Deterrence And Patient Education
Once a patient has developed bladder stones, the chances of getting recurrent stones are increased. Therefore it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause. Patients must be counseled that drinking plenty of water would protect them from stone formation because increase water intake would dilute all the minerals that precipitate to form stones in the urinary tract. If the prostate is enlarged it should be removed by surgery to prevent stasis of urine in the bladder.
Treatment For Bladder Stones In Dogs
Treatment for bladder stones depends largely on the type and location of the stone. Options include surgery, lithotripsy , a change in diet, and medication.
With struvite stones, there are multiple options to consider, each carrying pros and cons.
Unlike struvite stones, calcium oxalate stones cannot be dissolved through dietary changes. If they are tiny, flushing the bladder and forcefully expressing the stones may be possible otherwise they will need to be surgically removed.
What Causes Bladder Stones In Dogs
Several situations can lead to bladder stones
- Bacteria in the urinary tract
- Urinary pH
- Minerals in the urine form crystals and grow into stones
- Genetics may be a factor
- Badder inflammation
No Smoking! Exposure to cadmium increases stones. How are dogs exposed to cadmium? The most common reason is cigarette smoke. So no smoking around your dog .
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How Are Bladder Stones Treated
In general, there are three main treatment options for bladder stones: 1) surgical removal 2) non-surgical removal by urohydropropulsion, and 3) dietary dissolution. The specific treatment that is recommended for your dog will depend on the type of stone that is present. Your veterinarian will discuss the pros and cons of each treatment option with you in more detail, based on your dog’s individual circumstances.
Surgical removal of bladder stones. This is often the quickest way of treating bladder stones however, it may not be the best option for patients that have other health concerns, or in whom general anesthesia could be risky. With this option, the stones are removed via cystotomy a surgical procedure to access and open the bladder so that the stones can be removed. This surgery is routinely performed by many veterinarians and dogs usually make a rapid post-operative recovery. If the stones have obstructed the urethra, such that the dog is unable to urinate, an emergency procedure must be performed IMMEDIATELY to save the dog’s life.
Either of these non-surgical procedures may be used to obtain a sample stone for analysis so that your veterinarian can determine if dietary dissolution is feasible.
Diagnosis Of Kidney Stones
When you have kidney stone symptoms, as described above, see your health care provider. Shell check your medical history, give you a physical examination, and order imaging tests, as needed.
Your doctor may ask you to drink extra fluid to help flush out the stone. By straining your urine, you may be able to save a piece of the stone. This will enable your doctor to determine the type of stone, what may be causing the condition, and how to reduce your risk of recurring stones.
If your stone doesnt flush out, your doctor may order a high-resolution CT scan from the kidneys to the bladder or a KUB X-ray to determine the size and location of the stone.
Another test used for some patients is the intravenous pyelogram , an X-ray of the urinary tract taken after injecting dye.
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Causes Of Urinary Tract Stones
Stones may form because the urine becomes too saturated with salts that can form stones or because the urine lacks the normal inhibitors of stone formation. Citrate is such an inhibitor because it normally binds with calcium that is often involved in forming stones.
, dehydration Dehydration Dehydration is a deficiency of water in the body. Vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating, burns, kidney failure, and use of diuretics may cause dehydration. People feel thirsty, and as dehydration… read more , and renal tubular acidosis Renal Tubular Acidosis In renal tubular acidosis, the kidney tubules malfunction, resulting in excess levels of acid in the blood. The tubules of the kidneys that remove acid from the blood are damaged when a person… read more ) and among people whose diet is very high in animal-source protein or vitamin C or who do not consume enough water or calcium. People who have a family history of stone formation are more likely to have calcium stones and to have them more often. People who have undergone surgery for weight loss may also be at increased risk of stone formation.
Rarely, drugs and substances in the diet cause stones.
Diet For Bladder Stones
The primary cause of bladder stones is urine left in the bladder, but diet can play a role in the formation of bladder stones too. This is because a poor diet can change the chemistry of your urine, increasing the risk of bladder stones. This is why consuming a healthy diet is so important to reduce your risk.
For starters, your diet should be low in fat and contain a variety of nutrient-rich foods. This means consuming plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean sources of protein like poultry and fish.
Your diet should also be high in fiber, which can be obtained from whole grains and fruits and vegetables. Recommended daily fiber intake is two cups of fruit or two and a half cups of vegetables.
Lastly, you should consume plenty of water, as it can help flush out your bladder. Dehydration and insufficient water intake, on the other hand, can increase your risk of bladder stones as well. The goal is to aim for at least eight glasses of water a day, but this can vary. A good method to determine how much water you need is to drink one quart of water for every 50 pounds of body weight. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, you will need three quarts or two liters.
