When Do You Have It
Your treatment plan depends on your risk of the bladder cancer spreading or coming back after treatment. Your doctor will tell you whether you have:
- low risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer
- intermediate risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer
- high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer
You usually have BCG into the bladder if you have:
- a high risk of non muscle invasive bladder cancer coming back or spreading into the deeper layers of your bladder
You have a course of BCG after surgery to remove the bladder tumours .
You usually have BCG into the bladder once a week for 6 weeks. This is called the induction course.
You may then have BCG into the bladder every few weeks or months for the next 1 to 3 years. This will depend on your risk of developing invasive bladder cancer. This is called maintenance BCG therapy.
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What Is The Prognosis/survival Rate For Kidney Cancer
Survival in kidney cancer for those patients diagnosed where the cancer is localised to the kidney is high with over 80% of patients surviving for five years or more from diagnosis.Unfortunately, for those who are diagnosed when the kidney cancer has already spread to other parts of the body, the prognosis is less favourable.
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Treating Stage 0 Bladder Cancer
Stage 0 bladder cancer includes non-invasive papillary carcinoma and flat non-invasive carcinoma . In either case, the cancer is only in the inner lining layer of the bladder. It has not invaded the bladder wall.
This early stage of bladder cancer is most often treated with transurethral resection with fulguration followed by intravesical therapy within 24 hours.
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Does Smoking Cause Bladder Cancer
Tobacco use is the biggest risk factor for developing bladder cancer. This risk increases with the amount and length of time smoking. Cancer-causing chemicals inhaled from burning tobacco enter the bloodstream. The body filters them from the blood through the kidneys and transfers them to the bladder to be removed from the body.
What Is The Evidence That Personal Hair Dye Use Is Associated With Risk Of Leukemia
Studies of the association between personal hair dye use and the risk of leukemia have had conflicting results. For example, one case-control study examined hair dye use among 769 patients with adult acute leukemia and 623 people without leukemia in the United States and Canada . It found that the risks of acute leukemia were higher among users of earlier formulations of both permanent and nonpermanent dyes than among those who had not used dyes, although the increases were not statistically significant. No risk increases were seen among users of more recent dye formulations. Risk was greatest among those who had used permanent dyes for longer durations .
However, a case-control study in Italy found no association between use of permanent hair dye overall and risk of leukemia, although users of black permanent dyes, but not of other color dyes, did have an increased risk. This study, however, did not collect information on the timing or frequency of hair dye use .
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Talk To Your Doctor If Youre Experiencing Urgency To Urinate
Let your healthcare provider know if you experience the urgent need to urinate even if your bladder is not full. Although it usually not a symptom of bladder cancer, it is important to find out the underlying cause. It is especially important to let your healthcare provider know if you experience this symptom and you have noticed blood in your urine. If the symptom is being caused by bladder cancer, diagnosing it at an early stage tends to make treatment more effective.
How Bladder Cancer Spreads
Bladder cancer usually begins in the cells of the bladder lining. In some cases, it may spread into surrounding bladder muscle. If the cancer penetrates this muscle, it can spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymphatic system.
If bladder cancer spreads to other parts of the body, such as other organs, it’s known as metastatic bladder cancer.
Page last reviewed: 01 July 2021 Next review due: 01 July 2024
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Causes Of Bladder Cancer: What Are The Most Common Ones
byAnna Maria RichardsFebruary 15, 2022, 3:00 pm
The causes of most bladder cancers today remain a mystery to scientists and other researchers. Although they have identified certain risk factors, researchers cannot pinpoint an underlying reason for this cancers prevalence. However, they have come to a better understanding of how bladder cells move from being normal to cancerous.
Chronic Bladder Problems And Urinary Tract Infections
Long-term bladder irritation and inflammation, such as that caused by infections and bladder or kidney stones, make it more likely for someone to develop bladder cancer. People with spinal cord injuries are at risk of both chronic infections and kidney stones. A parasitic infection called schistosomiasis increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. This infection is rare in the United States but common in the Middle East.
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Toxins In Urine Can Damage The Bladder Lining
Researchers think the reason is that many types of harmful substances are filtered out of the blood and removed from the body through urine. When people are exposed to large amounts of toxins on a regular basis at home or work, then those toxins can frequently be present in the urine. Toxins that are removed from the body in urine can damage the lining of the bladder over time, which increases the risk of bladder cancer.
