What Types Of Testing Should I Expect For Monitoring My Condition
Since metastatic prostate cancer isnt curable, your doctor will most likely set up regular visits to check the cancers location, and to manage any long-term side effects from the cancer or any medication youre taking.
And since treatments for advanced prostate cancer are changing so fast and need to be given in a certain sequence to be the most effective, youll probably have not only a prostate cancer doctor but other specialists taking care of you. Your care team should coordinate closely, say the authors of a major study of such teams published in August 2015 in the journal Annals of Oncology.
Along with regularly testing your prostate-specific antigen levels, your care team may request blood tests that measure such prostate cancer indicators as alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Magnetic resonance imaging or PET scans of the spine or other bones can also help identify how your cancer responds to treatment.
If youve had radiation, youre at an increased risk for bladder and colorectal cancer and should get screened regularly for these as well.
The tests youll have and how often youll need them should be customized to you. Your care team will consider your overall health, medications that are safe for you to take, other health conditions you might have, and what stage your cancer was when you were diagnosed.
Resources For More Information
Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network
Offers education and support services, advances research, and raises awareness about bladder cancer. Has an extensive online resource library for bladder cancer patients.
American Bladder Cancer Society
The site is intended to offer help, hope, and support to anyone affected by bladder cancer. Bladder cancer information, resources, and a support forum are offered.
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- The prostate gland is a male reproductive organ that produces fluids to feed and protect sperm cells.
- Many men experience urinary changes as they age. In many cases, these changes do not need specific treatment.
- When urinary changes cause problems, they can be treated successfully by lifestyle changes, medication, surgery or a combination of the three.
- For problems such as blood in the urine, pain on urination, inability to urinate or uncontrollable urine flow, see your doctor promptly.
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What Is Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer is cancer that starts in the cells of the kidney. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma , accounting for about 90% of all cases. Usually only one kidney is affected, but in rare cases the cancer may develop in both kidneys.
Other less common types include:
- Uroethelial carcinoma which can begin in the ureter or renal pelvis where the kidney and ureter meet. It is generally treated like bladder cancer.
- Wilms tumour, which is most common in younger children although it is still rare.
It is estimated that 4377 people in Australia will be diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2021. Kidney cancer is more common in men – the risk of being diagnosed by age 85 is 1 in 47 for men compared to 1 in 100 for women.
The five year survival rate for kidney cancer is 79%.
Testing Options For Prostate Cancer
There is no one age for prostate cancer testing, but the American Cancer Society makes recommendations about prostate cancer screenings. According to the ACS, patients in any of these groups should consider asking their doctor about testing:
- Men age 50 or older who have an average risk of prostate cancer and a life expectancy of at least 10 more years
- Men age 45 or older with a high risk, including African-American men and those with a first-degree relative who had prostate cancer before age 65
- Men age 40 or older who have a higher risk, such as more than one first-degree relative diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age
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What Are The Symptoms Associated With Bladder Cancer
Common symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine being aware of the color of your urine, however strange this might sound like, is recommended for a lot of reasons, including the possible detection of bladder cancer. Changes in the color can occur for a number of other reasons, such as infections, kidney stones, benign tumors or other benign kidney diseases. Bladder cancer can also be a cause for this which is why you need to have a urine analysis if your urine becomes more orange, pink or, less often, dark red. Often times, the bleeding does not happen every day, but it usually reappears if its a serious condition. In the early stages of the disease, the blood in the urine is rarely accompanied by other symptoms or pains
- Pain in the pelvic region this can occur while urinating and can be also accompanied by a burning sensation
- Back pressure especially on the side of the kidneys
- Persistent fever
- Problems with urination frequent urination, feeling the need to urinate during the night, the desire to urinate, but inability to empty the bladder.
Men Sometimes Wary Of Bringing Up Problems
Lets be honest: men often dont want to talk about some things and that includes prostate health. That is why I am addressing this column to not only men, but women, too, so they are aware of issues the men in their lives may be dealing with and perhaps encourage them to seek medical attention.
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that is a part of the male reproductive system and sits below the bladder. Prostate gland enlargement is a common condition men face as they get older. An enlarged prostate gland causes uncomfortable urinary symptoms, such as blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder, and problems with the bladder, urinary tract or kidneys. Common symptoms include more frequent or urgent need to urinate, increased frequency of needing to use the bathroom at night, difficulty starting urination and weak urine stream or a stream that starts and stops. Symptoms worsen over time. Anyone with these symptoms should talk them over with his doctor. Left untreated, an enlarged prostate can lead to a sudden inability to urinate, cause urinary tract infections and bladder or kidney damage.
If a patient has an enlarged prostate, medication is normally the first treatment option. Several different types of medication either relax the bladder neck muscles and muscle fibers in the prostate or that shrink the size of the prostate. If a patient has severe symptoms or medication is not working, minimally invasive surgery options are available.
