Tuesday, April 16, 2024

Possible Causes Of Bladder Cancer

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Talk To Your Doctor If You’re Experiencing Urgency To Urinate

What Causes Bladder Cancer And What Treatments Are Available?

Let your healthcare provider know if you experience the urgent need to urinate even if your bladder is not full. Although it usually not a symptom of bladder cancer, it is important to find out the underlying cause. It is especially important to let your healthcare provider know if you experience this symptom and you have noticed blood in your urine. If the symptom is being caused by bladder cancer, diagnosing it at an early stage tends to make treatment more effective.

How Smoking May Increase Your Risk

Chemicals in the smoke get into the bloodstream. They are then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and end up in the urine. When the urine is stored in the bladder, these chemicals are in contact with the bladder lining.

Chemicals called arylamines are known to cause bladder cancer. Arylamines in cigarette smoke may be the cause of the increased risk.

Genetic Mutations Passed Down In Families

Some genetic mutations are inherited, meaning they are passed down through families from parents to children on the DNA in their cells. There are rare inherited genetic mutations that can increase a persons risk of bladder cancer, such as Cowden disease and Lynch syndrome. There are likely to be other genetic mutations linked to bladder cancer in the future as well because people are twice as likely to be diagnosed with bladder cancer if they have a close family member who has it.

Also Check: My Journey With Bladder Cancer

Bladder Cancer Treatment In Men Vs Women

As with most cancers, there are more treatment options for bladder cancer when it is detected early. Most people require a combination of therapies to treat bladder cancer successfully.

At MSK, we have the benefit of a multidisciplinary team of experts who are highly specialized in urology, radiation oncology, medical oncology, radiology, and pathology, Dr. Feld says. We all work very closely together to deliver the highest quality care to our patients.

Men and women with very early-stage bladder cancer can be cured with a combination of surgery and treatments delivered directly into the bladder, known as intravesical therapy.

For men and women with disease that is more advanced but still confined to the bladder, a common treatment is removal of the bladder in a surgical procedure known as a radical cystectomy. The urologic surgeon will likely also remove lymph nodes and/or some of the organs near the bladder. This may include the prostate in men and the uterus and ovaries in women.

Its important to know that expert bladder cancer care means not only lifesaving treatments but also preserving quality of life. A recent study showed that people who had their bladder removed at MSK recover well from the surgery and have a good quality of life.

Assessment Includes A Physical Exam Lab Tests And Questions About Diet And Bowel Movements

BLADDER CANCER  Africa Cancer Hub

Because diarrhea can be life-threatening, it is important to find out the cause so treatment can begin as soon as possible. The doctor may ask the following questions to help plan treatment:

  • How often have you had bowel movements in the past 24 hours?
  • When was your last bowel movement? What was it like ? Was there any blood?
  • Was there any blood in your stool or any rectal bleeding?
  • Have you been dizzy, very drowsy, or had any cramps, pain, nausea, vomiting, or fever?
  • What have you eaten? What and how much have you had to drink in the past 24 hours?
  • Have you lost weight recently? How much?
  • How often have you urinated in the past 24 hours?
  • What medicines are you taking? How much and how often?
  • Have you traveled recently?

Tests and procedures may include the following:

  • Electrolyte panel: A blood test that measures the levels of electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, and chloride.
  • Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
  • Abdominal x-ray: An x-ray of the organs inside the abdomen. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body. Abdominal x-rays may also be done to look for a bowel obstruction or other problems.
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    What Are The Common Causes Of Haematuria

    Blood in the urine is often not always a sign of a significant underlying problem. Studies have shown that between five and 15 percent of normal individuals can have some degree of haematuria. However, haematuria can be a sign of a serious underlying problem requiring treatment. These include urinary tract infection, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, urinary stone disease and prostate cancer.

    What Is Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Muscle invasive bladder cancer is a cancer that spreads into the detrusor muscle of the bladder. The detrusor muscle is the thick muscle deep in the bladder wall. This cancer is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.

    In the U.S., bladder cancer is the third most common cancer in men. Each year, there are more than 83,000 new cases diagnosed in men and women. About 25% of bladder cancers are MIBC. Bladder cancer is more common as a person grows older. It is found most often in the age group of 75-84. Caucasians are more likely to get bladder cancer than any other ethnicity. But there are more African-Americans who do not survive the disease.

    What is Cancer?

    Cancer is when your body cells grow out of control. When this happens, the body cannot work the way it should. Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. Not all lumps are cancers. Cancerous lumps are sometimes called malignant tumors.

    What is Bladder Cancer?

    When cells of the bladder grow abnormally, they can become bladder cancer. A person with bladder cancer will have one or more tumors in his/her bladder.

    How Does Bladder Cancer Develop and Spread?

