Monday, January 30, 2023

Prognosis Of Bladder Cancer In Males

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Bladder Cancer Survival By Age

Bladder Cancer – Overview (types, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment)

Five-year survival for bladder cancer is generally higher in younger men and women and decreases with increasing age. Five-year net survival in men ranges from 73% in 15-49 year-olds to 43% in 80-99 year-olds for patients diagnosed with bladder cancer in England during 2009-2013. In women, five-year survival ranges from 57% in 50-59 year-olds to 31% in 80-99 year-olds.

Bladder Cancer , Five-Year Net Survival by Age, England, 2009-2013

Possible Causes Of Bladder Cancer: Smoking

Smoking is the greatest known risk factor for bladder cancer smokers are four times more likely to get bladder cancer than nonsmokers. Harmful chemicals from cigarette smoke enter the bloodstream in the lungs and are ultimately filtered by the kidneys into the urine. This leads to a concentration of harmful chemicals inside the bladder. Experts believe that smoking causes about half of all bladder cancers in men and women.

Prognosis And Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

When someone is diagnosed with bladder cancer, their doctor will give them a prognosis. A prognosis is the doctors opinion of how likely the cancer will spread and the chances of getting better. A prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the persons age and general health.

Bladder cancer can usually be effectively treated if it is found before it spreads outside the bladder.

If you have bladder cancer, your doctor will talk to you about your individual situation when working out your prognosis. Every persons experience is different, and there is support available to you.

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Treating Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

These cancers have reached the pelvic or abdominal wall , may have spread to nearby lymph nodes , and/or have spread to distant parts of the body . Stage IV cancers are very hard to get rid of completely.

Chemotherapy is usually the first treatment if the cancer has not spread to distant parts of the body . The tumor is then rechecked. If it appears to be gone, chemo with or without radiation or cystectomy are options. If there are still signs of cancer in the bladder, chemo with or without radiation, changing to another kind of chemo, trying an immunotherapy drug, or cystectomy may be recommended.

Chemo is typically the first treatment when bladder cancer has spread to distant parts of the body . After this treatment the cancer is rechecked. If it looks like it’s gone, a boost of radiation to the bladder may be given or cystectomy might be done. If there are still signs of cancer, options might include chemo, radiation, both at the same time, or immunotherapy.

In most cases surgery cant remove all of the cancer, so treatment is usually aimed at slowing the cancers growth and spread to help people live longer and feel better. If surgery is a treatment option, it’s important to understand the goal of the operation whether it’s to try to cure the cancer, to help a person live longer, or to help prevent or relieve symptoms from the cancer.

Because treatment is unlikely to cure these cancers, many experts recommend taking part in a clinical trial.

Permission To Use This Summary

Diagnosis of Bladder Carcinoma

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PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Bladder Cancer Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated < MM/DD/YYYY> . Available at: . Accessed < MM/DD/YYYY> .

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N Categories For Bladder Cancer

The N category describes spread only to the lymph nodes near the bladder and those along the blood vessel called the common iliac artery. These lymph nodes are called regional lymph nodes. Any other lymph nodes are considered distant lymph nodes. Spread to distant nodes is considered metastasis . Surgery is usually needed to find cancer spread to lymph nodes, since this is seldom seen on imaging tests.

The N categories are described in the table above, except for:

NX: Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed due to lack of information.

N0: There’s no regional lymph node spread.

Bladder Cancer Clinical Trials

What about Clinical Trials?

You may hear about clinical trials for your bladder cancer. Clinical trials are research studies that test if a new treatment or procedure is safe and effective.

Through clinical trials, doctors find new ways to improve treatments and the quality of life for people with disease. Trials are available for all stages of cancer. The results of a clinical trial can make a major difference to patients and their families. Please visit our clinical trials research webpage to learn more.

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What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor

Bladder cancer is relatively rare, so you may not know as much as youd like about the condition. Here are some questions that may be helpful:

  • What stage of bladder cancer do I have?
  • What are possible treatments?
  • What are treatment side effects?
  • Will I need surgery?
  • How will surgery affect my daily life?
  • How often does bladder cancer come back?
  • How do you treat recurrent bladder cancer?
  • Are there any cutting-edge clinical trials available?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

If you have bladder cancer, it may help to know about half of all people with the condition receive treatment when their tumors are limited to the inner layer of their bladder wall. For them, surgery to remove tumors means theyre cancer-free. But bladder cancer often comes back . If youre worried about recurring cancer, talk to your healthcare provider. Theyre your best resource for information on risk factors that increase the chance youll have another bout of bladder cancer. Theyll help you stay vigilant about symptoms that may be signs of recurring bladder cancer and be there for you if you need more bladder cancer treatment.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 08/26/2022.

