Why Is There A Disparity Between Men And Women With Bladder Cancer
In many cases, there are significant delays in diagnosing bladder cancer in women. Many women ignore the most basic symptomblood in the urine. They may associate it with menstruation or menopause and delay reporting this symptom to their doctors. Even after reporting the problem to their doctors, blood in the urine may be initially misdiagnosed. It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.
What Does Your Tnm Prostate Cancer Stage Mean
The TNM system for describing prostate cancer uses the letters T, N, and M, which stand for tumor, nodes, and metastasis.
Specifically, stage 3 prostate cancer has extended through the capsule that surrounds the prostate but has not spread to distant sites in the body.
There are two sub-stages of stage 3 prostate cancer.
- T3a: The tumor has only gone through the capsule without invading the seminal vesicles.
- T3b: The tumor has invaded the seminal vesicles.
What Do Women Need To Know About Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer can affect women at any age. Smoking is the greatest controllable risk factor. Smokers get bladder cancer twice as often as non-smokers. However, up to 50% of bladder cancer patients may have no history of smoking. Learn more about the risks associated with bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer symptoms may be identical to those of a bladder infection and the two problems may occur together. If symptoms do not disappear after treatment with antibiotics, insist upon further evaluation to determine whether bladder cancer is present. Bladder cancer has the highest recurrence rate of any form of cancerbetween 50-80 percent.
Watch our informative webinar, Women and Bladder Cancer the Unspoken Demographic.
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Very Scared: Gleason 9 Prostate Cancer
I saw my specialist last week and he informed me that I had level 9 Gleason prostate cancer. I am awaiting a CT scan and then a bone scan. I am in no pain whatsoever at the moment and I consider myself quite fit playing golf 4 times a week and walking with my wife and dog the other days. I am 60 years old and am quite scared for my future. I am not scared of the pain, just not being around for my wife and 2 grown up children.
Can anyone give me hope for optimism as all I have seen about level 9 gleason is not great.
Do You Feel Ill With Bladder Cancer
Nausea and vomiting. Burning or pain when you urinate, feeling the need to go often, or blood in urine. Diarrhea. Feeling tired.
How long does it take to die from bladder cancer?
The 5-year survival rate is the rate of surviving for 5 years after a cancer diagnosis. For bladder cancer, if the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 36.3 percent . If it has spread to a more distant site, the 5-year survival rate is 4.6 percent .
Can you have bladder cancer for years and not know it?
Even after reporting the problem to their doctors, blood in the urine may be initially misdiagnosed. It may be seen as a symptom of post-menopausal bleeding, simple cystitis or as a urinary tract infection. As a result, a bladder cancer diagnosis can be overlooked for a year or more.
How do you feel when you have bladder cancer?
Pain or burning during urination. Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when your bladder isnt full. Having trouble urinating or having a weak urine stream. Having to get up to urinate many times during the night.
How quickly does bladder cancer return?
Nearly three-fourths of patients diagnosed with high-risk bladder cancer will recur, progress, or die within ten years of their diagnosis. Even though most patients do not die of bladder cancer, the vast majority endures the morbidity of recurrence and progression of their cancer.
What happens if you have bladder cancer and it comes back?
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Bladder Cancer Stages And Survival Rates
Cancer survival rates are also categorized according to the stage of the cancer when it was diagnosed. The stage of cancer generally refers to how far it has progressed, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. For bladder cancer, the 5-year survival rate for people with:2,3
- Bladder cancer in situ is around 96 percent
- Localized bladder cancer is around 70 percent
- Bladder cancer that has spread to the regional lymph nodes is 35 percent
- Distant or metastasized bladder cancer is 5 percent
If you would like to learn more about bladder cancer statistics, consider speaking with someone on your health care team. They will be able to explain more about how these statistics apply to your cancer. Tell us about your experience in the comments below, or with the community.
Categories Of Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancers fall into five broad categories based on their grade andstage – a full explanation of these terms can be found below:
- Low risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are small , single low grade Grade 1 or Grade 2) bladdercancers that haven’t grown beyond the inner layer of the bladder. They are usuallydescribed as papillary and are called pTa – where the p indicatesthat this has been found out by biopsy.
- Intermediate risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are larger or multiple low grade pTa bladder cancers.Small, single low grade pT1 tumours are also in this category where T1indicates that the cancer has grown a little further into the bladder wall. Also if low risk tumours keep growing backthey fall into this category.
- High risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are Grade 3 pTa or pT1 bladder cancers. All larger ormultiple T1 tumours are also included. Carcinomain Situ is also in this category.