Does Microscopic Blood In Urine Mean Cancer
Asked by: Braulio Veum
Blood in the urine doesn’t always mean you have bladder cancer. More often it’s caused by other things like an infection, benign tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases. Still, it’s important to have it checked by a doctor so the cause can be found.
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Treatment For Bladder Cancer
Treatment for bladder cancer depends on how quickly the cancer is growing. Treatment is different for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
You might feel confused or unsure about your treatment options and decisions. Its okay to ask your treatment team to explain the information to you more than once. Its often okay to take some time to think about your decisions.
When deciding on treatment for bladder cancer, you may want to discuss your options with a urologist, radiation oncologist and medical oncologist. Ask your GP for referrals.
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What Are The Chances Of Dying From Bladder Cancer
· Aminobiphenyl, the chemical that exist in the cigarette compound which contribute highly as one of defining aspect on gaining bladder cancer. Benzidine, the common industrial chemicals that exist in the long HM List Of Chemicals Banned In Production as well as a very restricted substance in various areas such as paint, rubber, agriculture, dye production, and the
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How Smoking May Increase Your Risk
Chemicals in the smoke get into the bloodstream. They are then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and end up in the urine. When the urine is stored in the bladder, these chemicals are in contact with the bladder lining.
Chemicals called arylamines are known to cause bladder cancer. Arylamines in cigarette smoke may be the cause of the increased risk.
Treating Stage Iii Bladder Cancer
These cancers have reached the outside of the bladder and might have grown into nearby tissues or organs and/or lymph nodes . They have not spread to distant parts of the body.
Transurethral resection is often done first to find out how far the cancer has grown into the bladder wall. Chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is then the standard treatment.Partial cystectomy is rarely an option for stage III cancers.
Chemotherapy before surgery can shrink the tumor, which may make surgery easier. Chemo can also kill any cancer cells that could already have spread to other areas of the body and help people live longer. It can be especially useful for T4 tumors, which have spread outside the bladder. When chemo is given first, surgery to remove the bladder is delayed. The delay is not a problem if the chemo shrinks the cancer, but it can be harmful if it continues to grow during chemo. Sometimes the chemo shrinks the tumor enough that intravesical therapy or chemo with radiation is possible instead of surgery.
Some patients get chemo after surgery to kill any cancer cells left after surgery that are too small to see. Chemo given after cystectomy may help patients stay cancer-free longer, but so far its not clear if it helps them live longer. If cancer is found in nearby lymph nodes, radiation may be needed after surgery. Another option is chemo, but only if it wasn’t given before surgery.
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How Is Bladder Cancer Treated In Men
Bladder cancer may be treated by a single method or a combination of methods, depending on the type of cancer present and the extent to which it has progressed. Therefore, understanding the type of bladder cancer is an important consideration in selecting an appropriate treatment. Bladder cancer may be classified according to where it is located relative to the bladder:
|Cancer is confined to the surface layer of the bladder||Cancer has not spread outside of the bladder||Cancer has spread to nearby structures or lymph nodes||Cancer has spread to different parts of the body, such as the bones, lungs, liver|
Bladder cancer is also commonly described based on its location within the bladder wall: cancer that remains in the superficial layers of the bladder wall is termed non-muscle-invasive, whereas cancer that has spread into the muscle layer deeper within the bladder wall is termed muscle-invasive.
The treatments for bladder cancer can depend on whether it has spread to the muscle wall and might include the therapeutic options as summarized below: ,
|Potential treatment option|
a A treatment that uses the bodys immune system to fight disease. b Chemotherapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is usually delivered directly into the bladder.
Risk Factors For Bladder Cancer
Certain things may raise your chances of developing bladder cancer. These are called risk factors. Its important to know the risk factors so you can avoid them if possible. On the other hand, some people may have several risk factors, but never develop this cancer.
Following are 13 risk factors for bladder cancer.
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What Are The Risk Factors For Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer is a fairly common cancer in adults. The known risk factors include:
Family history of kidney cancer
Some of these risk factors, such as smoking, are controllable. Others are not, and screening should be undertaken as necessary. If you smoke, even if you have done so for many years, quitting will improve your health and reduce your risk of kidney cancer and other preventable conditions.
Genetic Factors In Pathogenesis
Divergent, yet interconnected and overlapping, molecular pathways are likely responsible for the development of noninvasive and invasive bladder tumors. Somatic mutations in fibroblast growth receptor3 and tumor protein p53 in tumor cells appear to be important early molecular events in the noninvasive and invasive pathways, respectively.