References

Treating Stage Iii Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer: Basics of Diagnosis, Workup, Pathology, and Treatment

These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs and/or lymph nodes . They have not spread to distant parts of the body.

Transurethral resection is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is then the standard treatment.Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers.

Chemotherapy before surgery can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier. Chemo can also kill any cancer cells that could already have spread to other areas of the body and help people live longer. It can be especially useful for T4 tumors, which have spread outside the bladder. When chemo is given first, surgery to remove the bladder is delayed. The delay is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the cancer, but it can be harmful if it continues to grow during chemo. Sometimes the chemo shrinks the tumor enough that intravesical therapy or chemo with radiation is possible instead of surgery.

Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far its not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.

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What Are The Survival Rates For Bladder Cancer

If the cancer is just on the inner lining of the bladder , the 5-year survival rate is about 98%.

If the cancer is growing just beyond the inner lining into the bladder wall, but is still just in the bladder , the 5-year survival rate is about 88%.

Those with bladder cancer that’s spread into the muscular wall of the bladder, but not outside the bladder, or to nearby lymph nodes or organs have a 5-year survival rate of about 63%.

If the cancer has spread through the bladder muscle into the layer of tissue around the bladder and maybe to nearby organs , but has not spread to lymph nodes or other organs , the 5-year survival rate is about 46%.

When bladder cancer has moved beyond the bladder to the pelvic or abdominal wall, to lymph nodes, or to distant parts of the body , the 5-year survival rate is about 15%.

What Is A 5

A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of bladder cancer to people in the overall population. For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 90%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 90% as likely as people who dont have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.

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Other Immunotherapies For Bladder Cancer

Researchers are testing other potential immunotherapy drugs to see how well they work on their own and combined with other treatments.

Theyâre also testing combinations of immunotherapies. Early results showed that nivolumab combined with another drug, ipilimumab, worked in 26% to 38% of people who took them.

Studies are also looking at atezolizumab in combination with another checkpoint inhibitor called MTIG7192A.

What Is Stage 4 Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer treatment, symptoms and diagnostic services

Being diagnosed with bladder cancer can be overwhelming, especially if its stage 4.

Stage 4 bladder cancer is the most advanced stage and carries the worst prognosis. Many cancer treatments will be both difficult and challenging.

However, treatment can reduce or even eliminate your symptoms and help you live a longer, more comfortable life.

Its important to consider the pros and cons of treating stage 4 bladder cancer because treatments come with side effects and risks.

Symptoms of bladder cancer can include:

  • blood or blood clots in your urine
  • pain or burning during urination
  • frequent urination
  • needing to urinate at night
  • needing to urinate but not being able to
  • lower back pain on one side of the body

These symptoms commonly lead to a diagnosis, but they arent unique to stage 4 bladder cancer.

Stage 4 bladder cancer is also called metastatic bladder cancer. This means the cancer has spread outside of the bladder into other parts of the body.

People with metastatic cancer may experience symptoms relating to where the cancer has spread. For example, if a persons bladder cancer has spread to their lungs, they may experience chest pain or increased coughing.

Metastatic bladder cancer is difficult to cure because it has already traveled to other parts of the body. The later youre diagnosed and the farther the cancer has traveled, the less chance that your cancer will be cured.

The 5-year survival rate is the rate of surviving for 5 years after a cancer diagnosis.

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What Are The Stages Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .

The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.

Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:

  • In Stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
  • In Stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
  • In Stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.

A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is known as TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:

  • Invasive bladder tumors can range from T2 all the way to T4 .
  • Lymph node involvement ranges from N0 to N3 .
  • M0 means that there is no metastasis outside of the pelvis. M1 means that it has metastasized outside of the pelvis.

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What Causes Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer occurs when cells within the lining of the bladder wall begin to grow in a disordered, uncontrolled way.