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Risk Factors For Prostate Cancer:
There are certain risk factors that increase a mans chances for acquiring prostate cancer. Some risk factors are controllable and may be modified to reduce ones chances for developing prostate cancer. The most common risk factors include:
- Increasing Age: As age increases so does the risk for prostate cancer. The average age at diagnosis is around 66 years old.
- Genetics: A strong family history of prostate cancer can increase a mans risk of developing prostate cancer. If there are close relatives with prostate cancer, you are at 2-11 times higher risk. A strong family history of breast cancer in close female relatives also may increase your chances of developing prostate cancer.
- African Americans: There are almost double as many cases of prostate cancer in African Americans compared to Asian and Caucasian men.
- High Fat Diet: A high fat diet increase chances of developing prostate cancer.
- Obesity: Obesity increases the risk of death if you develop prostate cancer.
- Smoking: Research establishing the link between prostate cancer and smoking is still being investigated. However, some current literature suggest heavy smoking doubles your risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. Fortunately, that risk evaporates after 10 years of not smoking.
Advanced Bladder Cancer Symptoms
In its later stages, bladder cancer symptoms are much more severe. For example, a growth or mass may appear in the patients pelvis, which is close to the bladder. Swelling often occurs in the lower leg area and many patients experience kidney pain that is felt in the lower back. When bladder cancer continues to spread to other parts of the body, the patient is likely to lose weight and suffer from significant pain in the pelvic area, bones and rectum.
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How Is Prostate Cancer Treated With Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is also used against prostate cancer.
- The utility of chemotherapy in the management of metastatic prostate cancer continues as an area of ongoing research.
- This therapeutic option has been explored most in patients with the hormone-resistant disease.
Newer chemotherapy medicines, such as docetaxel , have shown some promise in prolonging the survival of some patients with extensive prostate cancer. They may also decrease the pain related to widespread cancer. However, this comes at the cost of significant side effects that may impact the quality of life.
Symptom palliation: The primary approach to the management of symptoms in patients with advanced prostate cancer is systemic therapy with both older and newer forms of hormonal treatments, then chemotherapy. Today immunotherapy and radioactive isotope treatments may be used. Radiation to painful bone lesions may be used. Throughout all of this, optimal pain medication use and other therapies for cancer-related symptoms should be administered. For patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer, palliative therapy may be indicated to treat symptomatic bone metastases or symptoms arising from progressive disease.
What Are The Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer
Early-stage prostate cancer rarely causes symptoms. These problems may occur as the disease progresses:
- Frequent, sometimes urgent, need to urinate, especially at night.
- Weak urine flow or flow that starts and stops.
- Painful urination .
- Painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction .
- Blood in semen or urine.
- Lower back pain, hip pain and chest pain.
- Leg or feet numbness.
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How Common Is Prostate Cancer
About one in nine men will receive a prostate cancer diagnosis during his lifetime. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer affecting males. Close to 200,000 American men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer every year. There are many successful treatments and some men dont need treatment at all. Still, approximately 33,000 men die from the disease every year.
Symptoms Of Enlarged Prostate
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, or BPH, is the enlargement of the prostate gland. About half of men over age 75 will experience symptoms of BPH. BPH is a very minor condition and is not related to prostate cancer. However, symptoms can cause discomfort and be inconvenient.
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Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer
Not everyone with bladder cancer will have symptoms. Whats more, the symptoms may be indicative of conditions unrelated to bladder cancer, such as urinary tract infections, overactive bladders and kidney stones. However, if you experience any of these symptoms, you should bring them to your physicians attention so that testing can be done. Some of the more common signs of bladder cancer are:
- Hematuria, otherwise known as blood in the urine
- Frequent urination at night
- Feeling the urge to urinate even when the bladder isnt full
- A painful or burning sensation while urinating
- Having a weak urine stream
- Feeling the urge to urinate but not being able to do so
What Causes Bladder Cancer And Am I At Risk
Each year, about 83,730 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. It affects more men than women and the average age at diagnosis is 73.
Cigarette smoking is the biggest risk factor for bladder cancer. About half of all bladder cancers are caused by cigarette smoking. Other risk factors for developing bladder cancer include: family history, occupational exposure to chemicals , previous cancer treatment with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, or pelvic radiation, the medication pioglitazone, exposure to arsenic , aristolochic , bladder infections caused by schistosoma haematobium, not drinking enough fluids, a genetic condition called Lynch Syndrome, a mutation of the retinoblastoma gene or the PTEN gene. and neurogenic bladder and the overuse of indwelling catheters.
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Expert Review And References
- American Cancer Society. Prostate Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging. 2019: .
- Garnick MB . Harvard Medical School 2015 Annual Report on Prostate Diseases. 2015.