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Preventing Bladder Stones In Dogs
Complete prevention of bladder stones is difficult, but annual check-ups play an important role. In order to monitor your dog effectively, know the signs and symptoms associated with bladder stones. The right diet can help thwart the return of bladder stones, and water intake is very important, since problematic crystals are less likely to form in dilute urine.
Bladder stones in dogs can cause frequent urinary tract infections, pain, and blockages, which can be potentially fatal if untreated, so its important to contact your vet immediately if you suspect your dog may have a bladder stone.
Prevention is the best defense: observe your dogs urination habits feed him a proper, well-balanced diet and ensure he has access to plenty of water at all times so he can flush out the bladder consistently.
Signs & Symptoms Of Bladder Stones In Dogs
Dogs with very small bladder stones will not always exhibit symptoms. Often, these small stones will pass through the urinary tract without being noticed, especially in female dogs. However, larger stones may interfere with urination or irritate the lining of the bladder or urethra. Signs and symptoms include:
Discomfort and difficulty urinating
Urinating small amounts very frequently
Blood in the urine
Pain in the abdomen around the kidney area
Change in energy level
Its important to note that not all of these symptoms may present themselves. Pain may be the only indicator that bladder stones are present, so it can be difficult to diagnose.
Its nonetheless important to figure out if your dog is suffering from this ailment: if left untreated, stones can cause blockages, chronic urinary tract infections, and be potentially life-threatening.
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What Is The Treatment For Bladder Stones
Typically, bladder stones need to be removed from the bladder by a urologist. Very rarely, they can be dissolved but this depends on the type of stone you have and can also take a long time.
Treatment for bladder stones includes:
- Cystolitholapaxy: During a cystolitholapaxy, providers use a scope to visualize the stones in the bladder and then break bladder stones into tiny pieces using lasers or ultrasound . The pieces are then removed from the bladder.
- Surgery: If the stones are especially large, you may need open surgery to remove them. Your provider makes an incision in your abdomen and takes out the stones.
Lemon Juice And Olive Oil
Lemon Juice and Olive oil can be taken together to cure bladder stones. 2 ounces of fresh lemon juice and 2 ounces of a quality olive oil are blended together. You can add a dash of salt to improve the flavor. You will notice that this concoction sounds like a salad dressing recipe, and indeed, it tastes like salad dressing. This remedy should be used 2-3 times a day on an empty stomach. Always follow this mixture with a full glass of water. It can take a few days for the stone to pass.
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Bladder Stones In Dogs: Everything You Need To Know
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Can Small Kidney Stones Pass Naturally
Kidney stones of less than 5mm are considered to be small. Small kidney stones can easily pass through the urinary tract without any medical assistance. 4mm size stones have 80% chances to pass through the kidneys in about a month, but 5mm size stones have 60% chances of passage in about 45 days.
To pass small-sized kidney stones naturally in urine, certain home remedies can be helpful such as increased fluid intake, increased water, lemon and citrus juice consumption and low salt, calcium and protein diet. High water concentration does not allow growth of kidney stones and they can slowly pass along with the urine. Read about passing of kidney stones with urine.
If you experience any pain in the lower abdomen during passing of the kidney stones, you can take an analgesic such as ibuprofen or any other painkiller as suggested by the doctor. Painkillers help in relieving pain and also speed up the process of passing the stone. Read about relieving kidney pain.
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Bladder Stones In Dogs: Is Surgery The Only Option
Heres a trivia question for you: Whats a urolith?
If you answered bladder stone, youre right! Urolith is the technical term for bladder stones. The suffix -lith means stone.
Bladder stones can be very painful for your dog. And sometimes she may need surgery to remove them. But there are some new technologies that can help remove stones without surgery.
This post explains bladder stones in dogs. And well tell you what you need to know about conventional veterinary treatments.
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Besides being painful, what arekidney stones?
Theyre solid formations of minerals and salts that crystalize in urine in the kidneys when concentrations are high. They can be as tiny as a grain of sand to pebble-size and larger. And they can develop at any age, from infants to the elderly.
Although some stones remain in the kidneys, others travel through the ureter and into the bladder, explains Howard Abromowitz, MD.
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Kidney Stones In Bladder Symptoms
Kidneys are the usual place of origin for stones since these organs actually produce and secret urine. The kidneys filter out the waste matter and mineral elements from the blood that passes through the organ. These organs also assist in maintaining a constant water balance in the bloodstream by removing excess water molecules. The resultant filtered materials are utilized to secrete the waste fluid called urine. Stones in urine are defined by their location in the urinary tract.
