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Diagnosis Of Urinary Bladder Cancer In Dogs

What are the first signs of bladder cancer?

Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize urinary bladder cancer and exclude other diseases. Tests may include:

  • Complete medical history and physical examination including rectal examination to palpate the urethra, bladder neck, male prostate gland and local lymph nodes
  • Plain X-rays of the abdomen to evaluate for masses and lymph node enlargement and of the chest to evaluate for metastasis
  • Complete blood cell count
  • Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate your pets general health, other body systems, and to identify metabolic consequences of urinary obstruction
  • Urinalysis to evaluate for white cells, red cells, bacteria or tumor cells
  • Cytology examination of urine to evaluate for tumor cells
  • Abdominal ultrasound examination to evaluate the location and extent of the bladder tumor, the status of regional lymph nodes, and the presence of obstruction of the urinary tract
  • Contrast dye X-ray studies to evaluate the location and extent of the bladder tumor in the place of abdominal ultrasound examination
  • Urethrocystoscopy by passing a rigid or flexible scope into the urethra and bladder under anesthesia to identify the location and extent of the tumor. This procedure allows for biopsy of the tumor, but usually requires referral to a veterinary specialist.
  • A relatively new test called V-TBA has become available to screen for the presence of a bladder tumor marker in the urine of dogs suspected to have transitional cell carcinoma.
  • My Dog Had Blood Clots Blocking His Urethra But Not A Uti Could It Be Cancer

    There are multiple diseases associated with the urinary tract that could lead to blood clots. While infection is one of them, another common cause would be urinary stones .

    In order to observe for this, imaging such as x-rays would be needed. If stones are not found with normal x-rays then sometimes a special x-ray using contrast material and/or ultrasound evaluation of the urinary tract are needed.

    Male dogs that are not neutered are also at higher risk for prostate disease which can then cause inflammation and irritation to the urinary tract that can then lead to bleeding.

    Cancer is another possible cause for blood clots, however is not as common as the other causes listed. The best thing to do would be to have your dogs urinary tract evaluated with x-rays and possible ultrasound as these methods of testing would screen for the potential causes for blood clots.

    It would also be important to have blood testing to best evaluate the health of the kidneys as they are part of the urinary tract as well. You may contact our hospital with any additional questions or to schedule an appointment so that we can help you determine the cause of his problems and help to get him feeling better soon.

    What Is Bladder Cancer In Dogs

    Bladder cancer in dogs is a tumor that develops due to the abnormal growth of cells in the urinary bladder. This type of tumor of the urinary tract is relatively rare in dogs and accounts for about 1% or less of all canine tumors.

    Bladder cancer is usually diagnosed in the late stages. This is because the obvious symptoms and signs of bladder cancer in dogs are similar to those of urinary tract infections . Plus, invasive transitional cell carcinoma, as the most common type of bladder cancer in dogs, develops really quickly and aggressively.

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    What To Know: Common Causes Of Blood In Dog Urine

    • Bacterial urinary tract infection: This is one of the most common causes of hematuria. These are more common in female dogs but can occur in any dog, says Dr. Danel Grimmett, a veterinarian at Sunset Veterinary Clinic in Edmond, Oklahoma. A urinalysis and urine culture are initial diagnostics performed to diagnose a urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infections arent pleasant, but they are usually treated with a simple round of antibiotics .
    • Urinary stones: Stones can be found in various locations within the urinary tract , and their impact will depend on their location, size, number and whether they are causing an obstruction, says Cleroux. The presence of an obstruction is always an emergency, she says. Bladder stones do not always cause clinical signs in animals. Stone composition will affect treatment strategies .

    Other causes could include:

    Even tick-borne illness or anything else that interferes with the pets clotting ability can be the cause of blood in the urine, says Grimmett.

    While some of these diseases are quite serious, others only require some medication or monitoring. As such, remain calm until you know the cause and understand your dogs prognosis.

    Its also important to note, says Cleroux, that some conditions can cause pigmenturia, which is the presence of pigments that can cause a red discoloration to the urine.

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    Hematuria As A Symptom Of Cancer

    Anytime cancer appears in a list of possible causes, it makes us feel a little panicky. Luckily, cancer of the kidneys and urinary tract is rare in dogs. However, it does occur, especially in breeds of dogs that may be predisposed to theses cancers, like West Highland White Terriers, Scottish Terriers, and Shetland Sheepdogs. The most common type of urinary tract cancer is a type of cancer called transitional cell carcinoma .

    So how do you know if the blood in your dogs urine is a symptom of cancer or some other condition?

