Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Patients with three or more infections per year should be offered either continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis, patient-initiated, or postcoital prophylaxis if the onset of infection is linked to sexual intercourse .7 Before a prophylactic regimen is chosen, a urine culture should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen. The duration of continuous prophylactic therapy is usually 6 months to a year. Unfortunately, within 6 months of discontinuing antibiotic prophylaxis, 40% to 60% of women develop a urinary tract infection, and prophylaxis must be resumed.20 Patient-initiated therapy at the onset of symptoms has been shown to be effective in young, healthy nonpregnant women.21 Short-course regimens have been advocated for patient-initiated therapy in compliant women with frequently recurring and symptomatic urinary tract infections. The major advantages of short-course therapy over continuous therapy are convenience and the avoidance of antibiotic toxicity symptomatic infections are not prevented, however. For postcoital prophylaxis, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or fluoroquinolones taken within 2 hours after sexual intercourse have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of recurrent cystitis.22, 23
What Is A Uti
Before we talk about the antibiotics that treat UTIs, lets discuss what the medications are targeting.
Urinary tract infections, or UTIs, refer to a group of infections that can happen anywhere along the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladders, and urethra. Antibiotics are used to treat UTIs because bacteria often cause themEscherichia coli is the type of bacteria notoriously famous for causing most UTIs.
Most germs that cause these infections typically live on the skin in unharmful numbers, especially in areas like the vaginal folds. However, once in the urinary tract, they can multiply to unsafe colony numbers and cause symptoms .
UTI symptoms include: burning during urination, needing to pee frequently, lower abdominal pain or cramping, blood in your urine, and feeling the need to urinate even if you just went to the bathroom.
Most Common Antibiotic For Urinary Tract Infection
There are some medicines that do not mix well with nitrofurantoin.
Tell your doctor if youre taking these medicines before you start nitrofurantoin treatment:
- indigestion remedies known as antacids, particularly those that contain magnesium
- certain medicines for gout, including probenecid or sulfinpyrazone
- cystitis remedies you can buy from a pharmacy
- antibiotics known as quinolones, including nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and moxifloxacin
Typhoid vaccine given by mouth may not work properly if youre taking nitrofurantoin. This does not apply to typhoid vaccines given by injection.
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Treatment Length For All Utis
No matter what kind of bacterial infection you have and where its located, the best antibiotic treatment for UTI is generally the shortest one. This is to lower your odds of developing antibiotic resistance and to decrease your risk of a yeast infection or infectious diarrhea.
Still, its imperative that you take all the antibiotics prescribed, even after symptoms subside. Most UTIs resolve within three to 10 days. Stopping your antibiotics early, before the drugs eliminate all bacteria, can create a breeding ground for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, too.
Who Can And Cannot Take Nitrofurantoin
Nitrofurantoin can be taken by adults including pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Nitrofurantoin is not suitable for everyone. To make sure its safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
- ever had an allergic reaction to nitrofurantoin or any other medicines in the past
- either of the rare inherited conditions: porphyria or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
- severe kidney disease
- any illness causing severe weakness
- anaemia or vitamin B deficiency
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Can Home Remedies Quickly Treat A Uti
As resistance to antibiotics is becoming more common, many people are looking for ways to avoid using them. While this can be a good thing in some cases, it can draw out your illness in other instances.
The most commonly asked about home remedy for UTIs is cranberry. Drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry tablets has been long-touted as a natural alternative for treating UTIs. The thought is that cranberry makes your urine more acidic which, in turn, kills the bacteria causing your infection.
Unfortunately, cranberry does not treat UTIs very well. On the flip side, though, it can be useful for helping to prevent infections if youre prone to them. This seems to also be the case for other acidic fruits like lemon. Just be sure if youre going to try this for preventing future UTIs that you drink unsweetened juice, as sugar actually helps bacteria to grow.
What Is The Strongest Antibiotic For A Uti
What antibiotics can treat a UTI? Not all antibiotics work for treating UTIs, but several do. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin are the most preferred antibiotics for treating a UTI.
Regarding this, What is best antibiotic for urinary tract infection? Drugs commonly recommended for simple UTIs include:
Can you flush out a UTI? Patients with urinary tract infection are usually advised to drink six to eight glasses of water every day to flush the infection out of the urinary system. The best way to get the infection out of the system is by drinking liquids until the urine is clear and the stream is forceful.
Accordingly, What is the difference between a UTI and a bladder infection?
A UTI is defined as an infection in one or more places in the urinary tractthe ureters, kidneys, urethra, and/or bladder. A bladder infection is a UTI thats only located in the bladder.
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What Antibiotics Are Commonly Used To Treat Urinary Tract Infections
A handful of antibiotics are used to treat the most common urinary tract infections . In 75-95% of these cases, the infection is caused by bacteria called Escherichia coli , so experts know which antibiotics work well against the infection. These antibiotics are called first-line antibiotics.
They are given orally and include:
Amoxicillin and ampicillin are no longer used because of a high level of antibiotic resistance.