- Muscle invasive bladder cancerThese are bladder cancers which are pT2 or pT3 which indicates that the cancerhas grown further into the bladder wall and is found in the inner muscle layer.
- Advanced bladder cancerThese are bladder cancers which are pT4 which indicates that it has grownthrough the bladder wall or have spread to nearby lymph nodes to varying degrees- referred to as N1, N2 or N3) or to other sites in the body referred to as M1.
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Low Grade And High Grade Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer starts in the lining of the bladder in about 90 percent of people diagnosed with this cancer. Bladder cancer is called low grade or high grade.
- Low-grade bladder cancer means the cancer has not invaded the muscles around the bladder . People rarely die from this type of bladder cancer, it often recurs after treatment.
- High-grade bladder cancer also often recurs and has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body. Almost all deaths from bladder cancer result this type so it is treated more aggressively.
Other Cancer Staging Systems
Not all cancers use the TNM system for staging:
- Gynecologic cancers use TMN and the FIGO system from the International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians.
- Cancers of the brain and central nervous system dont have a formal staging system. They rarely spread beyond those organs.
- Small-cell lung cancers are limited or extensive based on how far theyve spread.
- Blood cancers use the Rai, Lugano, or Binet staging systems.
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Staging And Grading For Stage 3 Cancer
Grade 3 and stage 3 cancer are not the same. Staging and grading cancer use different criteria to evaluate treatment options.
Staging is an important factor in determining cancer treatment options, since it establishes the tumors size and spread within the body. Staging is used for most cancers, but not all. Cancers in and near the brain, for example, dont use a defined staging system because their likelihood of spreading is low.
In general, cancer falls within stages 1 through 4. Some types may be stage 0, meaning there are cancerous cells in a layer of tissue, but they havent grown or spread.
Most cancers are staged using some form of the TNM system. Doctors may also use the TNM system to help determine the extent of certain cancers in each stage. The TNM system stands for:
- T , for the size of the original tumor
- N , whether the cancer is present in the lymph nodes
- M , whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
Some cancers, especially liquid cancers, are staged using different established protocols. The Binet and Rai systems, for example, are used to stage certain types of leukemia. Cancers of the female reproductive system, such as cervical cancer and ovarian cancer, are staged using the FIGO staging system, designed by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics .
When it comes to grading, tumors generally may be referenced in the following ways.
Questions To Ask Your Physician About The Treatment Of Stage Ii
- What are the long-term results of treatment with radical cystectomy at the treating institution?
- What is the quality of life with the type of artificial bladder constructed at the treating institution?
- What are the long-term results of bladder-sparing treatments at the treating institution?
- How will systemic therapy improve my outcome compared to treatment with surgery alone?
- Can MRD assessment be used to improve treatment?
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Prognosis And Survival For Bladder Cancer
If you have bladder cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors best estimate of how cancer will affect someone and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type and stage and other features of the cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.
A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. A predictive factor influences how a cancer will respond to a certain treatment. Prognostic and predictive factors are often discussed together. They both play a part in deciding on a treatment plan and a prognosis.
The following are prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer.
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Noninvasive Vs Invasive Bladder Cancer
Doctors often use the terms noninvasive or invasive to describe whether cancer has spread into the bladder wall. Noninvasive means the cancer is in the inner cell layers. Invasive cancers are deeper in the layers of the bladder wall. If a doctor says the cancer is superficial or non-muscle invasive, that means it isnt in the bladders main muscle layerthough it may still be invasive or noninvasive and have the potential to spread to the muscle.
Different types of bladder cancer grow in different ways, so doctors may discuss a tumor in terms of the direction its growing. Papillary carcinomas grow from the bladders lining toward the hollow center, while flat carcinomas stay flush against the bladder wall.
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Can Stage 3 Lung Cancer Be Cured
Treatment can greatly encourage the improvement of stage 3 lung cancer. Many patients wonder if stage 3 lung cancer is curable. There is no lung cancer cure, however, there are several treatment options.
Stage 3 Lung Cancer Treatment Options
There are several methods of treatment for those with lung cancer including:
Can Immunotherapy Cure Stage 3 Lung Cancer?
Immunotherapy utilizes the cancer patients own body to recognize and attack cancer cells. A primary form of immunotherapy is immune checkpoint inhibitors.
The body uses checkpoints to turn immune responses on or off. However, cancer cells often avoid these checkpoints to continue developing. Immunotherapy drugs target these checkpoints to destroy the cancer cells.