    Aside from blood in the urine, there are some other symptoms of cancer of the kidneys and urinary tract, which includes the bladder, ureters, and urethra. Weight loss, loss of appetite, depression, and fever are all symptoms of kidney cancer. Difficulty urinating, painful urination, frequent urination that only produces small amounts of urine, and intractable secondary bacterial urinary tract infections, on the other hand, could be a sign of a cancer of the urinary tract, such as TCC. The best way to find out if the blood in your dogs urine is a sign of cancer or another disease, however, is to bring your dog in to your veterinarian for further testing.

    TCC used to have a very poor prognosis. Recent developments in the veterinary field, however, are improving this prognosis with a combination of medications like the chemotherapy drug mitoxantrone and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam, and surgery.

    Let The Test Results Help Your Vet Determine The Cause

    Once youre at the vets office, your veterinarian will likely perform a complete physical exam. According to Cleroux, the initial diagnosis should include a urinalysis and urine culture. Bloodwork and imaging of the urinary tract may be performed also.

    As mentioned above, hematuria can result from a number of causes including irritation, inflammation and infection, amongst others.

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    Why Does Bladder Cancer Cause Hematuria

    Blood in the urine is a hemorrhaging of the tumor. When the blood vessels of a tumor rupture, that blood ends up in the urine. Early on, cancer blood vessels are delicate. Small tears occur easily. As a tumor grows and invades nearby tissues and blood vessels, this causes bleeding. Whether in small or large amounts, the blood exits through the urine.1,3

    What Causes A Dog Blood Clot In Urine

    Symptoms of Bladder Cancer in Pets, How to Catch this Early: Vlog 109

    Clots, in general, form when platelets and plasma proteins in the blood thicken and coagulate. In some cases, an underlying medical issue can also cause a dog to develop a blog clot. Blood may begin to clot for a variety of reasons, including:

    • Long term use of steroids or corticosteroids
    • Trauma that causes inflammation
    • Protein loss through the GI tract or kidneys

    There are multiple diseases and medical issues associated with a dogs urinary tract that can cause blood clots to appear in his urine. For example, urinary stones, such as canine bladder stones or kidney stones, are a common cause of blood clots in urine. Even tick-borne illness, which can interfere with the bloods clotting ability, are a potential culprit.

    Male dogs that are not neutered are at higher risk for prostate disease, which can then lead to inflammation in the urinary tract and cause bleeding.

    Hypercoagulability, or the tendency to develop blood clots is usually inherited. There are also several types of congenital blood protein disorders that are present in dogs from birth signs of these conditions typically appear at an early age. These blood disorders, which can cause clotting issues, have been reported in several dog breeds, including:

    • Alaskan Klee Kai

    If you believe your dog is susceptible to any of these conditions, the best thing to do would be to have your dogs urinary tract evaluated by his vet to screen for potential blood clots.

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    My Dog Is Peeing Blood 2 Vets Explain What To Do

    The sight of blood in your dogs urine can be extremely scary and make any pet owner feel concerned. But before you panic, its important to remember that there are lots of different causes for blood in the urine and many of the more common causes, like a urinary tract infection , can be treated by your vet.

    The key is acting early so your veterinarian can make an accurate diagnosis and help reduce the risk of complications.

    Diagnosing Dog Blood Clot

    Because there is a large number of potential underlying problems associated with dog blood clotting, a diagnosis will need to be made by your vet as soon as possible. Veterinarians will typically conduct a thorough physical exam, urinalysis, and basic blood work, in order to determine a definitive diagnosis.

    Imaging tests, such as x-rays, are used to confirm the presence of blood clots and pinpoint their exact location. If stones are not found with this method, your vet may move onto ultrasounds, which may be more suitable for a dog blood clot located in the urinary tract.

    Once the blood clot is confirmed, the source and cause of it will then be evaluated. A biochemistry analysis that includes blood and urine tests will indicate the health of your dogs kidneys, which can affect his urinary tract as well.

    Tests may be completed to test your dogs coagulation factors. Coagulation factors are substances that are made in the liver and circulate in the bloodstream. There are 13 coagulation factors, and each one becomes activated in a specific sequence when a blood vessel or tissue injury occurs these factors work with platelets to produce a clot at the site of an injury. A prothrombin time analysis measures blood clotting based on extrinsic coagulation factors, which helps to determine if the clotting rate is normal. This allows your vet to determine if your dog has a bleeding disorder or excessive clotting disorder.

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    Diagnosis Of Bladder Cancer In Dogs

    As mentioned above, symptoms of canine bladder cancer are similar to other bladder problems such as bladder stones or infections.

    So, as a first step, the vet will do a series of tests , biochemistry profile, urinalysis, urine culture, and bladder imaging) to rule out other possible bladder problems.

    If the tests rule out other bladder or urinary tract problems and cancer is suspected, the vet will do a tissue biopsy, which is the only way to get a definitive diagnosis.

