Monday, January 23, 2023

Bowel And Bladder Cancer Prognosis

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Symptoms Of Advanced Bowel Cancer

What is bowel cancer? | Cancer Research UK

Advanced bowel cancer is cancer that started in either the back passage or large bowel and has spread to another part of the body.

The symptoms of advanced bowel cancer can include the symptoms for bowel cancer that hasn’t spread. Other symptoms depend on which part of the body the cancer has spread to.

It might not mean that you have advanced cancer if you have the symptoms described below. They can be caused by other conditions.

General symptoms of advanced bowel cancer can include:

  • feeling tired

Sore Skin In The Treatment Area

Your skin may be sore on the inside and outside of your genitals and the area around your bottom . It can help to use a moisturiser on the outside everyday.

While you are having radiotherapy, do not:

  • shave
  • wax
  • use hair removal cream.

If you want to use these products, wait until radiotherapy has finished and your skin is no longer red or sore.

Be extra careful to protect the skin in the area where youve had radiotherapy for at least the first year afterwards. Dont use sunbeds and use high factor sunscreen if part or all of the area will be exposed for example, if you are wearing a bikini.

This sore skin may also cause pain when you wee. Let your healthcare team know about your symptoms as soon as possible, so they can help.

Drugs To Treat Cancer Spread To Bone

If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab. Sometimes, radiation, radiopharmaceuticals, or pain medicines are given for pain control.

Side effects of bone medicines

A serious side effect of bisphosphonates and denosumab is damage to the jaw, also called osteonecrosis of the jaw . Most people will need to get approval from their dentist before starting one of these drugs.

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What Are The Stages Of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive .

The stages range from TA to IV . In the earliest stages , the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.

Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:

  • In Stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
  • In Stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
  • In Stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.

A more sophisticated and preferred staging system is known as TNM, which stands for tumor, node involvement and metastases. In this system:

  • Invasive bladder tumors can range from T2 all the way to T4 .
  • Lymph node involvement ranges from N0 to N3 .
  • M0 means that there is no metastasis outside of the pelvis. M1 means that it has metastasized outside of the pelvis.

Bleeding In Cancer Patients And Its Treatment: A Review

Bladder Cancer: Overview and More

Candice Johnstone1, Shayna E. Rich2

1Department of Radiation Oncology, , USA

Contributions: Conception and design: C Johnstone Administrative support: SE Rich Provision of study materials or patients: None Collection and assembly of data: C Johnstone Data analysis and interpretation: All authors Manuscript writing: All authors Final approval of manuscript: All authors.

Correspondence to:

Keywords: Epistaxis hemoptysis hematochezia hematuria hematemesis vaginal hemorrhage melena

Submitted Jun 12, 2017. Accepted for publication Sep 20, 2017.

doi: 10.21037/apm.2017.11.01

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Who To Tell About Side Effects

It is important to tell your healthcare team know about your symptoms and how you are feeling. This could be your team at the hospital or your GP. They will be able to assess you and possible refer you for specialist support.

If you are struggling with side effects between appointments, it is important to call the hospital or 111 and let them know.

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Goals Of Care And Communication

Goals of care should be discussed as an integral part of considering therapies in patients at high risk of bleeding or suffering from its effects. Patients may find bleeding visible and disturbing, or it may have significant effects on their quality of life. It is also important to consider the patientâs estimated life expectancy, which may involve the use of prognostic models . The rapidity of control of bleeding should be considered, but so too should the comfort of the patient during the treatment process. For example, radiation therapy can usually control bleeding within 24â48 hours, but patients have to be comfortable lying on the treatment table for the planning and treatment process. Surgery too can help manage bleeding tumors, but the burden and duration of recovery should be considered in the context of the patientâs life expectancy and goals of care.

For patients at risk of catastrophic bleeding, patients and their families should be prepared for the visually and mentally disturbing effects of such an episode. Encourage the use of dark sheets, towels, blankets, and clothing to reduce the visual shock of seeing a massive bleed. Fast acting sedatives such as intravenous or subcutaneous midazolam should be available, and families should be instructed on their use if the patient is at home. Although terminal sedation may be appropriate for bleeding at the end of life, a catastrophic bleed may cause death rapidly and there may not be time for sedation.

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Stage Iv Bladder Cancer

Stage IV cancer has metastasized or spread to major organs in other parts of the body. This is often called metastatic cancer. About 5% of bladder cancer cases are diagnosed after theyve already spread to distant organs, according to SEER.

Stage IV bladder cancer is divided into stage IVA and IVB. IVA cancer has spread either:

  • Into the wall of the abdomen or pelvis
  • Into multiple lymph nodes near the major arteries of the pelvis

IVB bladder cancer has spread to other organs, which can include the lungs, bones, and liver.