FGFR-3, Ras, and PIK3CA mutations occur with high frequency in noninvasive tumors, leading to upregulation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase . Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9 is among the most frequent genetic alterations in bladder tumors and is considered an early event.
Large numbers of genomic changes have been detected using karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis in urothelial carcinoma. Numerically common are losses of 2q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 18q, and Y. Gains of 1q, 5p, 8q, and 17q are frequently present, and high-level amplifications can be found however, the target genes in the regions of amplifications have not been conclusively identified.
Alterations in the TP53 gene are noted in approximately 60% of invasive bladder cancers. Progression-free survival is significantly shorter in patients with TP53 mutations and is an independent predictor of death among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
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How Do Healthcare Providers Diagnose Bladder Cancer
Healthcare providers do a series of tests to diagnose bladder cancer, including:
- Urinalysis: Providers use a variety of tests to analyze your pee. In this case, they may do urinalysis to rule out infection.
- Cytology: Providers examine cells under a microscope for signs of cancer.
- Cystoscopy: This is the primary test to identify and diagnose bladder cancer. For this test, providers use a pencil-sized lighted tube called a cystoscope to view the inside of your bladder and urethra. They may use a fluorescent dye and a special blue light that makes it easier to see cancer in your bladder. Providers may also take tissue samples while doing cystoscopies.
If urinalysis, cytology and cystoscopy results show you have bladder cancer, healthcare providers then do tests to learn more about the cancer, including:
Healthcare providers then use what they learn about the cancer to stage the disease. Staging cancer helps providers plan treatment and develop a potential prognosis or expected outcome.
Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .
The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of your bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but hasnt invaded the main muscle wall of your bladder.
Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:
A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:
Is Bladder Cancer Curable
Roughly 80 per cent of bladder cancer cases are presented or diagnosed at an early stage, and the rate of cure is anywhere from 90 to 95 per cent of these cases where the cancer has been diagnosed at an early stage. The cure rate is extremely high.
The cure for bladder cancer is usually associated with a minimally invasive procedure, which we perform using an endoscopic technique. Occasionally, we need to use some form of immunotherapy that we install into the bladder to reduce the risk of progression or recurrence.
Mr Ahmed Ali is a highly esteemed consultant urological surgeon who is an expert when it comes to treating bladder cancer. If you are worried about potential symptoms of bladder cancer, dont hesitate to book a consultation with Mr Ali today via his Top Doctors profile.
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How Common Is Bladder Cancer In Men
Globally the risk of bladder cancer varies between regions and is significantly higher in most developed countries compared with other regions, with the highest rates occurring in North America and Europe.2
In the United States bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men. In 2020 it is estimated that bladder cancer will be diagnosed in 62,100 US men and cause death in 13,050 US men3. Although the rate of bladder cancer in Australian and New Zealand men is approximately half that of North American men, it is still 4-fold higher than the rate in Australian/ NZ women. During 2018, 2,764 Australian/ NZ men were diagnosed with bladder cancer and 1,217 died from the disease.2
Cancer May Spread From Where It Began To Other Parts Of The Body
When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began and travel through the lymph system or blood.
- Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
- Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if bladder cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually bladder cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bladder cancer, not bone cancer.
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Whats Usually The First Symptom Of Bladder Cancer
Blood in your pee is the most common bladder cancer symptom. That said, simply having blood in your pee isnt a sure sign of bladder cancer. Other conditions cause this issue, too. But you should contact a healthcare provider whenever you spot blood in your pee. Other bladder cancer symptoms include:
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Inherited Mutations In Genes
Parents pass DNA down to their children. When doing so, they may also pass down gene mutations that put a person more at risk of developing bladder cancer. However, simply because a family member has bladder cancer doesnt mean a person will get it. Researchers dont believe inherited gene mutations cause more forms of bladder cancer today.
Certain individuals appear to have a reduced ability to break down and remove certain cancer-causing chemicals from their bodies, and this inability could be passed down through the generations. For example, they might find they are more susceptible to cancer-causing agents, including industrial chemicals and smoke from tobacco. Researchers now have tests that will help them identify those more at risk of certain cancers, but they often fail to perform these tests. They believe people know industrial chemicals and tobacco smoke do harm to the body, so they avoid them.
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