    The bladder wall has many layers, made up of different types of cells. Most bladder cancers start in the urothelium or transitional epithelium. This is the inside lining of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is cancer that forms in the cells of the urothelium.

    Also Check: How Long To Get Rid Of Bladder Infection

    What Puts Me At Risk For Bladder Cancer

    A risk factor is something that increases your chance of developing a disease. Some factors that increase the risk of bladder cancer include:

    Smoking

    While the exact causes of bladder cancer are unknown, smoking is known to be a leading risk factor. Smokers are approximately four times more likely to get bladder cancer than non-smokers. Chemicals in tobacco are carried from the lungs to the bloodstream, then filtered by the kidneys into the urine. This puts harmful chemicals in the bladder, damaging cells. This damage could lead to cancer.

    Chemical exposure

    Certain jobs that expose you to cancer-causing chemicals may increase your risk for bladder cancer. If you work with dyes, rubber, textiles, paints, or leather, make sure you follow all safety protocols to reduce contact with chemicals.

    If you work in any of the following industries, you are more likely to develop bladder cancer:

    • Rubber, chemical, textile, or leather industries

    A history of this condition raises your risk.

    Family history

    If you have a family history of bladder cancer, you might be at an increased risk for it. This could be due to genetics or environmental factors like being exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Gender

    Bladder cancer affects more men than women. Men are about three times more likely to get bladder cancer at some point in their life.

    Bladder cancer tends to occur in older people. Approximately 9 out of 10 people with bladder cancer are 55 or older .

    Race and ethnicity

    Is Bowel Cancer Hereditary

    What are the most common causes of bladder cancer? – Online interview

    If you develop bowel cancer before the age of 50, there is a chance you have Lynch syndrome. The medical name for Lynch syndrome is hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer . It is thought this is a result of several potential inherited gene mutations. Alternatively, if there are a cluster of cases of bowel cancer in a family if could be a condition called familial adenomatous polyposis .

    However, hereditary bowel cancers are relatively uncommon. The NHS note that these two inherited conditions are considered rare.

    Also Check: Bladder Infection Without Painful Urination

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    Metastatic And Recurrent Cancers

    Metastases require chemotherapy, generally cisplatin based, which is frequently effective but rarely curative unless metastases are confined to lymph nodes. This can be followed by maintenance immunotherapy with avelumab. Combination chemotherapy may prolong life in patients with metastatic disease. For patients who are cisplatin ineligible or have progressed after receiving cisplatin-based regimens, newer immunotherapies using PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are available, such as pembrolizumab and atezolizumab. The first targeted therapy, erdafitinib, is now available for use in patients with FGFR3 and FGFR2 mutations who have failed treatment with chemotherapy.

    Treatment of recurrent cancer depends on clinical stage and site of recurrence and previous treatment. Recurrence after transurethral resection of superficial tumors is usually treated with a 2nd resection or fulguration. Early cystectomy is recommended for recurrent high-grade superficial bladder cancers.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer In Men

    Blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer and often the first sign that is noticed. Depending on the quantity of blood present, urine may appear red, pink, or brownish in color. In the early stages of bladder cancer there is usually minimal or no associated pain. Notably, there may be long periods of clear urine in between episodes of blood.

    Changes in urinary habits and symptoms of urinary irritation may also be experienced. These symptoms may include increased frequency and/or urgency of urination, pain or a burning sensation during urination, or difficulty passing urine.

    If bladder cancer has grown in size or spread to other areas of the body the affected individual may experience a range of symptoms. Depending on how the cancer has spread, these symptoms could include lower back pain on one side of the body, appetite and/or weight loss, general weakness, swollen feet, or bone pain.

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    Pain Where Bladder Is Located More Causes

    Bladder pain can be due to some severe conditions that could become deadly. Living with bladder disease is life-changing as you require devices to help you cope.

    Having a desire to urinate and being unable to do so is very irritating and uncomfortable. It is vital to seek help before such conditions worsen and become permanent.

    There are some other causes of pain where bladder is located for you to see, so keep reading.

    Why Is Bladder Cancer More Common In Males Than Females

    Common Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

    The reasons for the large difference in bladder cancer rate between men and women are not fully understood. Several factors may play a role, both environmental and biological.