Stage Information For Bladder Cancer

Understanding Bladder Cancer | The Basics of Metastatic Bladder Cancer
In This Section
Clinical trials
References
  • Sylvester RJ, Oosterlinck W, van der Meijden AP: A single immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol 171 : 2186-90, quiz 2435, 2004.
  • Mariappan P, Smith G: A surveillance schedule for G1Ta bladder cancer allowing efficient use of check cystoscopy and safe discharge at 5 years based on a 25-year prospective database. J Urol 173 : 1108-11, 2005.
  • Nieder AM, Brausi M, Lamm D, et al.: Management of stage T1 tumors of the bladder: International Consensus Panel. Urology 66 : 108-25, 2005.
  • Oosterlinck W, Solsona E, Akaza H, et al.: Low-grade Ta urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Urology 66 : 75-89, 2005.
  • Sylvester RJ, van der Meijden A, Witjes JA, et al.: High-grade Ta urothelial carcinoma and carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Urology 66 : 90-107, 2005.
  • Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R, et al.: EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol 54 : 303-14, 2008.
  • Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R, et al.: EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, the 2011 update. Eur Urol 59 : 997-1008, 2011.
  • Millán-Rodríguez F, Chéchile-Toniolo G, Salvador-Bayarri J, et al.: Upper urinary tract tumors after primary superficial bladder tumors: prognostic factors and risk groups. J Urol 164 : 1183-7, 2000.
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    Dynamic Incidence Risk For Sbc

    We established three dynamic SIR plots based on time after RC diagnosis, age at RC diagnosis and year of RC diagnosis, to further evaluate the dynamic incidence risk of SBC for RC patients treated with and without receiving RT. In dynamic latency-SIR plot, significant incidence change of SBC with longer follow-up after RC diagnosis was only observed for patients treated with RT . In dynamic age-SIR plot, decrease in risk of SBC was observed in different age groups at RC diagnosis only for patients treated with RT . The younger patients treated with RT had a higher risk compared to older patients, which is compared with the US general population in the matching age group, although older patients are more likely to develop bladder cancer . In dynamic diagnosis time-SIR plot, compared with the background incidence rate of SBC, a decrease in the risk of SBC was observed in patients with RC treated with surgery and RT. And this risk reaching baseline rates was observed for patients diagnosed with RC in 2005-2015 .

    When To Seek Medical Advice

    Read about the symptoms of bowel cancer, and when you should see your GP to discuss whether any tests are necessary.

    Your doctor will probably carry out a simple examination of your tummy and bottom to make sure you have no lumps.

    They may also arrange for a simple blood test to check for iron deficiency anaemia. This can indicate whether there is any bleeding from your bowel that you haven’t been aware of.

    In some cases, your doctor may decide it is best for you to have a simple test in hospital to make sure there is no serious cause for your symptoms.

    Make sure you return to your doctor if your symptoms persist or keep coming back after stopping treatment, regardless of their severity or your age.

    Read more about how bowel cancer is treated and living with bowel cancer

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    What Are The Treatment Options For Bladder Cancer

    There are four types of treatment for patients with bladder cancer. These include:

    • Surgery

    Sometimes, combinations of these treatments will be used.

    Surgical options

    Surgery is a common treatment option for bladder cancer. The type of surgery chosen will depend on the stage of the cancer.

    • Transurethral resection of the bladder is used most often for early stage disease . It is done under general or spinal anesthesia. In this procedure, a special telescope called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The tumor is then trimmed away with the resectoscope, using a wire loop, and the raw surface of the bladder is then fulgurated .
    • Partial cystectomy is the removal of a section of the bladder. At times, it is used for a single tumor that invades the bladder wall in only one region of the bladder. This type of surgery retains most of the bladder. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy is often used in combination. Only a minority of patients will qualify for this bladder-sparing procedure.
    • Radical cystectomy is complete removal of the bladder. It is used for more extensive cancers and those that have spread beyond the bladder .

    This surgery is often done using a robot, which removes the bladder and any other surrounding organs. In men, this is the prostate and seminal vesicles. In women, the ovaries, uterus and a portion of the vagina may be removed along with the bladder.

    Chemotherapy

    • Methotrexate

    Intravesical therapy

    Radiation therapy

    Colon Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment At Moffitt

    CT Cystogram with Colon Cancer Invading the Bladder

    At Moffitt Cancer Center, were committed to continually improving the colon cancer survival rate. We are leaders in the development and assessment of new therapies, offering our patients access to a robust portfolio of clinical trials. Additionally, we have a multispecialty team of surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation therapists and supportive care providers who exclusively treat patients with colorectal cancer. To learn more, call or submit a new patient registration form online.

    When it comes to colon cancer prognosis and treatment, an early diagnosis can make all the difference in the world. At Moffitt, we understand the importance of early detection and treatment, and thats why we make it a point to provide every new patient with rapid access to a cancer expert within just one daya turnaround time thats faster than that offered by any other cancer hospital in the country. When you turn to Moffitt for colon cancer diagnosis and treatment, you can rest easy knowing that youll be a top priority of a cancer center that delivers nationally ranked care in new and transformative ways.