Immunotherapy is a promising form of cancer treatment that uses ones own body to fight cancer. Although immunotherapy is not a miracle cure, it often improves the survival rate for lung cancer patients.
Can Chemo and Radiation Cure Stage 3 Lung Cancer?
Chemotherapy and radiation are two primary forms of lung cancer treatment.
Chemotherapy is a chemical substance used to treat lung cancer. This treatment method uses medications to shrink or kill cancer tumors. The goal of administering chemotherapy is to cure or control the spread of tumors.
What Is Advanced Prostate Cancer
When prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is often grouped into four stages.
- Stages I & II: The tumor has not spread beyond the prostate. This is often called early stage or localized prostate cancer.
- Stage III: Cancer has spread outside the prostate, but only to nearby tissues. This is often called locally advanced prostate cancer.
- Stage IV: Cancer has spread outside the prostate to other parts such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver or lungs. This stage is often called advanced prostate cancer.
When an early stage prostate cancer is found, it may be treated or placed on surveillance . If prostate cancer spreads beyond the prostate or returns after treatment, it is often called advanced prostate cancer. Stage IV prostate cancer is not curable, but there are many ways to control it. Treatment can stop advanced prostate cancer from growing and causing symptoms.
There are several types of advanced prostate cancer, including:
If your Prostate Specific Antigen level has risen after the first treatment but you have no other signs of cancer, you have biochemical recurrence.
Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
- Lymph nodes outside the pelvis
Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer
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Cancer Staging Tests And Procedures
Because cancers are so complicated, many tests and procedures are used to stage them. They vary by the type of tumor. Not all tests are appropriate for all cancers. Here are a few of the standard tests and what they check for:
- Imaging tests:Imaging tests like X-ray, computed tomography , MRI, ultrasound, and positron emission tomography scans let healthcare providers see inside the body without cutting it open. These images give them a better idea of the size and makeup of a tumor. They can also provide information about other affected organs and blood flow.
- Endoscopy: Endoscopy involves a surgeon inserting a small tube or wire into the body to look at the organs with a small camera. It includes tests like a colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, and laparoscopy. The surgeon uses the scope to take pictures or samples of unusual areas.
- Biopsy:During a biopsy, a healthcare provider takes a tissue sample of the tumor, then looks at it under a microscope. These tissue samples can be from anywhere on the body, including the skin, bone marrow, or breast. Some biopsies use a vacuum device to draw out tissue samples through a needle. This process is called fine-needle aspiration .
- Lab tests: Healthcare providers can learn a lot by testing your blood, other body fluids, and tissue samples. Tests can look for tumor markers that tell them more about your cancer. They can test the cancers genes to learn more about it. They can also do general blood testing to keep track of your health.
Systemic Therapy Prior To Cystectomy
Following a radical cystectomy, local recurrence of cancer is uncommon because the cancer and bladder are removed. Some patients however will still develop distant recurrences because undetected cancer cells called micrometastases spread to other locations in the body before the bladder was removed. Treatment with a systemic therapy such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy may reduce or eliminate these micrometastases reducing the risk of cancer recurrence and avoid cystectomy.
Neoadjuvant therapy refers to systemic therapy that is given before surgery. The rationale behind neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer is twofold. First, pre-operative treatment can shrink some bladder cancers and therefore, may allow more complete surgical removal of the cancer. Second, because systemic therapy kills undetectable cancer cells in the body, it may help prevent the spread of cancer when used initially rather than waiting for patient recovery following the surgical procedure.
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received chemotherapy prior to cystectomy had better survival than patients treated with cystectomy alone.1
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How Many Layers Of Bladder Cancer Are There
To better understand bladder cancer stages, its helpful to know more about the bladder itself. The bladder has four layers. The innermost layer is called the urothelium, or transitional epithelium. This is where almost all bladder cancers start. The next layer contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. Next is a layer of muscle, and finally, the outer layer is made up of fatty connective tissue. 1
Is Bladder Cancer A Fatal Illness
Left untreated, bladder cancer may spread to other parts of your body. Cancer thats metastasized, or spread, may affect how long youll live with bladder cancer. Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment increase the chance of living longer with bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, 96% of people who received treatment for early-stage cancer were alive five years after diagnosis. Overall, 77% of people with bladder cancer were alive five years after diagnosis.
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Palliative Or Supportive Care
If your cancer is at an advanced stage and can’t be cured, your medical team should discuss how the cancer will progress and which treatments are available to ease the symptoms.
You can be referred to a palliative care team, who can provide support and practical help, including pain relief.
Page last reviewed: 01 July 2021 Next review due: 01 July 2024