When You Need Themand When You Dont
Antibiotics are medicines that can kill bacteria. Doctors often use antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections . The main symptoms of UTIs are:
- A burning feeling when you urinate.
- A strong urge to urinate often.
However, many older people get UTI treatment even though they do not have these symptoms. This can do more harm than good. Heres why:
Antibiotics usually dont help when there are no UTI symptoms.
Older people often have some bacteria in their urine. This does not mean they have a UTI. But doctors may find the bacteria in a routine test and give antibiotics anyway.
The antibiotic does not help these patients.
- It does not prevent UTIs.
- It does not help bladder control.
- It does not help memory problems or balance.
Most older people should not be tested or treated for a UTI unless they have UTI symptoms. And if you do have a UTI and get treated, you usually dont need another test to find out if you are cured. You should only get tested or treated if UTI symptoms come back.
Antibiotics have side effects.
Antibiotics can have side effects, such as fever, rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, tendon ruptures, and nerve damage.
Antibiotics can cause future problems.
Antibiotics can kill friendly germs in the body. This can lead to vaginal yeast infections. It can also lead to other infections, and severe diarrhea, hospitalization, and even death.
Antibiotics can be a waste of money.
When should older people take antibiotics for a UTI?
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Implications For Research And Practice
Based on the data we analysed, a pragmatic approach is required when considering prescribing long-term antibiotics in older patients with recurrent UTI. Although long-term antibiotics may reduce the risk of UTI recurrence in women, this benefit diminishes on cessation of treatment. Little is known about optimal prophylaxis period, long-term effects on health, risk of antibiotic resistant infections, effect in older men, effect in frail care home residents or impact on important patient-centred outcomes. These unknowns must be balanced against benefits and patient preferences.
Future research efforts on recurrent UTI should focus on improving the design and reporting of trials and developing a core set of outcomes to allow better synthesis of trial data. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be compared with non-antibiotic prophylaxis with some evidence of efficacy rather than those with little or poor evidence of efficacy. Researchers should address unanswered questions regarding long-term effects, duration of use, adverse effects and antibiotic resistance.
How K Health Can Help
Did you know you can get affordable UTI treatment with the K Health app? Download K to check your symptoms using our AI-driven symptom checker and, if needed, text with a doctor in minutes. K Healths board-certified, U.S.-based doctors can provide a treatment plan and, if required, a prescription to resolve your symptoms as soon as possible.
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What Causes A Uti
Urinary tract infections occur when bacteria enters through the urethra. The bacteria may take hold in theurethra or go into the bladder. If left unchecked, this bacteria could multiply and grow into a full-blowninfection. Women are more likely to develop urinary tract infections than men because they have shorterurethras.
Antibiotics For More Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
A different antibiotic may be better for a more severe or stubborn UTI. This may include a UTI that:
- Spreads to the kidneys
- Comes back
- Is not responding to treatment
Additionally, there is a medical category of complicated UTIs that may require a different antibiotic regimen.
Complicated UTIs include UTIs that occur:
- In a person with a childhood history of UTIs
- In a person with a weakened immune system
- In a child or postmenopausal woman
- During pregnancy
- With a medical condition, like diabetes
- With an abnormality of the urinary tract, like a stone, obstruction, catheter or kidney deformity
In these cases, a urine culture may be done to make the choice of antibiotic. A urine culture grows the bacteria from the urine so that it may be identified under a microscope and tested for antibiotic sensitivity. The best antibiotic will be determined by the culture and sensitivity results.
No matter what antibiotic your health care provider prescribes, it is important to take the entire course as directed. Stopping early can lead to antibiotic resistance.
If your antibiotic doesnt seem to be working and symptoms dont go away or come right back, let your health care provider know.
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Phos Urinary Tract Infection Program
An overview of our UTI program. We explain the rationale and evidence behind this program and how you can implement it in your home.
- Duration: 2 min
Detailed guide on UTI Program, which supports long-term care homes to improve the management and overuse of antibiotics of presumed UTIs in their residents.
What Is The Usual Treatment For A Uti
UTI treatments usually consist of a round of antibiotics. After diagnosis, your doctor will evaluate the best treatment plan for you, based on the type and severity of your urinary tract infection. Then, they will prescribe you UTI antibiotics such as trimethoprim, cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, or others.
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When To Seek Immediate Medical Attention
UTIs are uncomfortable, but theyre not an immediate medical emergency. Some people make the mistake of assuming the same is true with a kidney infection.
Kidney infections are serious conditions and they do require medical attention. Untreated, a kidney infection can quickly cause long-term kidney damage or kidney scarring. These infections can also cause , which can lead to shock.
Because of this, a kidney infection can be fatal if it progresses. Its important to have it treated immediately by a healthcare professional.
Note that kidney stones, if untreated, can also cause a blockage that can lead to pyelonephritis and sepsis. This may require a procedure done with intravenous antibiotics by a urologist.