    • Environmental: As previously mentioned, a higher rate of tobacco smoking in men is thought to be a major contributor to their higher risk of bladder cancer.5 Men are also traditionally more likely to be employed in occupations associated with the production of paint, metal, petroleum products, and rubber, where they may be exposed to known carcinogens. Dietary factors may also play a part for example, males may have a tendency for greater consumption of processed meats, which has been linked to a higher risk of bladder cancer in several studies.
    • Biological: After allowing for environmental factors such as smoking and occupational exposures, there is still a higher rate of bladder cancer in men compared with women.6 Recent research suggests that an X chromosome-linked gene may be significant. Associated with suppression of the tumor, this gene is more highly expressed in females compared with males . Differences between males and females in sex hormones and sex hormone receptors have also been implicated.6,7

    Recommended Reading: Ways To Strengthen Your Bladder

    Is Bladder Cancer A Fatal Illness

    Left untreated, bladder cancer may spread to other parts of your body. Cancer thats metastasized, or spread, may affect how long youll live with bladder cancer. Like many types of cancer, early detection and treatment increase the chance of living longer with bladder cancer. According to the National Cancer Institute, 96% of people who received treatment for early-stage cancer were alive five years after diagnosis. Overall, 77% of people with bladder cancer were alive five years after diagnosis.

    Can You Prevent Bladder Cancer

    These three simple lifestyle changes may cut your risk of bladder cancer:

    • If you smoke, stop. Doctors believe tobacco products cause about half of all bladder cancer cases.
    • Drink lots of fluids. When you pee, you get rid of harmful chemicals that build up in your bladder. So drink up — especially water. It may lower your cancer risk.
    • Eat more fruits and veggies. Studies show that eating lots of fruits and green, leafy vegetables lowers your risk for many types of cancer. It may help cut your risk for bladder cancer, too.

    Your risk for bladder cancer can also be increased by certain workplace chemicals, arsenic, aniline , certain diabetes medicines, and some herbal supplements. Follow all workplace safety rules, and ask your doctor about any specific risk factors you may have.

    Recommended Reading: What To Do For A Leaking Bladder

    Toxins In Urine Can Damage The Bladder Lining

    Researchers think the reason is that many types of harmful substances are filtered out of the blood and removed from the body through urine. When people are exposed to large amounts of toxins on a regular basis at home or work, then those toxins can frequently be present in the urine. Toxins that are removed from the body in urine can damage the lining of the bladder over time, which increases the risk of bladder cancer.

    What Causes Bladder Cancer In Men

    Bladder Cancer: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

    Bladder cancer occurs when the cells making up the bladder begin to grow in an uncontrolled way. This disordered growth is caused by mutations in genes that control cell replication, repair, and programmed death. When the abnormal cells cluster a tumor is formed, which can spread over time from the surface layer of the bladder, to the bladder muscle and wall, and then to other sites in the body.

    The gene mutations associated with bladder cancer usually develop during a persons life rather than being present at birth its estimated that less than 10% of bladder cancers arise from inherited genes.4 Carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and certain industrial chemicals are the major known causes of genetic mutations leading to bladder cancer, therefore higher rates of smoking and occupational exposure to chemicals are likely to partly account for the higher rate of bladder cancer in men. Other factors potentially associated with the increased bladder cancer risk in men are discussed below.

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    Family History Of Bladder Cancer

    You may be twice as likely to develop bladder cancer if you have a close relative who has had the disease. A close relative includes a parent, sibling, or child. This possibility may be related to genetic factors that make it harder for the body to remove dangerous chemicals after exposure. In addition, an inherited disease linked to colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome also increases the risk of bladder cancer.

    If You Have Any Concerns About Bladder Cancer Talk To Your Doctor About Cxbladder

    Cxbladder is a cutting-edge genomic urine test that quickly and accurately detects or rules out bladder cancer. The test combines clinical risk factor markers with genetic information, measuring five biomarker genes to detect the presence or absence of bladder cancer in hematuria patients and those being monitored for recurrence.

    Cxbladder comes as a suite of tests, each optimised for a different point in the patient journey:

    • Cxbladder Triage: Incorporates known bladder cancer risk factors to help quickly rule out the disease.
    • Cxbladder Detect: Designed to work alongside other tests to improve overall detection accuracy.
    • Cxbladder Monitor: A non-invasive surveillance alternative that can reduce the need for frequent cystoscopies.

    Cxbladder gives you peace of mind and will help your physician make informed treatment decisions.

    Speak to your doctor or urologist to learn more about Cxbladder and which test might be right for you. You can also contact our Customer Service Team directly. Contact us for more information

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    Treatment Options And Prevention For Bladder Cancer

    The best treatment plan for you can be determined by your medical provider. Methods of preventing bladder cancer as well as the prognosis are also described in this section.

    After a likely diagnosis of bladder cancer has been made via urinalysis, visualization of the inside of the bladder with a camera , and imaging, such as CT scan, a variety of further interventions follow.

    What Causes Bladder Cancer

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    Researchers do not know exactly what causes most bladder cancers. But they have found some risk factors and are starting to understand how they cause cells in the bladder to become cancer.

    Certain changes in the DNA inside normal bladder cells can make them grow abnormally and form cancers. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA, but DNA affects more than just how we look.

    Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die:

    • Genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
    • Genes that normally help control cell division, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

    Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different gene changes are usually needed for a cell to become cancer.

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