How Are Urinary Tract Infections Diagnosed
Your doctor will use the following tests to diagnose a urinary tract infection:
- Urinalysis: This test will examine the urine for red blood cells, white blood cells and bacteria. The number of white and red blood cells found in your urine can actually indicate an infection.
- Urine culture: A urine culture is used to determine the type of bacteria in your urine. This is an important test because it helps determine the appropriate treatment.
If your infection does not respond to treatment or if you keep getting infections over and over again, your doctor may use the following tests to examine your urinary tract for disease or injury:
- Ultrasound: In this test, sound waves create an image of the internal organs. This test is done on top of your skin, is painless and doesnt typically need any preparation.
- Cystoscopy: This test uses a special instrument fitted with a lens and a light source to see inside the bladder from the urethra.
- CT scan: Another imaging test, a CT scan is a type of X-ray that takes cross sections of the body . This test is much more precise than typical X-rays.
Who Is Most Susceptible To A Bladder Infection
UTIs are more common in women than men. This is partly due to their anatomy in women, the urethra is shorter, which makes it easier for bacteria to travel to the bladder and cause an infection.
Other risk factors for bladder infection include:
Any medical condition or injury that prevents you from emptying your bladder completely
Any medical condition that weakens your immune system
Being a woman in or after menopause
Having a UTI in the past
Needing to have a bladder catheter
Fortunately, there are steps you can take to prevent UTIs. These include the following:
Drink plenty of water.
Empty your bladder immediately after sex.
Dont hold it when you feel the need to go.
Think about switching to a different method of birth control if you currently use one with spermicide.
Consider vaginal estrogen if youve gone through menopause.
Children And Urinary Tract Infections
Symptoms in children are different from symptoms in adults. Urinary tract infections are quite common in children. While UTIs in very young children are often associated with an anatomic abnormality, for others the infection is related to introducing bacteria into the urinary tract. UTIs in children generally peak in infancy and then again between ages 2 and 4, coinciding with potty training.
In newborns, signs of urinary tract infection include poor feeding, lethargy, diarrhea, vomiting, mild jaundice, and fever. For babies younger than 2, foul-smelling urine may also be a sign. For older children, the more classic UTI signs, such as urgency, incontinence, and pain while urinating occur.
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Is Urinary Tract Same As Bladder Infection
UTIs can affect any part of the urinary tract, including the urethra, ureters, bladder, or in more serious cases, the kidneys. A bladder infection is a UTI that only affects the bladder. It is not always possible to distinguish what UTI a person has because the symptoms of the different types can overlap.
Urinary Tract Infection Causes & Risk Factors
Your urinary tract can usually protect itself from infection, but certain factors increase your risk of developing a UTI.
- Menopause and post-menopause, which cause the lining of the urethra to get thinner as estrogen levels decrease.
- Diabetes and other chronic illnesses or medications that affect your immune system and make it harder for your body to fight infections.
- Conditions that make it difficult to completely empty your bladder, such as enlarged prostate and bladder and kidney stones.
- Long-term use of catheters
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Symptoms Of Kidney Disease
Kidney disease is called a silent disease as there are often no warning signs. People may lose up to 90 per cent of their kidney function before getting any symptoms. The first signs of kidney disease may be general and can include:
- high blood pressure
- changes in the amount and number of times urine is passed
- changes in the appearance of urine
- blood in the urine
- puffiness of the legs and ankles
- pain in the kidney area
- have a family history of kidney failure
- have a history of acute kidney injury
- are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.
How Is Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosed
In order to ensure a clean urine sample, a physician will likely have you clean your genital area with a special wipe beforehand, and ask that you do a midstream catch of the urine.
If a UTI is diagnosed, youll be treated with antibiotics. Its important to note that false negative results do occur and that almost all women who experience typical UTI symptoms and a negative urine culture actually do have a UTI. 30209-4/fulltextâ rel=ânofollowâ> 11)
If youve had a prior UTI, your healthcare provider will look at prior cultures to see which bacteria were found, if any, and which antibiotics were used this often guides therapy in recurrent UTIs.
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Urinary Tract Infections In Men
Men can get UTIs, particularly if they have trouble with urine flow. Older men who experience prostatitis are at a higher risk. If the bladder is not emptying properly, the build up ofurine makes it more difficult to cure the infection.
A small number of young men may get a UTI. In males, this is usually the result of a sexually transmitted disease.
Is Screening Recommended For Uti Or Kidney Infection
In general, screening is not recommended for urinary tract infections and kidney infections in men and nonpregnant women.
While pregnant, screening may be recommended for women because bacteria in the urine without symptoms of infection are associated with a higher rate of progression to an overt urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. These infections can potentially compromise fetal growth and health.