    • BROWSE

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    Cystoscopy With Cautery Destruction Of The Bladder Tumor

    Cystoscopy is an outpatient procedure during which a thin, lighted tube with a camera is passed through the urethra into the bladder, allowing your doctor to see the inside of the bladder.

    Most modern cystoscopes are also equipped with channels that permit small instruments to be passed into the bladder. During a cystoscopy, your doctor may use these instruments to remove tissue, stop bleeding with a special electrical device called an electrocautery or even perform laser treatment. If the bladder cancer tumor is small enough, this cautery may be used to remove the cancer.

    Can Colon Cancer Cause Urinary Problems

    Colon cancer and its treatments can be potential to cause some discomfort problems. For instance, it can affect organs close to the affected part of colon, including some organs in the pelvic region. Does it mean that this cancer can cause urinary problems, too? The answer may vary from patient to patient!

    Urinary problems topic overview

    Most people will experience some urinary problems in their lifetime. These can vary, ranging from minor to more serious.

    The bad news, its not always easy to distinguish which one that will become serious since both minor and serious urinary problems can start to develop with the same symptoms. The good news, most problems are mild, even home remedies are usually enough to cope with!

    The problems can be attributed by lots of different factors. For example, there are many things that can affect the color of your urine such as disease, medicines, diet, and fluid balance.

    The color of urine can tell how much water is in it! Darker color is dehydration symptom. If your drink plenty of water, your urine should be light, almost like water.

    What you eat and medicines can affect your urine. Blackberries, some medicines, blood in the urine, or beets usually will make it turn into red-brown. Vitamin B supplements can make it to become bright-yellow.

    It is not only about color, the odor can be affected, too. Taking certain antibiotics, vitamins, and some foods can cause different odor.

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    Aims Of Treatment For Advanced Bowel Cancer

    Treatment for advanced bowel cancer can include:

    Some treatments are specific to the part of the body that the cancer has spread to.

    The type of treatment you have will depend on the aim of the treatment. The aim could be:

    • to remove the tumour to try and be clear of bowel cancer
    • to shrink the tumour. In some cases, it might be possible to remove the tumour at a later stage
    • to keep the cancer under control. This is a type of palliative care that aims to prolong and improve quality of life and to help you remain active for as long as possible. You may have palliative care for several years. It can also be referred to as supportive care. Some patients have such good responses that the cancer can be removed
    • to help manage the symptoms of bowel cancer, reduce the side effects of treatment and to improve your quality of life. This is a type of palliative care that is sometimes called end of life care. The change to end of life care is gradual and your healthcare team will support you in deciding how to continue your treatment.

    Treatment plans can be complicated and can change. Between treatments it can be useful to see how you are feeling, what has been achieved and to think about the next steps. Speak to your healthcare team if you have any questions or concerns about your treatment, symptoms or side effects.

    Icipant Selection And Recruitment

    MIUI Minute: Bladder Cancer Signs and Symptoms

    Women were eligible if they: a) were 18 years of age or older b) had cervical or endometrial cancer c) had completed treatment one-year previously d) had no other history of cancer besides non-melanoma skin cancer e) had no documented or observable psychiatric or neurological disorders that would interfere with study participation and f) were able to speak and read standard English. As part of a larger quality of life study, women were screened for eligibility and asked to provide written informed consent prior to initiation of treatment. Assessments were conducted one year after treatment was completed. Every patient who completed the assessment was matched with a control using procedures described below. Of the 122 cervical and endometrial cancer patients enrolled in the larger study, 104 completed the one-year post-treatment assessment and were included in the present analysis. There were no clinical or demographic differences between those who did and did not complete the one-year post-treatment assessment.

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    Symptoms Of Bowel Cancer

    If caught early, bowel cancer is a very treatable and curable cancer. More than nine out of 10 people diagnosed with Stage 1 will survive five years or more after diagnosis. If you have any of the below symptoms, it is important to visit your GP to rule out cancer. The symptoms below can be attributed to a wide number of other less serious conditions and it not always indicative of cancer, however it is still vital to seek help from your GP.

  • Bleeding from the bottom or blood in your stool
  • A change in bowel habit
  • A pain or lump in your abdomen
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • What Causes Bladder Cancer

    Bladder cancer forms when the DNA in cells in the bladder mutate or change, disabling the functions that control cell growth. In many cases, these mutated cells die or are attacked by the immune system. But some mutated cells may escape the immune system and grow out of control, forming a tumor in the bladder.

    While the exact cause of bladder cancer is not known, certain risk factors are linked to the disease, including tobacco smoking and exposure to certain chemicals and gases. Also, people with a family history of bladder cancer have a high risk of developing the disease.

    Known risk factors for bladder cancer include:

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