Actos And Bladder Cancer What Does Bladder Cancer Look Like
Actos was introduced to the U.S. busines in 1999, and is prescribed to treat diabetes mellitus form 2. Recently there have been pertains regarding the link between Actos and bladder cancer. For years, sales of the dose lagged behind those of a competitive diabetes medication called Avandia. This changed in 2007, when research studies been demonstrated that Avandia increased the risk of heart attacks. Actos soon reigned the market with sales in 2010 excess $ 4 billion. Because of a recent revealing by the FDA, nonetheless, the drugs make, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, is very likely to front the thousands of Actos lawsuit 2011 claims.
In June 2011, the FDA questioned a refuge forewarning about the narcotic, admonishing the public that using it for longer than a year could lead to the development of bladder cancer. Like other malignancies, it is feasible to fatal without therapy. Chemotherapy may be necessary if Actos and bladder cancer side effects are not spotcheck early. Below, well explain how the care wreaks, and describe the side effects caused by the drugs.
How Chemotherapy Kills Bladder Cancer Cells
Normally, cadres divide at a relatively uniform speed. Cancer cells, on the other hand, split quickly and erratically. This is the way they spread beyond the original site of the tumor. As they partition, they procreate other diseased cells that also subdivide speedily, letting the disease to proliferate out of control.
Common Side Effects Of Chemotherapy
How Do Doctors Screen For Prostate Cancer
Screening for a disease involves testing for it even if no symptoms or history of the illness are present. Because all men are at risk for prostate cancer, especially older men, getting screened is an important health care step for any man to take. For men not experiencing prostate cancer symptoms, the most common screening method is a prostate-specific antigen blood test.
A PSA is a protein created by cells within the prostate gland. A blood test designed to assess PSA levels measures the concentration of PSA within a patients blood. Although there is no definitive cutoff number, the higher the PSA level in a mans blood, the greater the chances he has prostate cancer.
Typically, men without prostate cancer have a PSA level under 4 nanograms of PSA per milliliter of blood , which means those with PSA test results above 4 ng/mL may require further testing. While the likelihood of a patient having prostate cancer decreases dramatically with a 4 ng/mL result, some doctors may request that those with lower PSA levels get additional testing. When done in tandem with other scans and tests, a PSA blood test can help medical professionals provide a more accurate prostate cancer diagnosis.
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Urine Tests For Tumor Markers
A relatively new type of diagnostic technology for bladder cancer are urine tests for substances called tumor markers.3 It is possible for these tests to detect substances in the urine that may be linked to the presence of bladder cancer cells, but like urine cytology test, they are not perfectly reliable. These new tests include:
- Tests that can detect bladder tumor-associated antigen
- A test that can detect the genetic changes that are common in bladder cancer cells
- A test that can detect substances often found on cancer cells, called mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen
- A test that can detect a protein that is often elevated in patients with bladder cancer
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Transurethral Resection Of A Bladder Tumour
If abnormalities are found in your bladder during a cystoscopy, you should be offered an operation known as TURBT. This is so any abnormal areas of tissue can be removed and tested for cancer .
TURBT is carried out under general anaesthesia.
Sometimes, a sample of the muscle wall of your bladder is also taken to check whether the cancer has spread. This may be a separate operation within 6 weeks of the first biopsy.
You should also be offered a dose of chemotherapy after the operation. This may help to prevent the bladder cancer returning, if the removed cells are found to be cancerous.
See treating bladder cancer for more information about the TURBT procedure.
What Do The Results Mean
Simple types of bladder ultrasounds, called bladder scans, can deliver immediate results. These scans are usually used only to measure the amount of urine in your bladder. A diagnostic bladder ultrasound produces more complicated images about the size, fullness, and lining of the bladder.
A doctor might understand what the ultrasound is showing, but a radiologist will typically interpret the images and write a report for your doctor to review.
The doctor will make an official diagnosis after an ultrasound based on the report from the radiologist. Apart from overactive bladder, a bladder ultrasound may also be able to help diagnose bladder cancer.
After a diagnosis, the doctor can begin treatments or therapies to help your symptoms, such as medications or pelvic floor exercises. Sometimes, more testing may be needed.
If the doctor isnt certain of your diagnosis after a bladder ultrasound, they might order other tests.
Some other tests that can be used to examine the bladder include:
- urine lab testing
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Screening For Bladder Cancer
Early-stage bladder cancer often shows no symptoms, or symptoms that are similar to those of benign conditions such as bladder stones, an enlarged prostate, or urinary tract infection. For this reason it is important to be examined regularly by a physician. If symptoms do appear they should be evaluated promptly so that bladder cancer can be detected in its earliest, most treatable stages.