Screening for bacteria in the urine without any symptoms is also recommended for any individual prior to undergoing instrumentation of the urinary tract or in men undergoing prostate procedures. The presence of bacteria in the urine with or without infection can possibly lead to an increased chance of developing a urinary tract infection. Treating these bacteria can substantially reduce the infectious complications of such procedures.
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Why Utis Should Be Treated Promptly
If a UTI is left untreated, it can continue spreading up the body into one or both of the kidneys. A kidney infection requires prompt medical attention, as it can permanently damage the kidneys or spread bacteria into the bloodstream, causing a life-threatening infection. The faster that you seek treatment for a UTI, the better.
Types Of Urinary Tract Conditions
A urinary tract infection refers to an infection in any area of the urinary tract. Conditions that can occur in the urinary tract or with the potential to lead to complicated infections include:
- Urethritis: An inflammation of the urethra, usually caused by an infection for example, a sexually transmitted disease such as chlamydia
- Cystitis: An infection in the bladder that has often moved up from the urethra, also one of the most common UTIs
- Nephritis: Any type of kidney inflammation
- Pyelonephritis: An infection in one or both kidneys
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Having Dry And Itchy Skin
Healthy kidneys do tremendous work by removing waste and extra fluid from the blood, helping produce red blood cells, and maintaining the proper amount of minerals in your body. Itchy and dry skin signal the failure of kidneys to maintain the right balance of minerals and nutrients which can result in bone and kidney disease.
Warning: If you have dry and itchy skin, try to stay more hydrated. Remember, before taking any medication for itching consult your doctor. Certain medications have ingredients that potentially could damage your kidney function even more.
Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Fighting Amr Through Diagnostics
In the case of a bacterial infection, antibiotic susceptibility testing is performed in order to identify which treatment regimen is specifically effective for individual infections . When it is clear which species of bacteria is causing the infection, it can then be treated accordingly. In order to do this, it is necessary to know which antibiotic and which dosage will be effective. Therefore, AST information helps clinicians in choosing the right diagnostics-based treatment for patients.
The correct identification of a bacterial infection combined with susceptibility testing can make a significant impact on the growing rate of antimicrobial resistance . Inappropriate diagnosis and its uncertainties are one of the key drivers of antimicrobial overuse and misuse. When suitable tests are ordered and rapid diagnostic results available, they provide guidance on created tailored antimicrobial treatments to optimise patient health outcomes. This is not only the most beneficial pathway for the patient, who is getting targeted therapy to get them on the road to recovery quicker, but it is also saving the health care system unnecessary costs.
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Prevention And Treatment Of Kidney Infection
Antibiotics are started as soon as the doctor suspects pyelonephritis and samples have been taken for laboratory tests. The choice of drug or its dosage may be modified based on the laboratory test results , how sick the person is, and whether the infection started in the hospital, where bacteria tend to be more resistant to antibiotics. Other factors that can alter the choice or dosage of drug include whether the personâs immune system is impaired and whether the person has a urinary tract abnormality , including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Blockage can be completeâ¦ read more ).
Outpatient treatment with antibiotics given by mouth is usually successful if the person has:
No nausea or vomiting
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Urinary Tract Infection Treatment
Usually doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat UTIs. Once you start taking medication, your symptoms should go away in a few days, but this doesnt mean you can stop taking the medicine. While you are on the mediation, drink plenty of water to help flush the bacteria out of your system.
To help ease the pain of a UTI, you can take an over-the-counter pain reliever and try putting a heating pad on your lower abdomen.
If you have recurrent UTIs , your doctor may recommend additional treatments.
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Bladder Infection Vs Other Utis
The symptoms of a bladder infection, which people may refer to as cystitis, are very similar to those of UTIs in other parts of the urinary tract. As a result, it may be difficult to tell which part of the urinary tract has an infection based on the symptoms alone.
An infection in the urethra may cause pain and burning when urinating and discharge from the urethra, but bladder pain is not a symptom.
An infection that has spread to the kidneys will cause the most severe symptoms. A person with a kidney infection may notice the same symptoms as those of a bladder infection, plus fever, chills, and back pain.
Treatment is usually the same for all types of UTI, except for kidney infections. Treating a kidney infection may require a person to stay in the hospital.
Kidney infections can cause serious health conditions, so anyone with these symptoms should seek treatment as early as possible.
UTIs occur when harmful bacteria enter the urinary tract and start spreading.
