSCC isnt life threatening, it can become dangerous if it goes untreated. When treatment isnt received quickly, the growths can increase in size and spread to other parts of your body, causing serious complications.
People with cSCC often develop scaly, red patches, open sores, or warty growths on their skin. These abnormal growths can develop anywhere, but theyre most often found in areas that receive the most exposure to ultraviolet radiation, either from sunlight or from tanning beds or lamps.
Oral SCC also makes up more than 90 percent of mouth cancers. Lung SCC makes up about
Your skin has multiple layers. The outer, protective layer of the skin is known as the epidermis. The epidermis has three main types of cells:
- Langerhans cells
The cells of the epidermis are constantly shedding to make way for fresh, new skin cells.
However, when certain genetic changes occur in the DNA of any of these cells, skin cancer can occur. The main types of skin cancer are:
- squamous cell carcinoma
- malignant melanoma
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What Is Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer And What Are The Symptoms
Tracey Emin has revealed she has squamous cell bladder cancer.
The 57-year-old artist, who made a name for herself 25 years ago after plastering the names of everyone she had ever slept with on a tent, told The Sunday Times Magazine that she hopes she will survive until Christmas.
After doctors discovered a large tumour in her bladder, Emin had surgery that removed her bladder and much of her reproductive organs – which the doctors hoped would help get rid of the cancer.
“But it was squamous cell cancer, which means it’s really rapid, really aggressive. It’s known as bad cancer, Emin told the magazine.
What Are The Risks And Causes Of Bladder Cancer
Emin said she suffered from kidney reflux five years ago which had blown her bladder out. She has had to self-catheterise since then but noticed a different kind of pain. “I thought, no, this is not right. This is all really wrong, she added.
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Using a catheter for a long period of time has been linked to an increased risk in bladder cancer, Cancer Research UK says, especially for those under 60 years old.
Other things that have been linked to bladder cancer include smoking, bladder infections, being around chemicals at work, a previous diagnosis of bladder cancer, a family history of bladder cancer and being overweight.
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Tumor Spread And Staging
Like urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer / tumor, node, metastasis system. The tumor spreads by direct extension to the adjacent organs, as well as by lymphovascular invasion. It has been reported that squamous cell carcinoma has less tendency than urothelial carcinoma for nodal and vascular distant metastases.
Changes In Bladder Habits Or Symptoms Of Irritation
Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as:
- Having to urinate more often than usual
- Pain or burning during urination
- Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isn’t full
- Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream
- Having to get up to urinate many times during the night
These symptoms are more likely to be caused by a urinary tract infection , bladder stones, an overactive bladder, or an enlarged prostate . Still, its important to have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
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Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials
What about Clinical Trials?
You may hear about clinical trials for your bladder cancer. Clinical trials are research studies that test if a new treatment or procedure is safe and effective.
Through clinical trials, doctors find new ways to improve treatments and the quality of life for people with disease. Trials are available for all stages of cancer. The results of a clinical trial can make a major difference to patients and their families. Please visit our clinical trials research webpage to learn more.
What Are The Three Types Of Bladder Cancer
Three different types of cells in the bladder can become cancerous. The type of cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. They include
- Urothelial carcinoma: Urothelial carcinoma, previously called transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common type of bladder cancer that occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder.
- Squamous cell carcinoma:Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder caused by an infection or long-term use of a urinary catheter. Squamous cell bladder cancer is more common in parts of the world where the parasitic infection, schistosomiasis, is a common cause of bladder infections.
- Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder. Adenocarcinoma of the bladder is rare.
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Symptoms Of Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer
The symptoms of squamous cell bladder cancer are similar to those of other types of bladder cancer. These may include:
- Blood in the urine
- Frequent urination
- Pain or burning during urination
- Feeling a need to urinate but being unable to do so
- Pain in the lower back or pelvic area
The physicians at Moffitt Cancer Center treat many patients with bladder cancer. Because Moffitt is a high-volume cancer center, the multispecialty team in our Genitourinary Oncology Program is highly experienced in treating all forms of bladder cancer, including uncommon types such as squamous cell bladder cancer. As a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, we are committed to performing research to advance the treatment of squamous cell bladder cancer, and our individualized treatment plans help our patients achieve the best possible outcome and an improved quality of life.
Medically Reviewed by, Scott Gilbert, MD, Department of Genitourinary Oncology.
If you have been diagnosed with squamous cell bladder cancer, we invite you to explore your treatment options at Moffitt. Call or fill out a new patient registration form online to request an appointment. You do not need a referral to come to Moffitt.
Statistics Of Bladder Cancer For Women
- About 90 percent of individuals with a bladder cancer diagnosis are over 55 years old.
- Physicians discover 50 percent of all cases when the cancer is still in the bladder only, but 4 percent of individuals diagnosed have bladder cancer that’s spread to their distant tissues.
- Women have a one in 89 risk of getting bladder cancer.
- Bladder cancer isn’t among the 10 most common types of cancer in women.
- For 2020 in the U.S., the American Cancer Society estimates are around 81,400 new bladder cancer cases and 17,980 deaths due to bladder cancer .