Doctors may conduct some screening tests during an examination. During a urine cytology the doctor examines urine under a microscope to look for any cancerous or precancerous cells. During another test called a cystoscopy urologists place a cystocope, a flexible instrument consisting of a steerable slender tube with a camera or lens and a light, into the bladder through the urethra. They check the bladder and urethra for signs of cancer, remove any suspicious tissue, and check it under a microscope.
Why Is A Bladder Ultrasound Done
About a quarter of all people in the United States experience some level of incontinence, or the inability to hold urine in the bladder until you purposely release it.
There are many causes of incontinence, and it can be difficult for a doctor to pinpoint a reason for the problem just by asking you questions or examining the outside of your body.
The following symptoms may lead a doctor to order a bladder ultrasound:
- difficulty urinating
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What Is It Like Having An Ultrasound
Ultrasound can be done in a doctors office, clinic, or hospital. Wear comfortable clothes. Depending on the body part to be studied, you might need to change into a hospital gown.
Most often you will lie down on a table. Your position will depend on the body part to be studied. The technologist will put a water-based gel on your skin and move the transducer over the area to be checked. The gel both lubricates the skin and helps conduct the sound waves. The gel feels cool and slippery. If a probe is used, it will be covered with gel and put into the body opening. This can cause pressure or discomfort.
During the test, the technologist or the doctor moves the transducer as its firmly pressed to your skin. You may be asked to hold your breath during the scan. The operator may adjust knobs or dials to increase the depth to which the sound waves are sent. You may feel slight pressure from the transducer.
After the test the gel is wiped off your skin. It does not stain your skin or your clothing.
When To See A Doctor For A Ct Urogram
Your doctor may recommend a CT urogram if you are experiencing signs and symptoms, such as pain in your side or back or blood in your urine , that may be related to a urinary tract disorder. With a computerized tomography urogram, there is a small risk of an allergic reaction if the contrast material is injected.
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How Does Ultrasound Work
Ultrasound, or sonography, uses high frequency sound waves to help diagnose all sorts of medical conditions. As the sound waves hit things like soft tissue, fluid, or bone, the waves are reflected back to the transmitter to create a simple, two-dimensional image.
Unlike X-rays or other imaging tests, ultrasound does not use any form of radiation. This makes this test both safe and noninvasive.
Path To Improved Health
A pelvic ultrasound can be done one of three ways abdominally , vaginally , or rectally . The approach your doctor recommends for your ultrasound depends on the reason for your test and whether you are a man or a woman. A pelvic ultrasound can be used to look at the bladder for both men and women. Your doctor may recommend a pelvic ultrasound of your bladder if you are having difficulty going to the bathroom . It is used on men and women to guide a doctor during a biopsy procedure .
A transabdominal ultrasound is commonly used to monitor the development of a baby in pregnant women at or before 14 weeks in their pregnancy. For this type of ultrasound, the technician will squirt a small amount of warm gel onto your stomach and move the probe or wand back and forth over your stomach. It will check the babys growth, such as height, the length of the babys arms and legs, head size, and more. It will be used to check how far along the mother is in her pregnancy, the babys position in the uterus, the number of babies the mother is carrying, and the amount of amniotic fluid that surrounds the baby. It can be used to look at the babys heart. In some cases, it may be used as a screening method for certain birth defects and developmental abnormalities, such as Down syndrome. A transabdominal ultrasound also can be used to look for tumors in your uterus and other issues related to the female body, whether you are pregnant or not.
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Imaging Techniques To Detect Bladder Cancer
Imaging techniques, which include ultrasound, computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray approaches, provide an important means of assessing the urinary tract, including the kidneys, and play an important role in the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of bladder cancer.
Imaging is used in both an exploratory setting when another test suggests an anomaly, or to help confirm a diagnosis. The use of a specific imaging procedure linked to bladder cancer is dependent on a number of factors including other irregular test results, local access and availability, pre-existing medical conditions, the characteristics of a suspected tumor or unusual growth , and possible side effects of the procedure.
Irregularities in the upper urinary tract are often assessed with imaging given its accuracy in this setting and an inability to access the region via cystoscopy. In contrast, imaging techniques are less useful for diagnosing tumors in the lower urinary tract. Small and flattened bladder tumors may also be difficult to visualize with imaging.
Its important to note that imaging is generally used in combination with other bladder cancer diagnostic tests to reach a diagnosis. Cxbladder, a genomic urine test, for example, can be used with imaging to increase overall detection accuracy, and to rule out bladder cancer in low risk patients without the need for further invasive procedures.Learn more about Cxbladder
Do Ct Pelvic Scans Detect Cancer
While pelvic CT scans can detect a variety of issues, they can be especially useful for detecting cancer. In particular, doctors can use this technology to look for tumors in this part of your body, but they can also use these scans to monitor the growth of tumors, to see how treatments are working, and to guide treatments.