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What Is The Prognosis For A Person With A Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections typically respond very well to treatment. A UTI can be uncomfortable before you start treatment, but once your healthcare provider identifies the type of bacteria and prescribes the right antibiotic medication, your symptoms should improve quickly. Its important to keep taking your medication for the entire amount of time your healthcare provider prescribed. If you have frequent UTIs or if your symptoms arent improving, your provider may test to see if its an antibiotic-resistant infection. These are more complicated infections to treat and may require intravenous antibiotics or alternative treatments.
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Best Remedies For Bladder Infections
About bladder infections
The urethra is the tube that takes urine out of the body. Once bacteria go into the urethra, they can attach to the walls of the bladder and multiply quickly.
The resulting infection can cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as the sudden urge to urinate. It may also cause pain while urinating and abdominal cramping.
A combination of medical and home treatments may ease these symptoms. If left untreated, bladder infections can become life-threatening. This is because the infection can spread to the kidneys or blood.
Here are seven effective bladder infection remedies.
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Which Antibiotic Should Be Used To Treat A Uti
There are multiple types of antibiotics used to treat urinary tract infections . Different treatments may be recommended in different areas of the country based on regional patterns of antibiotic resistance.
Most patients with an uncomplicated UTI will begin treatment without any special diagnostic test, although a urinalysis may be performed by taking a urine sample. In a urinalysis, the chemical components of the urine are determined, and the doctor may look at urine color, clarity, and a view a sample under the microscope. A urine culture may be order, too, but is not always needed to start treatment. A urine culture can define the specific bacteria causing the UTI in more complicated cases or in the case of treatment failure.
Symptoms like burning and stinging while urinating will usually clear up in within one day after starting treatment. Be sure to finish your entire course of medication. If symptoms are still present after 2 to 3 days, contact your healthcare provider.
More extensive diagnostic procedures or imaging tests like an X-ray may be required if you continue to have frequent UTIs.
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Can I Become Immune To The Antibiotics Used To Treat A Uti
Your body can actually get used to the antibiotics typically used to treat a urinary tract infection . This happens in people who have very frequent infections. With each UTI and use of antibiotics to treat it, the infection adapts and becomes harder to fight. This is called an antibiotic-resistant infection. Because of this, your healthcare provider may suggest alternative treatments if you have frequent UTIs. These could include:
- Waiting: Your provider may suggest that you watch your symptoms and wait. During this time, you may be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids in an effort to flush out your system.
- Intravenous treatment: In some very complicated cases, where the UTI is resistant to antibiotics or the infection has moved to your kidneys, you may need to be treated in the hospital. The medicine will be given to you directly in your vein . Once youre home, you will be prescribed antibiotics for a period of time to fully get rid of the infection.
How Long Do I Need To Take Antibiotics To Treat A Uti
How long you take antibiotics for a UTI depends on how severe your UTI is and which antibiotic youre prescribed. Some medications like fosfomycin only require one dose, while a more severe UTI might require 14 days or more of treatment. Most require 3 to 7 days of treatment.
Within the first 1 to 2 days of starting your antibiotics, youll probably notice your UTI symptoms start to fade away. If your UTI is more severe or youve had symptoms for a while before starting antibiotics, it might take a few more days for you to notice improvement.
In any case, its important to take all the antibiotics youre prescribed, even if you start feeling better before finishing them. Stopping antibiotics early can lead to antibiotic resistance, which means the medication might not work as well as it should if you need it to treat an infection in the future. It can also mean your UTI might come back if you havent treated it completely.
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Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections
Uncomplicated UTIs are due to a bacterial infection, most often caused by E coli. UTIs affect women much more often than men.
Cystitis, or bladder infection, is the most common UTI. It occurs in the lower urinary tract and is much more common in women. In most cases, the infection is brief and acute and only the inner surface of the bladder is infected. Deeper layers of the bladder may be harmed if the infection becomes persistent, or chronic, or if the urinary tract is structurally abnormal.
Sometimes, the infection spreads to the upper urinary tract . This is called pyelonephritis, or more commonly, a kidney infection.
How To Cope With Side Effects
What to do about:
- feeling sick take nitrofurantoin with or after a meal or snack. It may also help if you avoid rich or spicy food.
- being sick and diarrhoea drink lots of fluids, such as water or squash to avoid dehydration. Take small, frequent sips if you feel sick. Signs of dehydration include peeing less than usual or having strong-smelling pee. Do not take any other medicines to treat diarrhoea or vomiting without speaking to a pharmacist or doctor.
- loss of appetite eat when you would usually expect to be hungry. If it helps, eat smaller meals more often than usual. Snack when youre hungry. Have nutritious snacks that are high in calories and protein, such as dried fruit and nuts.
- headaches make sure you rest and drink plenty of fluids. Do not drink too much alcohol. Painkillers you can buy without a prescription, such as paracetamol and ibuprofen, are safe to take with nitrofurantoin. Speak to your doctor if these do not help with the headaches or the headaches are severe.
- dizziness or feeling sleepy if nitrofurantoin makes you feel dizzy, stop what youre doing and sit or lie down until you feel better.
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