- If you develop bladder cancer once, you have a high risk of it coming back, therefore being monitored regularly is typically recommended every three to six months. In some cases, bladder cancer doesn’t go away but turns into a chronic condition. For this, you would require regular treatment to keep it in check.
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What Is Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.
In the U.S., bladder cancer is the third most common cancer in men. Each year, there are more than 83,000 new cases diagnosed in men and women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC. Bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older. It is found most often in the age group of 75-84. Caucasians are more likely to get bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African-Americans who do not survive the disease.
What is Cancer?
Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control. When this happens, the body cannot work the way it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. Not all lumps are cancers. Cancerous lumps are sometimes called malignant tumors.
What is Bladder Cancer?
When cells of the bladder grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in his/her bladder.
How Does Bladder Cancer Develop and Spread?
The bladder wall has many layers, made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium or transitional epithelium. This is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.
Prognostic Factors And Survival Outcomes
SCC prognostic factors and cancer-specific mortality with respect to other bladder cancers have gradually been elucidated. Pathological prognostics of SCC include tumour stage, grade, LVI, and presence of LN involvement , , . A recent analysis of all stage III and stage IV bladder cancer cases in Ontario, Canada, noted that whilst the disease course of SCC was more rapid compared to TCC, the 5-year overall survival of SCC was equivalent to TCC after adjusting for covariates . These findings were in contrast to a previous analysis using the SEER database, which showed that SCC had a higher overall and cancer-specific mortality than TCC . It is unclear how to reconcile the differences between these studies the discrepancies may represent differences in disease trajectory, where patients with SCC have poorer survival rate at 2 years, but equivalent mortality when compared to patients with TCC at 5 years.
About 90% of mortality in SCC is due to local pelvic recurrence, commonly at the anastomosis between the bladder and the urethra or the ureters. Distant metastases are uncommon, with an incidence of 810% in NB-SCC . Death occurs from locoregional progression as a result of ureteric or bladder neck obstruction and kidney failure . These complications highlight the importance of local control and of exploring other therapeutic options to reduce the incidence of pelvic recurrence .
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Cytotoxics And Targeted Therapies
are a relatively new class of cancer drugs that can overcome many of the issues seen with the use of cytotoxics. They are divided into two groups: small molecule and antibodies. The massive toxicity seen with the use of cytotoxics is due to the lack of cell specificity of the drugs. They will kill any rapidly dividing cell, tumor or normal. Targeted therapies are designed to affect cellular proteins or processes that are utilised by the cancer cells. This allows a high dose to cancer tissues with a relatively low dose to other tissues. Although the are often less severe than that seen of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, life-threatening effects can occur. Initially, the targeted therapeutics were supposed to be solely selective for one protein. Now it is clear that there is often a range of protein targets that the drug can bind. An example target for targeted therapy is the BCR-ABL1 protein produced from the , a genetic lesion found commonly in and in some patients with . This has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by , a drug.
Metastatic And Recurrent Cancers
Metastases require chemotherapy, generally cisplatin based, which is frequently effective but rarely curative unless metastases are confined to lymph nodes. This can be followed by maintenance immunotherapy with avelumab. Combination chemotherapy may prolong life in patients with metastatic disease. For patients who are cisplatin ineligible or have progressed after receiving cisplatin-based regimens, newer immunotherapies using PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are available, such as pembrolizumab and atezolizumab. The first targeted therapy, erdafitinib, is now available for use in patients with FGFR3 and FGFR2 mutations who have failed treatment with chemotherapy.
Treatment of recurrent cancer depends on clinical stage and site of recurrence and previous treatment. Recurrence after transurethral resection of superficial tumors is usually treated with a 2nd resection or fulguration. Early cystectomy is recommended for recurrent high-grade superficial bladder cancers.
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Treatment Options And Prevention For Bladder Cancer
The best treatment plan for you can be determined by your medical provider. Methods of preventing bladder cancer as well as the prognosis are also described in this section.
After a likely diagnosis of bladder cancer has been made via urinalysis, visualization of the inside of the bladder with a camera , and imaging, such as CT scan, a variety of further interventions follow.
What Should I Ask My Provider
You may want to ask your healthcare provider:
- What caused the squamous metaplasia?
- Am I at risk for cancer? How can I lower this risk?
- Do I need treatment?
- How often should I get screenings?
- Should I look out for signs of complications?
A note from Cleveland Clinic
Squamous metaplasia is a noncancerous change in the cells that make up the tissue lining for organs and glands . Most people have nonkeratinizing cervical squamous metaplasia. This condition doesnt increase cancer risk. Keratinizing squamous metaplasia can turn into dysplasia, which may lead to cancer. Your healthcare provider will perform ongoing tests to check for changes in cells that may indicate cancer.
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Types Of Bladder Cancer
The types of bladder cancer include the following.
- Transitional cell carcinoma : This is the most common type, accounting for more than 90 percent of bladder cancers. Most are superficial and well-differentiated papillary carcinomas, while others, sessile tumors, tend to invade more aggressively and metastasize.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: This is a less common form in the U.S. that is often associated with chronic irritation. Squamous cell carcinoma is a more common cause of bladder cancer in countries with a high prevalence of the parasite schistosomiasis.
- Adenocarcinoma: This is a rare cause that begins in the cells that form mucus-secreting glands in the bladder.