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Urine Culture Testing To Check For Utis
Urine culture testing can be used to check for urinary tract infections.1 The symptoms of bladder cancers and urinary tract infections can be quite similar, so it is important for healthcare providers check for both infection and cancer if either could be the cause. To carry out this test, the urine sample is left in a dish in the laboratory for several days, which allows any bacteria that may be contained in the urine to grow.
Patient Preparation And Equipment
To minimize falsely overstaging BC by the radiologist, which may be related to reactive changes in the bladder wall, particularly after recent cystoscopic instrumentation, the MRI examination should be performed before endoscopic management or at least 2 weeks after cystoscopic procedures or intravesical treatment . Similarly, if the patients clinical status allows, the MRI should be performed at least 2 days after removal of an indwelling catheter or instrumentation to minimize artifacts related to intravesicular gas, particularly on diffusion-weighted images . Optimal bladder distention is essential to minimize folds or trabeculations being mistaken for BC. Conversely, an overly filled bladder can lead to increased patient discomfort during the examination and excessive motion artifact. Patients should empty their bladder 12 h prior and drink 5001000 mL of water 30 min before the MRI examination. A scout image should be obtained to assess bladder distension. If further distension is needed, the patient should be encouraged to drink additional fluids, and imaging should be delayed up to 3060 min . Bowel motion can be minimized by the intramuscular administration of an antispasmodic agent, such as glucagon, and by employing saturation bands .
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Urine Lab Tests To Rule Out Bladder Cancer
If the healthcare provider thinks that bladder cancer may be the cause of the symptoms, the patient may be asked to provide a urine sample for analysis in the laboratory. Several types of urine lab tests may be used to help make a diagnosis of bladder cancer, including:
- Urinalysis testing
- Urine tests for tumor markers
Urinalysis Testing For Blood In Urine
Urinalysis can be used to test a patients urine sample for the presence of blood in the urine.1-3 The medical term for the symptom of blood in the urine is hematuria. Many patients diagnosed with bladder cancer have the symptom of blood in the urine that is easily visible, but in some patients the amount of blood is so small that it is not visible to the naked eye. Urinalysis can detect very small amounts of blood in the urine, which can sometimes help to diagnose bladder cancer at an earlier stage, if bladder cancer is present. Urinalysis can also be used to check the levels of other substances, such as sugar, protein, and white blood cells, in a patients urine.
Cystoscopy: The Gold Standard
Although radiological tests provide important information about the kidneys and the ureters, cystoscopy is the best method of evaluating the bladder and the urethra and diagnosing and monitoring bladder cancer. The cystoscope, a long thin camera, is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.
Today, using flexible cystoscopes, most of these diagnostic procedures are performed in a urologists clinic with little or no discomfort. During the cystoscopy, the urologist will look through the cystoscope and make a note of anything in the bladder that may be abnormal. If a tumor or other abnormality is identified, the urologist will likely schedule you for a cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder biopsy or transurethral resection of bladder tumor .
Some urologists may have the ability to perform small bladder biopsies in the office. The tissue sample, or biopsy, is then sent to the pathologist for examination . A sample of the urine from the bladder is sent for analysis of the cells to determine if the urine contains any cancer cells. The biopsy specimen and the urine sample will help the urologist make recommendations about your future care.
Click here to read our Get the Facts | Cystoscopy , filled with advice from patients who have experienced it.
Urinary Bladder Wall Trabeculation In A Case Of Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction
Sonography of the urinary system was done on this elderly male patient having lower urinary tract symptoms. Ultrasound images show evidence of trabeculation of the urinary bladder. This is seen asfolds of hypertrophied bladder mucosa and bladder smooth muscle. There is also evidence of bilateral moderate hydronephrosis . The cause of Lower urinary tract obstruction appears tothe enlarged prostate with intravesical enlargement of the median lobe . The fourth image shows significant post-voiding residual urine in theurinary bladder .
Bladder trabeculation has been graded from 0 to 3 as:
grade 0- no trabeculation.
grade1- mild: area affected is less than 1/2 of the bladder and depth of trabeculation less than 5 mm.
grade2- moderate: area affected is greater than 1/2 of the bladder and depth of trabeculation is 5 to 10 mm.
grade 3- severe: area affected is greater than 1/2 of the bladder and depth of trabeculation is greater than 10 mm.
All images by Joe Antony, MD, using a Toshiba Nemio-XG ultrasound system.
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How Bladder Cancer Is Diagnosed
If you or a loved one is being evaluated for bladder cancer, it can be a stressful and overwhelming time. But by learning as much as you can about the condition, including the tests performed to diagnose it, you are already taking an active role in your care.
Also, try to stay as organized as possible, be inquisitive about selecting your bladder cancer team, and attend appointments and tests with a partner or trusted loved one.