Exactly what prompts this disordered growth is not fully known. However, several factors associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer have been identified, including:

  • Age – most people diagnosed with bladder cancer are older than 55 years.
  • Sex – compared to women, men are 4 times more likely to develop bladder cancer.
  • Smoking – smoking is associated with around half of all bladder cancers in men and women.
  • Race – in the United States, White Americans have the highest rate of bladder cancer.
  • Previous bladder cancer – people who have had bladder cancer may have a recurrence.
  • Workplace exposures – certain chemicals in some workplaces may contribute to higher rates of bladder cancer in workers. For example, painters, hairdressers, and truck drivers are at increased risk.
  • Arsenic in drinking water.
  • Certain types of medication.

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Bladder Reconstructions And Stomas

If you have had your bladder removed, the way you pass urine will change. There are several options that your treatment team will talk to you about:

  • Urostomy is where doctors create a new hole in your abdomen called a stoma. Urine drains from the stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.
  • Neobladder is where a new bladder made from your small bowel forms a pouch inside your body to store urine. You will pass urine by squeezing your abdominal muscles. You will also pass a small tube into the neobladder each day to help drain the urine.
  • Continent urinary diversion is a pouch made from your small bowel inside your body to store urine. The urine empties through a hole called a stoma to the outside of your abdomen into a special bag.

A bladder reconstruction is a big change in your life. You can speak with a continence or stomal therapy nurse for help, support and information. You can also call Cancer Council . You may be able to speak with a trained Cancer Council volunteer who has had cancer for tips and support.

If you find it difficult to adjust after your bladder reconstruction, it may help to be referred to a psychologist or counsellor.

Note: If you have a stoma, you can join a stoma association for support and free supplies. For more information about stoma associations, visit the Australian Council of Stoma Associations.

Treatment For Bladder Cancer In Raleigh And Wake Forest

Bladder Cancer Tests, Diagnosis and Recurrence

If you or someone you love has bladder cancer, know that a full recovery is possible. Modern medicine and new treatments have made surviving bladder cancer the new norm. Make sure to research these treatments and think about which one is right for you. Then, talk to your doctor about your plan to beat this cancer and discuss your options. Taking care of your body is essential, so make sure to take the time you need to heal.

If you or someone you love has bladder cancer, contact us today. Our highly experienced oncology team can help you understand your treatment options.

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Treatment Of Stage I Bladder Cancer

For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of stage I bladder cancer may include the following:

  • Radical cystectomy.
  • A clinical trial of a new treatment.
  • Use our clinical trial search to find NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are accepting patients. You can search for trials based on the type of cancer, the age of the patient, and where the trials are being done. General information about clinical trials is also available.

    Types Of Bladder Cancer

    Once diagnosed, bladder cancer can be classified by how far it has spread.

    If the cancerous cells are contained inside the lining of the bladder, doctors describe it as non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer . This is the most common type of bladder cancer.

    When the cancerous cells spread beyond the lining, into the surrounding bladder muscle, it’s referred to as muscle-invasive bladder cancer . This is less common, but has a higher chance of spreading to other parts of the body.

    If bladder cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it’s known as advanced or metastatic bladder cancer.

    Read more about diagnosing bladder cancer.

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    What Factors Govern The Survival Rate And Prognosis Of Bladder Cancer In An Individual Case

    Survival rates in case of an individual depend on various factors, including:

    • The type of cancer
    • Stage of the bladder cancer at the time of diagnosis
    • Whether the cancer has grown to other organs or parts of the body. If the tumor has not yet spread outside the bladder, the 5-year survival rate is quite good .
    • If the cancer has spread through the bladder to the surrounding tissue or to nearby lymph nodes or organs, the 5-year survival rate is about 30%.
    • If the cancer has spread to distant organs of the body, the 5-year survival rate is much less about 5%.
    • The treatment that you are given by your healthcare provider. Not everyone is given the same treatment. Treatment depends on several factors such as your overall condition, stage, other diseases, age etc.
    • Sex: Survival for women is generally found lower according to statistics.
    • Age: According to estimates, the five-year survival rate for bladder cancer has been found higher in people and decreases as the age increases.

    It is important to know that these survival rates are only based on certain estimates. They are not accurate numbers and cant predict what will happen in your case. In order to understand about your specific case as an individual, you should talk to your doctor as he understands your condition and the treatment you are going through to inform you about the life expectancy.

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