- Biological sex: Females have a
How Are Urinary Tract Infections Treated
You will need to treat a urinary tract infection. Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria and fight an infection. Antibiotics are typically used to treat urinary tract infections. Your healthcare provider will pick a drug that best treats the particular bacteria thats causing your infection. Some commonly used antibiotics can include:
Its very important that you follow your healthcare providers directions for taking the medicine. Dont stop taking the antibiotic because your symptoms go away and you start feeling better. If the infection is not treated completely with the full course of antibiotics, it can return.
If you have a history of frequent urinary tract infections, you may be given a prescription for antibiotics that you would take at the first onset of symptoms. Other patients may be given antibiotics to take every day, every other day, or after sexual intercourse to prevent the infection. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best treatment option for you if you have a history of frequent UTIs.
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Ok Got It But Then What Is A Kidney Infection
A kidney infection is, in essence, a UTI that has spread into the kidneys. While this type of infection is rare, its also very dangerous and if youre experiencing any of the following signs of a kidney infection, you should see a doctor immediately:
Upper back or side pain
Fever, shaking or chills
While most kidney infections can be treated simply with an antibiotic, if left untreated, a kidney infection can cause damage to your kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease. The bacteria could even spread to your bloodstream creating a life-threatening situation.
What If The Infection Does Not Clear Up With Treatment
Most infections clear up with treatment. However, if an infection does not clear up, or if you have repeated infections, you may be given some special tests such as:
a type of x-ray called an intravenous pyleogram , which involves injecting a dye into a vein and taking pictures of your kidney and bladder
an ultrasound exam, which gives a picture of your kidneys and bladder using sound waves
a cytoscopic exam, which uses a hollow tube with special lenses to look inside the bladder.
What Are Urinary Tract Infections And Kidney Infections
Most commonly known as UTIs, Urinary tract infections can affect any part of the urinary tract. When we hear of a UTI, it usually involves the lower tract. The most common UTIs are cystitis, a bladder infection, and urethritis, an infection of the urethra. Kidney infections are limited to the kidneys and can be much more severe.
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How Can You Tell The Difference Between A Bladder Infection And A Uti
Theres a reason that people use the terms UTI and bladder infection interchangeablythe symptoms are largely the same.
- Burning sensation while peeing
- Feeling of urgency to pee, but produce very little urine
The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection. Therefore if you have a UTI, its likely in your bladder. And thankfully, bladder infections are relatively simple to treat.
If you have a UTI that isnt a bladder infection, you may experience additional symptoms.
- Lower back pain that feels more severe than a bladder infection
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Pinkish or reddish urine
If you think you have a UTI, its important to get treated quickly to prevent the infection from spreading to your kidneys.
Duration Of Antimicrobial Therapy
There are no valid published data from randomized trials determining the optimal duration of treatment of UTI in patients with CKD and in dialysis patients. It is customary to treat even uncomplicated cystitis for at least 7 days and to continue for 21 days or more, depending on clinical severity , . However, the response to even longer courses of antibiotics in higher dosage may only be transitory. Even if the urinary concentration of the antibiotic is adequate, the underlying infection may not be eradicated, thus leading to a relapse after the end of antimicrobial treatment.
Recurrent UTI presumably occur due to bacterial regrowth from colonies of non-planktonic bacteria residing in a protected biofilm environment. Persistent microbial niches may develop and colonize deeply within damaged renal parenchymal or urothelial tissue. Furthermore, antibiotic therapy may select highly resistant intracellular, ecologically stable bacterial communities living temporarily as commensals, so-called small colony variants .
Importantly, recent studies have confirmed again that any infection irrespective of severity is an independent risk factor for increased adverse events in the CKD population .
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What Are The Treatments For A Bladder Infection Vs A Uti
How a doctor deals with a patient’s UTI depends on where it’s located, what caused it, how severe the infection is, and whether there are other complicating factors to consider.
An uncomplicated bladder infection can sometimes clear up on its own. But given that it can turn into a more severe infection, you might be better off with a prescription for some oral antibiotics to kill off the bacteria. Per the American Urological Association , treatment for uncomplicated bladder infections typically involves taking one of the following:
- A single dose of Fosfomycin.
- Nitrofurantoin for five days.
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole DS for three days.
If you have a more complicated bladder infection, you may need to rely on other types of antibiotics and take them for up to 14 days to clear out the infection. Either way, you should start to feel better within a couple of days of taking the meds but be sure to finish the full course of antibiotics. Otherwise, resistant bacteria could grow and create a new infection that’s harder to cure.
Doctors may also give you additional fluids through the IV. And that’s assuming you don’t get a complication, such as sepsis. Once the IV antibiotics help you feel better, you can generally go home and finish treating the UTI with more antibiotics for a total of 14 days, per the AUA.
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