- Hermanns T, Kuk C, Zlotta AR. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and staging. Nargund VH, Raghavan D, Sandler HM . Urological Oncology. Springer 2015: 40: 697-718.
- Logothetis CJ, Kim J, Davis J, Kuban D, Mathew P, Aparicio A. Neoplasms of the prostate. Hong WK, Bast RC Jr, Hait WN, et al . Holland Frei Cancer Medicine. 8th ed. People’s Medical Publishing House 2010: 94: 1228-1254.
- PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Patient Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
- PDQ® Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Prostate Cancer Treatment Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute 2020: .
The Top 7 Signs Of Advanced Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, you may not notice any symptoms related to prostate cancer. This is why screenings are important. Symptoms can sometimes be noticed for the first time when the cancer advances.
Advanced prostate cancer, also called metastatic cancer, means the cancer has spread to other areas of your body beyond your prostate gland. The most common areas for prostate cancer to spread are your bladder, rectum, and bones. It can also spread to your lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other body tissues.
Whether youve just been diagnosed or youre in treatment, its also important to know the signs of advanced cancer. Cancer can behave differently depending on your genetics, so not every person will experience the same symptoms in the same way.
Read on to learn more about the seven top symptoms of advanced prostate cancer and how to spot them.
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Diagnosis Of Blood In Urine
To understand why blood is appearing in the urine, doctors take a medical history and ask about possible reasons for the hematuria. A visible and microscopic evaluation of a urine sample may point to a cause. He or she also might order tests will check for kidney disease or other conditions.
If the physician suspects other physical abnormalities that might be causing blood to appear in the urine, he or she may order additional tests, including:
- Imaging tests: These might include a computed tomography scan, an ultrasound scan or a magnetic resonance imaging scan. These scans create images of the urinary tract to check for tumors, stones or abnormalities of the bladder, kidneys and urinary vessels.
- Cystoscopy: The physician inserts a small, lighted tube with a camera through the urethra to look for any issues. A small sample of tissue may be taken to check for any abnormal cells.
- Intravenous pyelogram: Dye is used before taking an x-ray, which can reveal structural issues of the urinary tract. This test is rarely obtained in modern practice.
- Kidney biopsy: A physician who suspects kidney disease may request a kidney biopsy, the removal of a small sample of kidney tissue for examination beneath a microscope.
If the doctor discovers an underlying condition that is causing the hematuria, he or she will treat that cause.
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Kidney Cancer: What You Need To Know
Kidney cancer is commonly found in males over 40 years old. A majority of kidney cancers occur spontaneously, although some are a result of hereditary conditions. There are several different types of kidney cancer based on what symptoms you may be experiencing, including:
- Local Kidney Cancer Roughly 60 percent of kidney cancers are diagnosed at a localized stage . Localized cancers may not have symptoms or may be associated with hematuria , flank pain or abdominal discomfort. Surgery is the most effective treatment.
- Advanced Kidney Cancer Approximately 40 percent of kidney cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage that has spread to surrounding structures, lymph nodes or metastasis to more distant sites. Common sites of metastatic spread include the lung, bone and brain.
- Blood in urine, which may make urine look rusty or darker red
- Side pain that doesnt go away
- A lump or mass in your side or abdomen
- Weight loss for no known reason
There may be several different risk factors, or causes, for kidney cancer, including:
Testing for kidney cancer in women will usually involve several different types of testing to determine the severity and type of cancer you may be experiencing, including:
We know it can be difficult to discuss your treatment plan for urologic cancer. Our doctors are here to help make you to feel at ease throughout the treatment process. What can you expect with the different treatment options?
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Second Opinion For Peace Of Mind
Desperate for Hope,
I am very sorry for the situation. I can image the anguish you are having with the occurrence. Your bravery surprises me and I applaud you for the evident efforts you are doing to have the best diagnosis and treatment for your husband. He is very fortunate.I do not want my comments to distract you from your good work, however, I think you should get second opinions from an independent physician/radiologist, which opinion would provide you the deserved peace of mind.
The information you share above allows a newer perception of the diagnosis following your post of Oct 17. Things are moving fast and spinning around.The MRImp will add information for what has been found . Probably this MRI exam will conclude the process of staging and the story so far is not pleasant. Cancer spread into the bladder, if any, up to the ureters tubes are still classified localized but the probable T3 is now/becomes T4 disease. This may be the basis of the radiologist that follows the CAR guilines in radiotherapies.
Max above is also suspicious of the affair. The clinical trial of your link is sponsored by the University Health Network, Toronto, Canada, now recruiting patients. Logically a number of hospitals/clinics and physicians are in charge of supplying patients. I believe your urologist to make part of their list for his proposal to you.
I would appreciate if you can post the images taken in the cystoscopy.
Best of lucks,