    Once the vet has made a definitive diagnosis of bladder cancer, the next step is to perform tumor staging. This staging is to determine the stage of the disease in order to decide on the most appropriate treatment program.

    The stage of the disease is basically determined by three factors the primary tumor, spread to the lymph nodes, and spread to other organs.

    What To Do If Your Dog Is Peeing Blood

    Dr. Bartley Harrison is a veterinarian with more than 15 years of professional veterinary experience treating dogs, cats, rabbits, ferrets, birds, and small mammals, with a specific focus on Emergency Medicine. Dr. Harrison is part of The Spruce Pets veterinary review board.

    Neti Phunitiphat / Getty Images

    You should check your dog’s urine color from time to time to ensure everything looks normal. Urine should be a pale to dark yellow color, so if you see your dog peeing blood clots or red/pink urine, it can be alarming. Knowing why this may happen is helpful for you to understand what kind of help your dog may need.

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    Clots In Urine Reasons And Causes

    Posted by Dr. Chris

    Blood in the urine is not uncommon but most bleeding in the urine is invisible to the naked eye. The discovery of blood during a urine dipstick test concerns most people. However, it is not always a serious problem. There may be no other symptoms as would be expected and the cause is not always easily identified. Blood clots in the urine may seem to be more serious but it is not always a major problem. The absence of pain is not a reliable indicator of whether the underlying problem of blood clots in the urine is serious or not.

    Can You Always Detect Blood In Your Urine

    Hematuria is the presence of excessive blood in your urine. When blood in the urine is visible to the naked eye, its called macroscopic hematuria. On the other hand, sometimes blood in urine isnt visible and is detected only in a laboratory examination when urine tests positive for the presence of blood. In such cases, its called invisible, microscopic, or non-visible hematuria.

    In certain cases, the presence of blood in urine may not produce any symptoms. Thats why its important to have regular exams, so that you dont miss it.

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    What Is Bladder Cancer

    Approximately 20% of dogs with bladder cancer have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Bladder cancer is much more common in dogs than cats, but TCC only accounts for less than 1% of all reported cancers in dogs. TCC can occur in any breed but is most common in Shetland sheepdogs, Scottish terriers, wirehair fox terriers, West Highland terriers, and beagles. Middle-aged or elderly female dogs are most commonly affected. Some studies have suggested that chronic exposure to certain chemicals may increase the risk for a dog to develop bladder cancer.

    Prostate Issues In Male Dogs

    Splenic Hemangiosarcoma in Dogs

    Blood in your male dogs urine could also be a sign of prostate problems. According to Oklahoma State University, 50% of intact males will experience benign prostatic hyperplasia by 4 years of age. BPH is the most common prostate issue but there are many different prostate diseases that could cause bloody urine.

    Other Signs Of Prostate Problems

    • Prolonged urination
    • Produces a thin stream of urine
    • Difficulty passing bowel movements
    • Straining to urinate and defecate

    Because there are many different prostatic diseases, treatment options vary but there are natural options. So no matter the diagnosis be sure to do your research before you commit to conventional treatment.

    The above are 5 of the most common reasons your dog will have blood in his urine. But there are a few others you should take note of

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    Nsaids Or Cox Inhibitors

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs , also known as Cox Inhibitors, are a choice treatment for cancer suffering dogs due to their analgesic properties. There are both human and veterinary versions and have qualities that are similar to aspirin . They would likely be used during bladder cancer therapy to reduce some of the abdominal pain caused.

    Blood Clots In Dogs: What Are They

    Remember how the location of your injury started to bleed but very quickly stopped releasing blood? The reason your open wound did not bleed for hours and hours is due to the teamwork of blood proteins and platelets. They seal the skin, if you will, by forming a bond and acting as a barrier between the open air and the inside of your body.

    They are like a second skin, if you will, and the two work in tandem until your skin is able to regenerate its cells and fully heal the place where you were injured. In general, blood clots are the result of platelets at work. Within the blood of your canine companion are blood vessels and proteins. The two cell-like structures work together as a team to prevent blood from leaving the body. Think of a paper cut that you’ve gotten or an injury that broke through your skin.

    The same goes for dogs. Clotting of the blood is an absolutely essential process of healing a canines open wound. Without the ability to form clots, blood would continuously leave the body and cause your dog’s blood levels to drop immensely. To avoid the worst-case scenario of massive blood loss, healthy pups have cardiovascular systems that clot blood automatically and effectively. Issues arise when blood clots appear in unwanted locations.

    Blood clotting is ideal, most of the time. However, if blood clots are present in a dog’s urine, it is a cause for concern. Known as hematuria in medical terms, blood in the urine of your dog is categorized in one of two ways.

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