The urinary tract is made up of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and finally the urethra. Mineral elements that start to crystallize in the kidneys will at some point move out and travel to other organs situated in the urinary tract system. While some may manage to get stuck in the ureters, these are usually the big-sized stones, the smaller stones will successfully pass through the ureters and settle in the urinary bladder.
Now in a situation where the bladder is not capable of emptying fully, like in the case of prostate enlargement, weakened bladder wall, damaged nerves responsible for the release of urine, or certain inflammatory conditions, etc., it will cause the crystals to grow and form large-sized stones.
Stagnant urine in an undiluted state will promote more crystal formations that can stick together to form one solid mineral mass. This can obstruct urine outflow as well as irritate the bladder walls. Find here Complete Cause of Kidney Stone formation in the Bladder.
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Stones
Stones, especially tiny ones, may not cause any symptoms. Stones in the bladder may cause pain in the lower abdomen. Stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis or any of the kidneys drainage tubes may cause back pain or renal colic. Renal colic is characterized by an excruciating intermittent pain, usually in the area between the ribs and hip on one side, that spreads across the abdomen and often extends to the genital area. The pain tends to come in waves, gradually increasing to a peak intensity, then fading, over about 20 to 60 minutes. The pain may radiate down the abdomen toward the groin or testis or vulva.
Other symptoms include nausea and vomiting, restlessness, sweating, and blood or a stone or a piece of a stone in the urine. A person may have an urge to urinate frequently, particularly as a stone passes down the ureter. Chills, fever, burning or pain during urination, cloudy, foul-smelling urine, and abdominal swelling sometimes occur.
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How Are Kidney And Bladder Stones Treated
If a stone blocks urine flow and drainage of the kidney, there are a variety of possible treatments. An option that your doctor may choose is:
- Ureteral stenting or nephrostomy: A ureteral stent is a thin, flexible tube threaded into the ureter by a urologist to restore the flow of urine to the bladder from the kidney. A nephrostomy is performed by an interventional radiologist when ureteral stenting is not possible or desirable. A tube is placed through the skin on the patient’s back into the kidney and the tube is connected to an external drainage bag. The procedure is usually performed with fluoroscopy.
Should I Cut Calcium Out Of My Diet If I Develop Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones
If you develop kidney stones composed of calcium, you may be tempted to stop eating foods that include calcium. However, this is the opposite of what you should do. If you have calcium oxalate stones, the most common type, its recommended that you have a diet higher in calcium and lower in oxalate.
Foods that are high in calcium include:
- Cows milk.
Its also important to drink plenty of fluids to dilute the substances in your urine.
Living With Bladder Stones
After surgery, your doctor will check to make sure all stones are gone. They may repeat tests to confirm. Your doctor also might prescribe medicine to prevent infection.
Your doctor may need to treat the cause of your bladder stones. For example, if your doctor finds a tumor in your bladder, they will check for cancer. The current clinical recommendation from the American Academy of Family Physicians does not include routine preventive screening for bladder cancer. Left untreated, bladder stones can cause lasting damage. This includes repeat UTIs or injury to your bladder, kidney, or urethra.
How Did My Dog Get Bladder Stones
There are several theories of how bladder stones form. The most commonly accepted theory is called the Precipitation- Crystallization Theory. This theory states that one or more stone-forming crystalline compounds are present in elevated levels in the urine. This may be due to dietary factors or due to some previous disease in the bladder, especially a bacterial infection. Sometimes the condition may be due to a problem with the body’s metabolism.
When the amount of this compound exceeds a threshold level, the urine becomes saturated and cannot hold any more of the compound. The saturation level depends on the specific minerals that are present and the pH of the urine. These excess compounds precipitate out of solution and form tiny crystals. The sharp crystals irritate the bladder lining, causing a production of mucus. The crystals and mucus stick together, forming clusters that gradually enlarge and harden into stones.
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Size Of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are of variable sizes. They range from small sized crystals to large sized stones such as the size of a golf ball. Variations in sizes of kidney stones affect the following things:
The size of kidney stones affect the treatment method required for their removal. Small-sized stones can easily pass through the kidney without any medical assistance but large-sized stones require medical intervention. Certain tests are conducted which help in determining the size of kidney stones, such as KUB, an Ultrasound or an IVP. They help in analyzing which treatment should be effective for the removal of your kidney stones.
It is estimated that one in ten people will have a kidney stone sometime in their lives. The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly in the United States from 3.8% in the late 1970s to about 9% in the 2000s. The lifetime risk of developing kidney stones is about 19% in men and 10% in women.